7,127,758 results match your criteria Methods [Journal]

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Predictors of mucosal healing during induction therapy in patients with acute moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Aim: The treat-to-target strategy has emerged in ulcerative colitis management. Mucosal healing is the best target, albeit not in induction therapy of acute diseases as clinical conditions vary over a short duration. To determine the targets during induction therapy for acute ulcerative colitis, we identified markers to predict mucosal healing at 3 and 12 months of initiating the induction therapy. Read More

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December 2018

A survey of US early childhood caries programs: findings and recommendations.

J Public Health Dent 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section of Population Oral Health, Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Objectives: To identify and characterize US early childhood caries (ECC) programs.

Methods: A 39 question online survey was fielded to 245 ECC programs identified from the literature and peer programs. The 101 respondents (41 percent response rate) reported their program's geographic reach, type, areas of focus, target populations, approaches, affiliations, providers, goals, costs, and funding. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in older patients with and without dementia: survival and ethical considerations.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Aim: Notwithstanding multiple recommendations in guidelines, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-tube placement is still performed in patients with dementia. In this study we aim to investigate survival in patients with and without dementia after (PEG)-tube placement.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study in four different hospitals in The Netherlands. Read More

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December 2018

Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using transient elastography.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: The recommendation in regards to screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients differs in major guidelines.

Aim: To study the prevalence of NALFD and advanced fibrosis among T2DM patients.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of consecutive adult T2DM patients attending the Diabetes Clinic of a university hospital. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

DEPArray™ system: An automatic image-based sorter for isolation of pure circulating tumor cells.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec;93(12):1260-1266

Menarini Silicon Biosystems S.p.A, Bologna, Italy.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells shed into the bloodstream by invasive tumors and their analysis offers a promising noninvasive tool to predict and monitor therapeutic responses. CTCs can be isolated from patient blood and their characterization at single-cell level can inform on the genomic landscape of a tumor. All CTC enrichment methods bear a burden of contaminating normal cells, which mandate a further step of purification to enable reliable downstream genetic analysis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Children's untreated decay is positively associated with past caries experience and with current salivary loads of mutans Streptococci; negatively with self-reported maternal iron supplements during pregnancy: a multifactorial analysis.

J Public Health Dent 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Objectives: This study explored the association of children's salivary characteristics, past caries experience, birth weight, and reported maternal prenatal vitamin and mineral supplementation with the dental untreated decay of the child.

Methods: This cross-sectional study, a sub-study of Griffith University Environments for Healthy Living birth cohort study, was conducted on 174 mother-child dyads. Mother's prenatal usage of vitamin and mineral supplements; child's birthweight; salivary pH, buffering capacity, and levels of salivary MS and LB were explored as risk indicators. Read More

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December 2018

[Failure Prevention and Management of Complications after Proximal Femoral Fractures].

Z Orthop Unfall 2018 Dec 14;156(6):725-740. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Background: Proximal femoral fractures belong to the most common fractures, especially of the elderly. There is a high load of cases and most of them have to be treated surgically. With 20% and above, the rate of complications is very high. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

[Innovative New Evacuation Concept with Emergency Mattresses].

Z Orthop Unfall 2018 Dec 14;156(6):723-724. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Sicherheitsmanagement, Klinikverbund Südwest GmbH, Sindelfingen.

Indication: In-hospital patients with limited mobility are extremely vulnerable in cases of emergency or fire. In the past, several large fires in multi-story hospitals have resulted in deaths.

Methods: For this reason, we have developed an evacuation mattress that incorporates the functions of an evacuation towel with the comfort of a normal mattress. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk in Women in the First Year Postpartum: Allostatic Load as a Function of Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UCLA Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities.

Methods:  The Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Inhaled Epoprostenol for Pulmonary Hypertension Treatment in Neonates: A 12-Year Experience.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, CHU de Québec, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

Background:  Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs in 10% of neonatal respiratory insufficiency. To selectively reduce pulmonary vascular resistance, several treatments have been tried. Inhaled epoprostenol (iPGI) has been used for 12 years in our institution for the management of refractory PPHN despite the gaps in the literature to support this use. Read More

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December 2018

Examination of the complexation ability of different calixarene derivatives towards [223Ra]RaCl2 in a hospital radiopharmaceutical laboratory.

Nuklearmedizin 2018 Dec 14;57(6):242-246. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Aim: In this contribution we investigated the potential transfer of an established method for the synthesis of Ra-labelled calixarene complexes to a hospital radiopharmaceutical environment. For this purpose, commercially available [Ra]RaCl solution in pharmaceutical grade (Xofigo) was reacted with three calixarene derivatives.

Methods: A wellestablished two-phase extraction method using a two-phase solvent system was performed for complexation of the radium ions with calixarenes under slightly basic conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Accuracy of Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cardiac MalformationsAcurácia do diagnóstico pré-natal de cardiopatias congênitas.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Postgraduate Program and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective:  To evaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis of fetal heart diseases obtained through ultrasound examinations performed during the prenatal period compared with the postnatal evaluation.

Methods:  A retrospective cohort study with 96 pregnant women who were attended at the Echocardiography Service and whose deliveries occurred at the Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Risk factor assessment plus sensitivity and specificity analysis were used, comparing the accuracy of the screening for congenital heart disease by means of obstetrical ultrasound and morphological evaluation and fetal echocardiography, considering  < 0. Read More

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December 2018

Comparative Analysis of the Exposure and Surgical Freedom of the Endoscopic Extended Minipterional Craniotomy and the Transorbital Endoscopic Approach to the Anterior and Middle Cranial Fossae.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Numerous minimally invasive approaches to the skull base have been successively developed. Knowledge of the surgical nuances of a specific approach may facilitate approach selection. This study sought to compare the nuances of an extended version of the minipterional craniotomy (EMPT) with those of the transorbital endoscopic approach (TOEA) to the anterior and middle cranial fossae (ACF and MCF, respectively). Read More

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December 2018

The Influence of Antidepressants on the Disease Course Among Patients With Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis-A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Psychiatric comorbidity might modify the disease course adversely in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Treatment options include antidepressants, which, apart from improving mood, have anti-inflammatory properties that might modify the disease course. This nationwide study aimed to examine the influence of antidepressants on the disease course among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Read More

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December 2018

Uromodulin in a pathway between decreased renal urate excretion and albuminuria.

Am J Hypertens 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre de recherche du CHUM, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The mechanism explaining the inverse association between renal urate and albumin excretion remains unclear. First, we evaluated the impact of candidate variants in the main urate transporter genes (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Diet, Physical Activity, and Daylight Exposure Patterns in Night-Shift Workers and Day Workers.

Ann Work Expo Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Division of Environmental Epidemiology (EEPI), Utrecht University, Yalelaan, CM Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Night-shift work has been reported to have an impact on nutrition, daylight exposure, and physical activity, which might play a role in observed health effects. Because these exposures show diurnal variation, and shift work has been related with disturbances in the circadian rhythm, the timing of assessment of these factors requires careful consideration. Our aim was to describe the changes in patterns of diet, physical activity, and daylight exposure associated with night-shift work. Read More

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December 2018
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Menthol cigarettes, tobacco dependence, and smoking persistence: The need to examine enhanced cognitive functioning as a neuropsychological mechanism.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Introduction: Despite the overall decline in the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, menthol cigarette use among smokers is rising, and evidence shows that it may lead to more detrimental effects on public health than regular cigarette use. One of the mechanisms by which nicotine sustains tobacco use and dependence is due to its cognitive enhancing properties, and basic science literature suggests that menthol may also enhance nicotine's acute effect on cognition.

Aims And Methods: The purpose of this review is to suggest that the cognitive enhancing effects of menthol may be a potentially important neuropsychological mechanism that has yet to be examined. Read More

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December 2018

The burden and epidemiology of polyparasitism among rural communities in Kano State, Nigeria.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya,Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem worldwide, particularly among underprivileged communities in developing countries including Nigeria. The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology of polyparasitism (multiple parasitic infections) among rural communities in Kano State, North Central Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 551 individuals were screened for the presence of intestinal, urogenital and blood parasites by using different diagnostic techniques. Read More

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December 2018

Novel endotypes in heart failure: effects on guideline-directed medical therapy.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Aims: We sought to determine subtypes of patients with heart failure (HF) with a distinct clinical profile and treatment response, using a wide range of biomarkers from various pathophysiological domains.

Methods And Results: We performed unsupervised cluster analysis using 92 established cardiovascular biomarkers to identify mutually exclusive subgroups (endotypes) of 1802 patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from the BIOSTAT-CHF project. We validated our findings in an independent cohort of 813 patients. Read More

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December 2018

Risk factors for death among patients with Chikungunya virus infection during the outbreak in northeast Brazil, 2016-2017.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Post-Graduation Program in Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará-UFC. Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a current public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for death among patients with CHIKV infection during a large epidemic in northeast Brazil.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with all registered cases of CHIKV in Ceara, Brazil, during 2016-2017. Read More

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December 2018

Serologic Status of Routine Childhood Vaccines, Cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr Virus in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Section of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Data on the serologic status of childhood vaccines, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are limited in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we evaluated vaccine coverage and seroprotection, along with CMV and EBV seropositivity, in pediatric IBD.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, demographic data, IBD history, vaccine records, and serum for antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), CMV, and EBV were collected from children with IBD. Read More

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December 2018

Mitochondrial Respiration in Outer Retina Contributes to Light-Evoked Increase in Hydration In Vivo.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5957-5964

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States.

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial respiration contributes to local changes in hydration involved in phototransduction-driven expansion of outer retina, as measured by structural responses on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial reserve capacity of freshly isolated C57BL/6 and 129S6/SvEvTac mouse retina were measured using a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Light-stimulated outer retina layer water content was determined by proton density MRI, structure and thickness by ultrahigh-resolution OCT, and water mobility by diffusion MRI. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective Evaluation of Patients With X-Linked Retinoschisis During 18 Months.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5941-5956

Applied Genetic Technologies Corporation, Alachua, Florida, United States.

Purpose: Prospective evaluation of patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS).

Methods: Fifty-six males XLRS patients, age ≥7 years, had retinal structure and function tests performed every 6 months during an 18-month period.

Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was abnormal (mean ± SD logMAR 0. Read More

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December 2018
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Dynamic Changes of Retinal Microaneurysms in Diabetes Imaged With In Vivo Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5932-5940

Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: To prospectively monitor microaneurysms (MAs) in three dimensions using adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT).

Methods: Patients with diabetes mellitus and parafoveal MAs were included in this longitudinal study. At baseline, MAs were identified in standard fluorescein angiography (FA) and subsequently imaged with an AOOCT prototype, incorporated into an AO fundus camera (RTX1, Imagine Eyes) device. Read More

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December 2018
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Association of Upregulated Angiogenic Cytokines With Choroidal Abnormalities in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5924-5931

Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Purpose: To clarify the distinct molecular pathogenesis of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PNV).

Methods: Aqueous humor (AH) was collected from 18 acute CSC, 20 chronic CSC, and 20 PNV patients. Concentrations of 30 cytokines in the AH were analyzed using a multiplex bead immunoassay, and the cytokine profiles were compared among these three groups of patients. Read More

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December 2018

The Effect of Prostaglandin Analogue Bimatoprost on Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5912-5923

Dr. Nasser Al-Rashid Orbital Vision Research Center, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, McKnight Vision Research Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States.

Purpose: We characterize the effect of bimatoprost on orbital adipose tissue in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) with clinicopathologic correlation.

Methods: Orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASCs) from types 1 and 2 TAO and control patients with and without exposure to 1 μm bimatoprost were examined via immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot for cell viability, migration capacity, lipid content, adipocyte morphology, mitochondrial content, and levels of adipogenic markers. A retrospective chart review was performed for clinicopathologic correlation. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Prevalence and associated risk factors of periodic limb movement in sleep in two German population-based studies.

Sleep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.

Study Objectives: Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) are frequent motor phenomena; however, population-based data are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of PLMS and factors associated with PLMS within two German population-based cohorts, the SHIP-TREND and BiDirect.

Methods: Single-night polysomnography was performed on 1107 subjects recruited from the general population (mean age: 52. Read More

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December 2018

Cost-Effectiveness of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy in Pediatric Relapsed/Refractory B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of California San Diego School of Medicine, UCSD School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA.

Background: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is a promising new class of cancer therapy but has a high up-front cost. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of CAR-T therapy among pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).

Methods: We built a microsimulation model for pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory B-ALL receiving either CAR-T therapy or standard of care. Read More

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December 2018

Work Loss Before and After Diagnosis of Crohn's Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The aim of this study was to examine work loss in patients with Crohn's disease.

Methods: Using nationwide registers, we identified incident patients with Crohn's disease (2007-2010) and population comparator subjects without inflammatory bowel disease, matched by age, sex, calendar year, health care region, and education level. We assessed the number of lost workdays due to sick leave and disability pension from 5 years before to 5 years after first diagnosis of Crohn's disease or end of follow-up (September 30, 2015). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Two Extraordinary Sellar Neuronal Tumors: Literature Review and Comparison of Clinicopathologic Features.

Am J Clin Pathol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Objectives: The list of tumors involving the pituitary gland has been expanded to include a variety of neuronal and paraneuronal tumors in the 2017 World Health Organization tumor classification of endocrine organs. All the entities included in this category are distinctly rare, with limited case reports in the literature.

Methods: We illustrate two extraordinary sellar tumors with neuronal differentiation: a sellar paraganglioma and a sellar neurocytoma, with thorough literature review and comparison of the clinicopathologic features of these entities. Read More

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December 2018

Lower skeletal muscle mass at admission independently predicts falls and mortality three months post-discharge in hospitalised older patients.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Medicine and Aged Care, @AgeMelbourne, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Approximately 10% of older adults is annually admitted to a hospital. Hospitalisation is associated with a higher risk of falls and mortality after discharge. This study aimed to identify predictors at admission for falls and mortality three months post-discharge in hospitalised older patients. Read More

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December 2018

Comparative immunogenicity of enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: A number of enhanced influenza vaccines have been developed for use in older adults, including the high-dose, MF59-adjuvanted, and intradermal vaccines.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review examining the improvements in antibody responses measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay associated with these enhanced vaccines, compared to each other, and compared to standard-dose vaccine using random effects models.

Results: Thirty-nine trials were included. Read More

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December 2018

Expostats: A Bayesian Toolkit to Aid the Interpretation of Occupational Exposure Measurements.

Ann Work Expo Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Interpretation of exposure measurements has evolved into a framework based on the lognormal distribution. Most available practical tools are based on traditional frequentist statistical procedures that do not satisfactorily account for censored data and are not amenable to simple probabilistic risk statements. Bayesian methods offer promising solutions to these challenges. Read More

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December 2018

Loneliness and social isolation of military veterans: systematic narrative review.

Occup Med (Lond) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Northern Hub for Veterans and Military Families' Research, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

Background: Loneliness and social isolation are being increasingly recognized as influencing both physical and mental health. There is limited research carried out with military veterans and, to date, there is no review of existing evidence.

Aims: To synthesize and examine the evidence exploring aspects of social isolation and loneliness of military veterans, using a systematic narrative review strategy. Read More

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December 2018

Renal relapse in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis: unpredictable, but predictive of renal outcome.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019 Jan;58(1):103-109

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To determine predictors of renal relapse and end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Methods: Data from four European Vasculitis Society randomized controlled trials, conducted roughly simultaneously between 15 March 1995 and 30 September 2002, was pooled to determine predictors of long-term renal outcome. The respective trial inclusion criteria covered the entire spectrum of disease severity. Read More

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January 2019

Moving Beyond Role-Play: Evaluating the Use of Virtual Reality to Teach Emotion Regulation for the Prevention of Adolescent Risk Behavior Within a Randomized Pilot Trial.

J Pediatr Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Bradley/Hasbro Children's Research Center/Rhode Island Hospital and the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

Objective: The purpose of the current pilot study was to evaluate the acceptability and preliminary impact of using immersive virtual reality environments (IVREs) paired with a brief emotion regulation and risk reduction intervention (ER + IVRE) relative to this same intervention content paired with role-plays (ER + RP).

Methods: Eighty-five adolescents attending middle school (grades 6th-8th; ages 12-15 years) in an urban northeast city were recruited and randomized to ER + IVRE (n = 44) or ER + RP (n = 41) and had complete data. Data examining acceptability, feasibility, sexual knowledge and attitudes, and ER were collected at baseline and 3 months after intervention completion. Read More

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December 2018

Disease Severity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Mediating Role of Parent and Youth Illness Uncertainty.

J Pediatr Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Oklahoma State University.

Objective: The objective of this study is to examine parent and youth appraisals of illness uncertainty as potential serial mediators in the relation between disease severity and youth depressive symptoms in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Methods: Participants were 85 adolescents 13-18 years of age (Mage = 15.75, SD =1. Read More

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December 2018

The serogroup B meningococcal vaccine Bexsero elicits antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.

Background: Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related bacteria that cause a significant global burden of disease. Control of gonorrhoea is becoming increasingly difficult due to widespread antibiotic resistance. While vaccines are routinely used for N. Read More

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December 2018

The Acute Impact of Hatha Yoga on Craving among Smokers Attempting to Reduce or Quit.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Introduction: Despite negative effects of smoking, smokers have difficulty quitting, suggesting a need for additional strategies to help them quit. A single-session hatha yoga intervention acutely reduced craving among nicotine-deprived smokers not attempting to reduce or quit, yet it is unknown if it reduces craving among those attempting to change their smoking. Thus, the current study tested the efficacy of a single-session hatha yoga intervention for acutely reducing craving among smokers attempting to reduce or quit smoking. Read More

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December 2018

Cytological and molecular aspects of the ageing sperm.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Seminology - Sperm Bank 'Loredana Gandini' Department of Experimental Medicine, 'Sapienza' University of Rome, Italy.

Study Question: Is ageing associated with a decline in semen quality and molecular changes to human sperm?

Summary Answer: Semen quality declines with advancing age and characteristic molecular changes take place during the ageing process, including increased sperm DNA damage, altered sperm protamination and altered seminal plasma miRNA profile.

What Is Known Already: During ageing, the reproductive system is exposed to physiological changes and potentially damaging factors that may impair testicular function. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce errors during DNA replication, transcription or post-transcriptional events (fragmentation, chromatin condensation abnormalities and protamine expression defects). Read More

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December 2018

Long-term follow-up of vitrified and autografted baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Pôle de Recherche en Gynécologie, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 52, bte. B1.52.02, Brussels 1200, Belgium.

Study Question: Can vitrified baboon ovarian tissue survive >5 months after autotransplantation and subsequently restore fertility?

Summary Answer: Our results show that ovarian tissue grafts can survive at least 18 months, but fertility restoration could not be confirmed due to lack of pregnancy.

What Is Known Already: Ovarian function in baboons can be re-established after autografting of vitrified-warmed ovarian tissue fragments.

Study Design, Size, Duration: Ovaries from five adult female baboons were used for this study. Read More

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December 2018

Disentangling the effects of disturbance, climate and tree age on xylem hydraulic conductivity of Betula pendula.

Ann Bot 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Physical Geography and Geoecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: The increasing frequency of disturbances in temperate forests is responsible for the greater numbers of trees with mechanically damaged cambial zones. Adjustment of wood anatomical structure to balance between safe and efficient water conductivity is one mechanism trees employ to cope with mechanical damage. The relative role of disturbances, tree age and climate in shaping xylem conduits and affecting xylem hydraulic conductivity remains unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Networking in eHealth research: results of the IDRC SEARCH program evaluation.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 Dec;40(suppl_2):ii12-ii15

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The IDRC 'Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity building in eHealth' (SEARCH) funded seven research projects in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lebanon, Peru and Vietnam that sought to answer questions or test solutions related to the use of Internet or mobile phone technology in strengthening health systems. The evaluation accompanied these projects over two years to answer, among others, the question how cross-grant learning interactions influenced project outcomes.

Methods: The evaluation team conducted repeated interviews and on-line questionnaire surveys with the research teams and analysed the information exchanges among researchers on a SharePoint site established by IDRC. Read More

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December 2018

Can mHealth improve timeliness and quality of health data collected and used by health extension workers in rural Southern Ethiopia?

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 Dec;40(suppl_2):ii74-ii86

REACH Ethiopia, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: Health extension workers (HEWs) are the key cadre within the Ethiopian Health Extension Programme extending health care to rural communities. National policy guidance supports the use of mHealth to improve data quality and use. We report on a mobile Health Management Information system (HMIS) with HEWs and assess its impact on data use, community health service provision and HEWs' experiences. Read More

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December 2018

Promoting access equity and improving health care for women, children and people living with HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso through mHealth.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2018 Dec;40(suppl_2):ii42-ii51

Université de Montréal, CHU Sainte-Justine, Canada.

Background: In Burkina Faso, access to health services for women, children and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) remains limited. Mobile telephony offers an alternative solution for reaching these individuals. The objective of the study was to improve equity of access to health care and information among women and PLWHAs by reinforcing community participation. Read More

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December 2018

Distinct histopathological features at diagnosis of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Philadelphia, PA.

Background And Aims: Children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease represent a unique cohort, often with a severe phenotype that is refractory to conventional medications, and in some cases, have underlying primary immunodeficiencies. Prior work has identified distinct histopathological patterns in the gastrointestinal tract in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. The aim of this study is to characterize the diagnostic histological findings in patients with VEO-IBD as compared to older onset pediatric IBD and determine if there are unique pathological changes that can shed light on the driving forces of the disease, particularly immunodeficiencies. Read More

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December 2018

Predicting peripartum blood transfusion in women undergoing cesarean delivery: A risk prediction model.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208417. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Surgery, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States of America.

Objective: There has been an appreciable rise in postpartum hemorrhage requiring blood transfusions in the United States. Our objective is to better define patients at greatest risk for peripartum transfusion at the time of cesarean in order to identify cases for early intervention and monitoring.

Methods: Our study is a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study. Read More

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December 2018

Selective infarct zone imaging with intravenous acoustically activated droplets.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0207486. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States of America.

Background: Microbubbles (MB) can be compressed to nanometer-sized droplets and reactivated with diagnostic ultrasound; these reactivated MB possess unique imaging characteristics.

Objective: We hypothesized that droplets formed from compressing Definity MB may be used for infarct-enhancement imaging.

Methods: Fourteen rats underwent ligation of their left anterior descending (LAD) artery, and five pigs underwent 90 minute balloon occlusions of their mid LAD. Read More

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December 2018

Aerobic Exercise Training Alleviates Renal Injury by Interfering with Mitochondrial Function in Type-1 Diabetic Mice.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Dec 14;24:9081-9089. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Sports, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy was one of the most serious and harmful diabetic complications, characterized by progressive loss of renal function and renal fibrosis. Aerobic exercise training is an important non-pharmacologic method to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Intraperitoneal (i. Read More

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December 2018

High doses of sodium bicarbonate increase lactate levels and delay exhaustion in a cycling performance test.

Nutrition 2018 Oct 13;60:94-99. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Appalachian State University, Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Caroline, USA.

Objectives: It is well established that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO) causes metabolic alkalosis. However, there is no consensus in terms of optimal NaHCO doses leading to enhanced performance. This study aimed to determine the effects of different NaHCO doses on performance and lactate clearance in non-professional cyclists. Read More

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October 2018
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