379,836 results match your criteria Microbial Pathogenesis [Journal]


Transfer RNA demethylase ALKBH3 promotes cancer progression via induction of tRNA-derived small RNAs.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Transfer RNA is heavily modified and plays a central role in protein synthesis and cellular functions. Here we demonstrate that ALKBH3 is a 1-methyladenosine (m1A) and 3-methylcytidine (m3C) demethylase of tRNA. ALKBH3 can promote cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Read More

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December 2018

A comparison of microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell biosensors for real-time environmental monitoring.

Bioelectrochemistry 2018 Dec 1;126:105-112. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

McGill University, Bioresource Engineering Department, 21111 Lakeshore Rd., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada; National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Ave, Montreal, QC H4P 2R2, Canada. Electronic address:

This study compares the biosensing performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Initial tests provided a qualitative comparison of MFC and MEC currents after the anode compartment liquid (anolyte) was spiked with acetate, or sulphates of NH, Na, Mg, Fe, or a fertilizer solution. Current measurements showed that the MFC sensor had a faster response time, higher sensitivity, and faster recovery time after the spike. Read More

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December 2018

Spatial impacts of a multi-individual grave on microbial and microfaunal communities and soil biogeochemistry.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208845. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States of America.

Decomposing vertebrates, including humans, result in pronounced changes in surrounding soil biogeochemistry, particularly nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) availability, and alter soil micro- and macrofauna. However, the impacts of subsurface human decomposition, where oxygen becomes limited and microbial biomass is generally lower, are far less understood. The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of human decomposition in a multi-individual, shallow (~70 cm depth) grave on soil biogeochemistry and soil microbial and nematode communities. Read More

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December 2018

Desert plant bacteria reveal host influence and beneficial plant growth properties.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208223. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Desert Agriculture Initiative, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division (BESE), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Deserts, such as those found in Saudi Arabia, are one of the most hostile places for plant growth. However, desert plants are able to impact their surrounding microbial community and select beneficial microbes that promote their growth under these extreme conditions. In this study, we examined the soil, rhizosphere and endosphere bacterial communities of four native desert plants Tribulus terrestris, Zygophyllum simplex, Panicum turgidum and Euphorbia granulata from the Southwest (Jizan region), two of which were also found in the Midwest (Al Wahbah area) of Saudi Arabia. Read More

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December 2018
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Disruption of the microbiota affects physiological and evolutionary aspects of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach, an important urban pest.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207985. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Apex Bait Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California, United States of America.

The German cockroach, Blatella germanica, is a common pest in urban environments and is among the most resilient insects in the world. The remarkable ability of the German cockroach to develop resistance when exposed to toxic insecticides is a prime example of adaptive evolution and makes control of this insect an ongoing struggle. Like many other organisms, the German cockroach is host to a diverse community of symbiotic microbes that play important roles in its physiology. Read More

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December 2018

Mediterranean herb extracts inhibit microbial growth of representative oral microorganisms and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207574. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

In light of the growing antibiotic resistance, the usage of plant-derived antimicrobial agents could serve as an effective alternative treatment against oral infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Mediterranean herb extracts against representative oral microorganisms. The extraction procedures and the analysis of the obtained extracts were performed under established experimental conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Integrative network-centric approach reveals signaling pathways associated with plant resistance and susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae.

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 12;16(12):e2005956. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

Plant protein kinases form redundant signaling pathways to perceive microbial pathogens and activate immunity. Bacterial pathogens repress cellular immune responses by secreting effectors, some of which bind and inhibit multiple host kinases. To understand how broadly bacterial effectors may bind protein kinases and the function of these kinase interactors, we first tested kinase-effector (K-E) interactions using the Pseudomonas syringae pv. Read More

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December 2018

Social Stress Affects Colonic Inflammation, the Gut Microbiome, and Short Chain Fatty Acid Levels and Receptors.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States.

Objectives: Gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), involve disrupted homeostatic interactions between the microbiota and the host. Both disorders are worsened during stress, and in laboratory mice, stress exposure has been shown to change the composition of the gut microbiome. Stress-induced changes to the microbiome exacerbate intestinal inflammation and alter intestinal motility in mice. Read More

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December 2018

Biological Control of Pierce's Disease of Grape by an Endophytic Bacterium.

Phytopathology 2018 Dec 12:PHYTO07180245FI. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720.

Effective preventive measures and therapies are lacking for control of Pierce's disease of grape caused by the xylem-colonizing bacterium Xylella fastidiosa responsible for serious losses in grape production. In this study we explored the potential for endophytic bacteria to alter the disease process. While most endophytic bacteria found within grape did not grow or multiply when inoculated into mature grape vines, Paraburkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN achieved population sizes as large as 10 cells/g and moved 1 m or more within 4 weeks after inoculation into vines. Read More

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December 2018
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Designing spatially distributed gene regulatory networks to elicit contrasting patterns.

ACS Synth Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pattern formation and differential interactions are important for microbial consortia to divide labor and perform complex functions. To obtain further insight into such interactions, we present a computational method for simulating physically separated microbial colonies each implementing different gene regulatory networks. We validate our theory by experimentally demonstrating control over gene expression patterns in a diffusion-mediated lateral inhibition circuit. Read More

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December 2018

Pathogens in crop production systems irrigated with low-quality water in Bolivia.

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):980-990

Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7032, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

In dry areas, the need for irrigation to ensure agricultural production determines the use of all available water sources. However, the water sources used for irrigation are often contaminated by untreated or minimally treated wastewater. Microbial risks from reusing wastewater for vegetable irrigation can be addressed by installing environmental barriers that pathogens must cross to reach humans in the reuse system. Read More

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December 2018
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Storage of aerobic granular sludge embedded in agar and its reactivation by real wastewater.

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):958-969

School of Architectural and Surveying & Mapping Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi, China E-mail:

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was preserved using an agar embedding method to maintain its stability. No obvious damage was imposed on the granular appearance during 30 days of cold and dry storage, but the granular microstructure had an uneven surface with a large number of holes. The results were consistent with the extinction of microbial communities and the monitored consumption of extracellular polymeric substances, in which granular specific oxygen utilization rate and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids/mixed liquor suspended solids ratio, respectively, decreased by 72. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for the detection of mycobacterial species and their potential association with waterborne pathogens.

Authors:
G Aboagye M T Rowe

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):938-946

Food Microbiology Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

The versatility of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) protocol provides enough grounds for its wide application over an array of microorganisms. This work was designed to evaluate DGGE for the detection and confirmation of mycobacteria and their association, if any, with waterborne pathogens. A total of 76 samples comprising raw untreated water, schmutzdecke, floccules and final treated water obtained from a common water source, and two water treatment works (WTW1 and WTW2), were analysed. Read More

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December 2018

Assessment of microbial quality of household water output from desalination systems by the heterotrophic plate count method.

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):930-937

School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran E-mail:

Point-of-use household water desalination systems (HWDSs) are becoming popular in Iran because of the deterioration of drinking water. This study aimed to determine the microbial quality of output water from HWDSs in Qom, Iran by using the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method. Samples of input and output water from 30 HWDSs were collected over a six-month period. Read More

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December 2018

Interaction between typical sulfonamides and bacterial diversity in drinking water.

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):914-920

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China E-mail:

The abuse of antibiotics is becoming more serious as antibiotic use has increased. The sulfa antibiotics, sulfamerazine (SM1) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), are frequently detected in a wide range of environments. The interaction between SM1/SMZ and bacterial diversity in drinking water was investigated in this study. Read More

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December 2018

Vallitalea okinawensis sp. nov., isolated from Okinawa Trough sediment and emended description of the genus Vallitalea.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

4​RCEECAS Joint-Lab of Microbial Technology for Environmental Science, Beijing, PR China.

A polyphasic study was conducted to characterize an obligately anaerobic bacterial strain, S15, that was isolated from Okinawa Trough sediment. Strain S15 was Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped. Spores were not observed. Read More

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December 2018

The tolerant immune system: Biological significance and clinical implications of T cell tolerance.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, School of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari. Italy.

Background: T cell tolerance both at thymic and peripheral levels is a mechanism of protection finalized to eradicate autoreactive T cell clones and/or to maintain immune homeostasis, especially, postnatally. Central tolerance occurs in the thymic medulla via a mechanism of negative selection which leads to the eradication of autoreactive T cell clones. Mechanisms of action: Such a tolerogenic event relies on Fas-mediated apoptosis of autoreactive T cell clones operated by thymic dendritic cells (DCs), on the one hand. Read More

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December 2018
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Comparable Nutrient Uptake across Diel Cycles by Three Distinct Phototrophic Communities.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana , Illinois 61801 , United States.

The capacity of microalgae to advance the limit of technology of nutrient recovery and accumulate storage carbon make them promising candidates for wastewater treatment. However, the extent to which these capabilities are influenced by microbial community composition remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, 3 mixed phototrophic communities sourced from distinct latitudes within the continental United States (28° N, Tampa, FL; 36° N, Durham, NC; and 40° N, Urbana, IL) were operated in sequencing batch reactors (8 day solids residence time, SRT) subjected to identical diel light cycles with media addition at the start of the nighttime period. Read More

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December 2018

Parameter-efficient bioclogging model: calibration and comparison with laboratory data.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Harbour, Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, People's Republic of China.

A parameter-efficient bioclogging model coupled with hydrodynamics was developed with a stepwise numerical calculation. Column lab tests were carried out to calibrate and verify the bioclogging model developed in this paper. The results showed that the experimental data fit well with the simulation data, which indicated that the developed model was reasonable. Read More

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December 2018

Use of mature compost as filter media and the effect of packing depth on hydrogen sulfide removal from composting exhaust gases by biofiltration.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

A study was conducted to investigate the utilization of mature compost as a biofilter medium for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (HS) from the exhaust gases of the composting process. Source-selected kitchen waste from municipal solid waste was composted in a reactor, and the exhaust gas was passed through a biofilter packed with a 1:4 (wet weight) mixture of mature compost and sand. Two treatments were applied under sterilized and unsterilized conditions to quantify the contribution of microbial activity. Read More

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December 2018

The potential protective effect of two actinomycete extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of two extracts derived from two soil actinomycete strains, designated S19 and G30, against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Sixty-four male rats were divided into four groups of 16 rats per group. The first group was a control group given corn oil and the nutritive medium which is composed of a mixture of the two used media. Read More

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December 2018

A short-term stimulation of ethanol enhances the effect of magnetite on anaerobic digestion.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Environment Pollution Control and Treatment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Conductive iron oxides (CIO) have been proved recently to facilitate the anaerobic microbial syntrophy based on the direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in batch experiments. However, the effect of CIO was always insignificant in anaerobic digestion (AD) reactor especially when the DIET-based syntrophic partners were absent. In this study, the effect of magnetite on performance of AD system with sucrose as a sole carbon source was investigated, but limited enhancement was achieved during the first 36-day operation. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of enhanced nitrogen removal mechanisms in a validation wastewater treatment plant containing anammox bacteria.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E2-02-13, 1 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, 117576, Singapore.

Anammox bacteria have attracted attention due to their apparent importance in saving energy and reducing organic chemical demands. Here, we report the detection and quantification of anammox bacteria with an improved primer set in a validation wastewater treatment plant. The improved primer set was shown to detect a broad range of anammox bacteria (47. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular evolution and genomics of hepatitis B virus subgenotype C2 strain predominant in the chronic patients in Bangladesh.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 17;29(4):486-490. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Molecular Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Biotechnology, Savar, Dhaka, 1349 Bangladesh.

Evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a mystery and caused mainly by genomic mutations as well as recombination. Viral evolution may be responsible for increasing disease severity and render resistance to the existing treatment processes. HBV/C2 strain is associated with chronicity, which may progress to the liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Read More

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December 2018

Microbial Identification Using DNA Target Amplification and Sequencing: Clinical Utility and Impact on Patient Management.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Nov 10;5(11):ofy257. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases.

Broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is increasingly used in patients with culture-negative infections; however, few studies have assessed the diagnostic utility of this test in this context. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who had clinical specimens sent for broad-range PCR, aiming to evaluate performance and determine impact on patient management. Organisms were identified in 21/71 samples. Read More

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November 2018

Implications of the Intestinal Microbiota in Diagnosing the Progression of Diabetes and the Presence of Cardiovascular Complications.

J Diabetes Res 2018 12;2018:5205126. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania.

The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases-retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity. Read More

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November 2018

Effect of Quercetin Monoglycosides on Oxidative Stress and Gut Microbiota Diversity in Mice with Dextran Sodium Sulphate-Induced Colitis.

Authors:
Zhu Hong Meiyu Piao

Biomed Res Int 2018 12;2018:8343052. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tianjin Medical University, General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China.

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is linked to an intricate association of environmental, microbial, and host-related factors. This study examined the potential effects of dietary addition of two preparations from onion, one comprising quercetin aglycone alone (Q: 0.15% polyphenols, quercetin aglycone:quercetin monoglycosides, 98:2) and another comprising quercetin aglycone with monoglycosides (Q+MQ: 0. Read More

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November 2018

Changes in Transcriptome of IP32953 Grown at 3 and 28°C Detected by RNA Sequencing Shed Light on Cold Adaptation.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 27;8:416. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

is a bacterium that not only survives, but also thrives, proliferates, and remains infective at cold-storage temperatures, making it an adept foodborne pathogen. We analyzed the differences in gene expression between IP32953 grown at 3 and 28°C to investigate which genes were significantly more expressed at low temperature at different phases of growth. We isolated and sequenced the RNA from six distinct corresponding growth points at both temperatures to also outline the expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes. Read More

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November 2018

Depth and Dissolved Organic Carbon Shape Microbial Communities in Surface Influenced but Not Ancient Saline Terrestrial Aquifers.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2880. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

The continental deep biosphere is suggested to contain a substantial fraction of the earth's total biomass and microorganisms inhabiting this environment likely have a substantial impact on biogeochemical cycles. However, the deep microbial community is still largely unknown and can be influenced by parameters such as temperature, pressure, water residence times, and chemistry of the waters. In this study, 21 boreholes representing a range of deep continental groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory were subjected to high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize how the different water types influence the microbial communities. Read More

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November 2018

Bone Environment Influences Irreversible Adhesion of a Methicillin-Susceptible Strain.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2865. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

EA 4691 Biomaterials and Inflammation in Bone Site (BIOS), SFR Cap Santé (FED 4231), University of Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France.

Prosthesis and joint infections are an important threat in public health, especially due to the development of bacterial biofilms and their high resistance to antimicrobials. Biofilm-associated infections increase mortality and morbidity rates as well as hospitalization costs. Prevention is the best strategy for this serious issue, so there is an urgent need to understand the signals that could induce irreversible bacterial adhesion on a prosthesis. Read More

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November 2018

Quantifying Inorganic Nitrogen Assimilation by Using Bulk and Single-Cell Mass Spectrometry: A Comparative Study.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2847. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Microorganisms drive most of the major biogeochemical cycles in the ocean, but the rates at which individual species assimilate and transform key elements is generally poorly quantified. One of these important elements is nitrogen, with its availability limiting primary production across a large proportion of the ocean. Nitrogen uptake by marine microbes is typically quantified using bulk-scale approaches, such as Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS), which averages uptake over entire communities, masking microbial heterogeneity. Read More

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November 2018

Biofilm Producing Clinical Isolates Augmented Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistant Cases in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Nepal.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2749. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Amity University, Noida, India.

S, a notorious human pathogen, is a major cause of the community as well as healthcare associated infections. It can cause a diversity of recalcitrant infections mainly due to the acquisition of resistance to multiple drugs, its diverse range of virulence factors, and the ability to produce biofilm in indwelling medical devices. Such biofilm associated chronic infections often lead to increase in morbidity and mortality posing a high socio-economic burden, especially in developing countries. Read More

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November 2018

Preventive Effect of Curcumin Against Chemotherapy-Induced Side-Effects.

Front Pharmacol 2018 27;9:1374. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target and Clinical Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Cancer is still a severe threat to the health of people worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of main therapeutic approaches to combat cancer. However, chemotherapy only has a limited success with severe side effects, especially causing damage to normal tissues such as bone marrow, gastrointestine, heart, liver, renal, neuron, and auditory tissues, etc. Read More

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November 2018

Reply to 'Can we predict microbial keystones?'

Nat Rev Microbiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Plant-Soil Interactions, Department of Agroecology and Environment, Agroscope, Reckenholz, Zürich, Switzerland.

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December 2018

Seasonal and ecohydrological regulation of active microbial populations involved in DOC, CO, and CH fluxes in temperate rainforest soil.

ISME J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

The Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is a global hot-spot for carbon cycling and export. Yet the influence of microorganisms on carbon cycling processes in PCTR soil is poorly characterized. We developed and tested a conceptual model of seasonal microbial carbon cycling in PCTR soil through integration of geochemistry, micro-meteorology, and eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomal amplicon (rRNA) sequencing from 216 soil DNA and RNA libraries. Read More

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December 2018

The soil organic matter decomposition mechanisms in ectomycorrhizal fungi are tuned for liberating soil organic nitrogen.

ISME J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biology, Microbial Ecology Group, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.

Many trees form ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with fungi. During symbiosis, the tree roots supply sugar to the fungi in exchange for nitrogen, and this process is critical for the nitrogen and carbon cycles in forest ecosystems. However, the extents to which ectomycorrhizal fungi can liberate nitrogen and modify the soil organic matter and the mechanisms by which they do so remain unclear since they have lost many enzymes for litter decomposition that were present in their free-living, saprotrophic ancestors. Read More

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December 2018

Antibodies against the Majority Subunit (PilA) of the Type IV Pilus of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Disperse Moraxella catarrhalis from a Dual-Species Biofilm.

MBio 2018 Dec 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Otitis media (OM) is often polymicrobial, with nontypeable (NTHI) and (Mcat) frequently cocultured from clinical specimens. Bacterial biofilms in the middle ear contribute to the chronicity and recurrence of OM; therefore, strategies to disrupt biofilms are needed. We have focused our vaccine development efforts on the majority subunit of NTHI type IV pili, PilA. Read More

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December 2018

Protein Kinase A and High-Osmolarity Glycerol Response Pathways Cooperatively Control Cell Wall Carbohydrate Mobilization in .

MBio 2018 Dec 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in maintaining the normal morphology of the cell wall and providing resistance against cell wall-damaging agents. Upon cell wall stress, cell wall-related sugars need to be synthesized from carbohydrate storage compounds. Here we show that this process is dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity and regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) MAPKs SakA and MpkC. Read More

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December 2018

Terpene Biosynthesis in Red Algae is Catalyzed by Microbial Type but not Typical Plant Terpene Synthases.

Plant Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Tennessee CITY: Knoxville STATE: Tennessee POSTAL_CODE: 37996 United States Of America [US]

Red algae (Rhodophyta) and land plants belong to the monophyletic clade Archaeplastida and taxa of both groups are rich producers of terpene secondary metabolites. The terpene carbon skeletons of land plants are made by two types of terpene synthases: typical plant terpene synthases and microbial-type terpene synthases (MTPSLs); however, terpene biosynthesis in red algae is poorly understood. By systematic sequence analysis of seven genomes and 34 transcriptomes of red algae, MTPSL homologs were identified within one genome and two transcriptomes, whereas no homolog of typical plant terpene synthase genes was found. Read More

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December 2018
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CLAME: a new alignment-based binning algorithm allows the genomic description of a novel Xanthomonadaceae from the Colombian Andes.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 11;19(Suppl 8):858. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Grupo SISTEMIC, Ingeniería Electrónica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No, 52-21, Medellín, Colombia.

Background: Hot spring bacteria have unique biological adaptations to survive the extreme conditions of these environments; these bacteria produce thermostable enzymes that can be used in biotechnological and industrial applications. However, sequencing these bacteria is complex, since it is not possible to culture them. As an alternative, genome shotgun sequencing of whole microbial communities can be used. Read More

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December 2018

Feed your gut with caution!

Transl Cancer Res 2016 Sep;5(Suppl 3):S507-S513

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA, USA.

The intestinal epithelium, a single layer of cells organized into crypts and villi, is an important component of host defense against microbial community and its noxious metabolites. To preserve the epithelium integrity under constant exposure of intense physiological and environmental stressors, this surface is continuously and rapidly renewed by pluripotent intestinal epithelial stem cells that reside in the base of crypts. A recent study by Kaiko . Read More

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September 2016

Culture negative mitral valve endocarditis caused by confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis of resected valvular tissue.

J Cardiol Cases 2011 Apr 20;3(2):e82-e85. Epub 2011 Feb 20.

Department of Cardiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Queensland 4102, Australia.

Infective endocarditis is a dynamic disease with changing epidemiology and diagnostic strategies. Culture negative endocarditis poses a particular problem for clinicians regarding appropriate antimicrobial therapy and adequate duration of therapy. Utilization of nucleic acid amplification techniques and subsequent sequencing has provided clinicians an alternative to traditional phenotypic microbial identification which has been extremely useful in identification of fastidious organisms. Read More

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Synthesizing, characterizing, and toxicity evaluating of Phycocyanin-ZnO nanorod composites: A back to nature approaches.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 4;175:221-230. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Industrial & Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

C-Phycocyanin pigment was purified from a native cyanobacterial strain using a novel consecutive multi-step procedure and utilized for the first time for the green synthesis of phycocyanin-zinc oxide nanorods (PHY-ZnO NRs) by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach. The PHY-ZnO NRs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential measurement, FTIR, SEM, TEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TGA), and EDX spectroscopy analysis. The UV-vis spectra showed an absorption band at 364 nm which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs). Read More

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December 2018

PVA/CS and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads' synthesis mechanism and their performance in cultivating anaerobic granular sludge.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 3;219:130-139. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Biomass washout from high-speed anaerobic suspended bed bio-reactors is still a challenge to their stable operation. Preserving active biomass to efficiently retain biomass in the reactor is one of the solutions to this problem. Herein, two carriers (polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads) were prepared using the cross-linking method. Read More

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December 2018

Plant compartment and genetic variation drive microbiome composition in switchgrass roots.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a promising biofuel crop native to the United States with genotypes that are adapted to a wide range of distinct ecosystems. Various plants have been shown to undergo symbioses with plant growth promoting bacteria and fungi, however, plant-associated microbial communities of switchgrass have not been extensively studied to date. We present 16S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data of rhizosphere and root endosphere compartments of four switchgrass genotypes to test the hypothesis that host selection of its root microbiota prevails after transfer to non-native soil. Read More

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December 2018
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cAMP/PKA Signaling Pathway Regulates Redox homeostasis essential for Sporisorium scitamineum Mating/Filamentation and Virulence.

Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Plant Pathology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Microbial Signals and Disease Control, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

The fungal pathogen Sporisorium scitamineum causes sugarcane smut disease. The formation and growth of dikaryotic hypha after sexual mating is critical for S. scitamineum pathogenicity, however regulation of S. Read More

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December 2018

Microbial production of natural and non-natural monolignols with Escherichia coli.

Chembiochem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Forschungszentrum Julich, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425, Juelich, GERMANY.

Phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid-derived plant polyphenols find numerous applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. In recent years, several microbial platform organisms were engineered towards producing such compounds. However, for the most part, microbial (poly)phenol production is inspired by nature, and thus predominantly naturally occurring compounds have been produced to this date. Read More

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December 2018
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Novel microbial community composition and carbon biogeochemistry emerge over time following saltwater intrusion in wetlands.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Biology, Trani Center for Life Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Sea level rise and changes in precipitation can cause saltwater intrusion into historically freshwater wetlands, leading to shifts in microbial metabolism that alter greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon sequestration. Saltwater intrusion modifies soil physicochemistry and can immediately affect microbial metabolism, but further alterations to biogeochemical processing can occur over time as microbial communities adapt to the changed environmental conditions. To assess temporal changes in microbial community composition and biogeochemical activity due to saltwater intrusion, soil cores were transplanted from a tidal freshwater marsh to a downstream mesohaline marsh and periodically sampled over 1 year. Read More

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December 2018

What role does pyroptosis play in microbial infection?

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China.

Pyroptosis, a type of programmed cell death mediated by gasdermin, is characterized by the swelling and rupture of cells, release of cellular contents and a strong inflammatory response, which is critical for controlling microbial infection. Pattern recognition receptors recognize the intracellular and extracellular pathogenic microbial components and stimulate the organism's inflammatory response by activating the pyroptosis signaling pathway and releasing interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, and other inflammatory factors to promote pathogen clearance and prevent infection. In the process of continuous evolution, pathogens have developed multiple strategies to modulate the occurrence of pyroptosis and thus enhance their ability to induce disease; that is, the competition between host cells and pathogens controls the occurrence of pyroptosis. Read More

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December 2018
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