161,098 results match your criteria Metastatic Carcinoma

Avelumab and cetuximab as a therapeutic combination: An overview of scientific rationale and current clinical trials in cancer.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Mar 2;97:102172. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Medical Oncology, Department of Precision Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Treatment outcomes have improved with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors and small molecule inhibitors. However, many patients do not respond with single agents. Consequently, ongoing research is focused on the use of combination therapies to increase clinical efficacy by potential synergistic effects. Read More

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The localization of the photosensitizer determines the dynamics of the secondary production of hydrogen peroxide in cell cytoplasm and mitochondria.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 May 6;219:112208. Epub 2021 May 6.

Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia. Electronic address:

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the production of the cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by light irradiation of a photosensitizer dye in the presence of molecular oxygen. Along with photochemical ROS production, it becomes evident that PDT induces massive secondary production of ROS which is registered long after the irradiation is completed. We created cell lines of human epidermoid carcinoma with the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial localization of protein sensor HyPer sensitive to hydrogen peroxide to compare its concentration in two cellular compartments. Read More

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Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrp)-secreting liver metastatic large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the sigmoid colon.

Am J Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Insitute of Pathology Saarbrücken-Rastpfuhl, Saarbrücken, Germany. Electronic address:

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Pembrolizumab plus cetuximab in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: an open-label, multi-arm, non-randomised, multicentre, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Pembrolizumab (PD-1 inhibitor) and cetuximab (EGFR inhibitor) are active as single agents and in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Given each drug's single agent activity and unique mechanism of action, we aimed to evaluate the anti-tumour activity of PD-1 blockade with EGFR inhibition in recurrent or metastatic HNSCC.

Methods: This study is an open-label, non-randomised, multi-arm, phase 2 trial done at four academic centres in the USA. Read More

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Expression of p40 in Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma Versus Primary Mucinous Carcinomas of the Breast and Colon.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR; J. Chung's work was performed while at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA; and Departments of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, and Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: The transcription factor p63 is a homolog of p53, expressed in basal layers of epithelia and myoepithelial cells. Some studies have suggested that p63 may provide utility in differentiating primary versus metastatic mucinous carcinoma of the skin, given its preferential expression in primary adnexal neoplasms. There have been few studies investigating the expression patterns of p40, an isoform of p63, in primary cutaneous mucinous carcinomas. Read More

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Palpable Lumps after Mastectomy: Radiologic-Pathologic Review of Benign and Malignant Masses.

Radiographics 2021 May 14:200161. Epub 2021 May 14.

From the Departments of Radiology (R.A.K., G.K.N., E.P.C., J.H.S., J.L.J., M.N., E.V.M.) and Pathology (A.A.), MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, 3800 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007; and Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (V.L.M.).

Patients who have undergone mastectomy, with or without reconstruction, are not universally screened with mammography or US. Therefore, clinical breast examination by the physician and patient-detected palpable abnormalities are crucial for detecting breast cancer or recurrence. Diagnostic US is the first-line modality for evaluation of postmastectomy palpable masses, with occasional adjunct use of diagnostic mammography for confirming certain benign masses. Read More

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Randomized Phase III Trial of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin With Bevacizumab or Placebo in Patients With Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma: Results of CALGB 90601 (Alliance).

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 14:JCO2100286. Epub 2021 May 14.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) is a standard therapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Based on data that angiogenesis plays a role in urothelial carcinoma growth and progression, a randomized placebo-controlled trial was performed with the primary objective of testing whether patients treated with GC and bevacizumab (GCB) have superior overall survival (OS) than patients treated with GC and placebo (GCP).

Patients And Methods: Between July 2009 and December 2014, 506 patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma without prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease and no neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy within 12 months were randomly assigned to receive either GCB or GCP. Read More

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Statins associate with better clinical outcomes in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBsAg seroclearance.

Hepatol Int 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Introduction: We aimed to describe long-term clinical outcomes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients after HBsAg seroclearance, and identify factors that modify disease outcomes.

Methods: CHB patients with HBsAg seroclearance occurring between 1986 and 2017 were recruited. Primary outcome was cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and secondary outcomes were hepatic decompensation, liver-related death/transplantation, and all-cause mortality. Read More

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Fatal acute hepatic failure secondary to thrombotic portal venopathy after commencing abemaciclib and fulvestrant treatment for advanced breast carcinoma: a unique autopsy finding.

Breast J 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Medical Education, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

We present an autopsy case of hepatic thrombotic portal venopathy resulting in decompensated liver failure and death which occurred rapidly after commencing abemaciclib and fulvestrant chemotherapy for advanced invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically. This is the first reported case of such a finding. Read More

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In vitro and in silico anticancer potential analysis of sp. extract against human lung cancer cell line, A549.

3 Biotech 2021 Jun 7;11(6):254. Epub 2021 May 7.

Microbial Technology Lab, Acharya Narendra Dev College, University of Delhi, Govindpuri, Kalkaji, New Delhi, 110 019 India.

During our previous investigation, bioactive compounds present in the extract of sp. strain 196 were characterized using LC-MS/MS and H NMR studies. These compounds were K-252-C aglycone indolocarbazole alkaloid, decoyinine, and cycloheximide; the study of these natural drugs against lung carcinoma is still limited. Read More

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3'-UTR Polymorphism rs15869 Alters Susceptibility to Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma via Binding hsa-mir-1178-3p.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 6;14:533-544. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To investigate the associations of polymorphisms in the following DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) genes with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) risk (including rs11852786, rs963917, rs12516 and rs8176318, rs15869, rs2035990 and rs2440).

Materials And Methods: A matched case-control study was implemented to examine associations between PTC risk and the above polymorphisms. Subsequently, we evaluated the effects of the potential PTC susceptibility-related variant rs15869 on BRCA2 mRNA secondary structure and BRCA2 expression through bioinformatics analysis and experiment validation. Read More

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Repurposing ketoconazole as an exosome directed adjunct to sunitinib in treating renal cell carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10200. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departments of Urology, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Ave, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of kidney cancer, with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) representing about 85% of all RCC tumors. There are limited curable treatments available for metastatic ccRCC because this disease is unresponsive to conventional targeted systemic pharmacotherapy. Exosomes (Exo) are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from cancer cells with marked roles in tumoral signaling and pharmacological resistance. Read More

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Tumor hypoxia is associated with resistance to PD-1 blockade in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Tumor Microenvironment Center, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

The majority of patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) (R/M) do not benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy. Hypoxia induced immunosuppression may be a barrier to immunotherapy. Therefore, we examined the metabolic effect of anti-PD-1 therapy in a murine MEER HNSCC model as well as intratumoral hypoxia in R/M patients. Read More

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Economic evaluation of different routes of surgery for the management of endometrial cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 May 13;11(5):e045888. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK.

Objectives: The benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for endometrial carcinoma (EC) are well established although the financial impact of robotic-assisted hysterectomy (RH) compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) is disputed.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: English National Health Service hospitals 2011-2017/2018. Read More

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Metastatic Carcinoma of Prostate as a Mimicker of SAPHO Syndrome.

Clin Med Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Laboratory medicine and Hemato-pathology, Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, WI 54702.

Paraneoplastic arthritides are a group of immune mediated inflammatory arthropathies associated with occult or manifest malignancy. Musculoskeletal spread of an underlying malignancy may also mimic many rheumatologic conditions. Distinguishing primary rheumatologic condition from paraneoplastic arthritides versus direct musculoskeletal spread of malignancy can be challenging especially in individuals with prior history of cancer and new musculoskeletal complaints. Read More

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Determinants of Remission in a Case Series of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Background/aim: We aimed to present the clinical results of patients with medullary carcinoma under follow-up in our center and to determine parameters affecting remission and lymph node metastases.

Material And Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of 27 patients with MTC who were followed up between 2004 and 2020.

Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 47. Read More

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Immune-inflammatory biomarkers as prognostic factors for immunotherapy in pretreated advanced urinary tract cancer patients: an analysis of the Italian SAUL cohort.

ESMO Open 2021 May 10;6(3):100118. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hematology and Oncology, Englander Institute for Precision Medicine Weill Cornell Medicine, New York-Presbyterian, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Reliable and affordable prognostic and predictive biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma treated with immunotherapy may allow patients' outcome stratification and drive therapeutic options. The SAUL trial investigated the safety and efficacy of atezolizumab in a real-world setting on 1004 patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who progressed to one to three prior systemic therapies.

Patients And Methods: Using the SAUL Italian cohort of 267 patients, we investigated the prognostic role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and the best performing one of these in combination with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with or without lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Read More

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SAUL, a single-arm study of atezolizumab for chemotherapy-pretreated locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma of the urinary tract: outcomes by key baseline factors, PD-L1 expression and prior platinum therapy.

ESMO Open 2021 May 10;6(3):100152. Epub 2021 May 10.

Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Department of Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Meyer Cancer Center, New York, USA.

Background: The impact of pretreatment factors on immune checkpoint inhibition in platinum-refractory advanced urothelial cancer (aUC) deserves further evaluation. The aim was to study the association of Bellmunt risk factors, time from last chemotherapy (TFLC), previous therapy and PD-L1 expression with atezolizumab efficacy in platinum-refractory aUC.

Patients And Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of patients who had received prior cisplatin or carboplatin in the prospective, single-arm, phase IIIb SAUL study (NCT02928406). Read More

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Sentinel lymph node sampling as an alternative to lymphadenectomy in patients with endometrial cancer and obesity.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, affiliated with the Hebrew.

Objective: Although its use in endometrial cancer staging is relatively new, sentinel lymph node (SLN) sampling has been shown to be highly accurate and is associated with few complications. However, some studies report lower rates of detection with SLN sampling among patients with obesity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the feasibility of SLN sampling in endometrial cancer for patients with obesity, and to determine whether omitting lymph node dissection (LND) in surgical staging using SLN sampling impacts oncologic outcomes. Read More

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Malignancies requiring temporal bone resection: An Australian single-institution experience.

ANZ J Surg 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Queensland Skull Base Unit and Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Malignancies in and around the temporal bone are aggressive and difficult to manage. In Queensland (Australia), where skin cancer rates are exceedingly high, tumours extending to the temporal bone from surrounding structures occur more commonly than primary cancers. Yet, a paucity of evidence exists as to their management and outcomes. Read More

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Laryngectomy with a Tritube and flow-controlled ventilation.

Anaesth Rep 2021 Jan-Jun;9(1):86-89. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery Poole Hospital NHS Trust Poole UK.

We describe the novel use of the TriTube and Evone ventilator (Ventinova, Eindhoven, Netherlands) to facilitate curative resection of a transglottic squamous cell carcinoma. A 43-year-old man presented with acute laryngeal and subglottic airway obstruction secondary to a stage 4 transglottic squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging followed by a diagnostic panendoscopy. Read More

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Trends and In-Hospital Outcomes of Splanchnic Vein Thrombosis Associated with Gastrointestinal Malignancies: A Nationwide Analysis.

Gastrointest Tumors 2021 Apr 9;8(2):71-80. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Oncology, Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.

Introduction: Gastrointestinal cancers have a strong association with splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT), yet the hospitalization data is unknown.

Objective And Methods: We analyzed around 78 million discharges from the 2007-2017 Nationwide Inpatient Sample with an inclusion criterion of adult patients admitted for portal or hepatic vein thrombosis as a primary diagnosis with a gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary malignancy as a secondary diagnosis. The outcomes were in-hospital mortality, complication rates, and resource utilization. Read More

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Clear-Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder with Alpha-Fetoprotein Production: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Gastrointest Tumors 2021 Apr 27;8(2):52-57. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Urology, Indraprashtha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India.

Gallbladder tumors are the fifth most common cancers of the gastrointestinal tract with poor prognosis and low survival. The most common type is adenocarcinoma of which the clear cell type is an unusual histologic variant with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gallbladder carcinoma, reported extremely rarely, which makes the index case an uncommon entity. AFP secretion by gallbladder carcinomas may occur given the similar embryological origin of liver and gallbladder. Read More

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Benefits and Limitations of TKIs in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Apr 11;10(2):125-139. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Endocrine Unit, Department of Medical Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been used in patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); however, data on their effectiveness and safety are limited. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to document clinical response and toxicities of TKIs in advanced MTC.

Methods: We systematically searched major databases for articles or abstracts on TKI use in MTC patients until May 2018. Read More

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Metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with sarcomatoid differentiation showing large cell neuroendocrine transformation in the liver; an unusual behaviour of a rare disease.

Urol Case Rep 2021 Sep 26;38:101646. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

The Tweed Hospital, Tweed Heads, NSW, 2485, Australia.

Metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is generally considered to be an aggressive disease with many recognised variants, however what is unique about our patient is the metastatic transformation from a urothelial primary malignancy with sarcomatoid variation to a neuroendocrine deposit within the liver. From what we have identified, this pattern of pathological transformation has not been reported for a urothelial malignancy in the literature. We present a 64 year old male who we believe is the first reported case of a primary urothelial malignancy presenting de-novo with metastatic liver deposits showing neuro-endocrine transformation. Read More

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September 2021

Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma presenting as inguinal hernia: A case report.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 May 15;65:102310. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Bradenton, United States.

Introduction: One of the most common surgical procedures performed annually is inguinal hernia repair. Inguinal hernias are traditionally known to be caused by a weakening in the abdominal wall and precipitated by increased intraabdominal pressure. Recently, intra-abdominal cancer producing the increased intraabdominal pressure, along with metastasis directly into the inguinal canal, have been identified in more studies as causes of inguinal hernias. Read More

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Subdural spinal metastases detected on CT myelography: A case report and brief review.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jun 16;16(6):1499-1503. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905.

Spinal metastases are most commonly osseous and may extend to the epidural space. Less commonly, spinal metastases can be subdural, leptomeningeal, or intramedullary. Among these, subdural metastases are the most rare, with few reported cases. Read More

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Cytotoxic Effect of Progesterone, Tamoxifen and Their Combination in Experimental Cell Models of Human Adrenocortical Cancer.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:669426. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences, and Public Health, University of Brescia at ASST Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Progesterone (Pg) and estrogen (E) receptors (PgRs and ERs) are expressed in normal and neoplastic adrenal cortex, but their role is not fully understood. In literature, Pg demonstrated cytotoxic activity on AdrenoCortical Carcinoma (ACC) cells, while tamoxifen is cytotoxic in NCI-H295R cells. Here, we demonstrated that in ACC cell models, ERs were expressed in NCI-H295R cells with a prevalence of ER- over the ER-. Read More

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Optimization of PhysicoChemical Parameters for Production of Cytotoxic Secondary Metabolites and Apoptosis Induction Activities in the Culture Extract of a Marine Algal-Derived Endophytic Fungus sp.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:542891. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

The endophytic fungal community in the marine ecosystem has been demonstrated to be relevant source of novel and pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. The current study focused on the evaluation of cytotoxic and apoptosis induction potential in the culture extracts of endophytic fungi associated with , a marine brown alga. The cytotoxicity of the four marine endophytes, sp. Read More

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promoter mutations and other prognostic factors in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma treated with an immune checkpoint inhibitor.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) can achieve durable responses in a subset of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (aUC). The use of tumor genomic profiling in clinical practice may help suggest biomarkers to identify patients most likely to benefit from ICI.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients treated with an ICI for aUC at a large academic medical center. Read More

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