1,827 results match your criteria Metastatic Cancer Unknown Primary Site

A Case Report of Immunotherapy-Resistant MSI-H Gastric Cancer with Significant Intrapatient Tumoral Heterogeneity Characterized by Histologic Dedifferentiation.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 14;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics Research, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1500 E. Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

We describe a patient with both gastric adenocarcinoma and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of unknown primary site. The possibility of a single malignant clonal process as opposed to differing primaries was supported by the finding of both histologies exhibiting high microsatellite instability. Despite evidence of tumor microsatellite instability, the patient's disease process did not respond to immune checkpoint inhibition. Read More

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MIF/CXCR4 signaling axis contributes to survival, invasion, and drug resistance of metastatic neuroblastoma cells in the bone marrow microenvironment.

BMC Cancer 2022 Jun 17;22(1):669. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The bone marrow (BM) is the most common site of dissemination in patients with aggressive, metastatic neuroblastoma (NB). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive behavior of NB cells in the BM niche are still greatly unknown. In the present study, we explored biological mechanisms that play a critical role in NB cell survival and progression in the BM and investigated potential therapeutic targets. Read More

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The Role of the Microbiome in Gastroentero-Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (GEP-NENs).

Curr Issues Mol Biol 2022 Apr 30;44(5):2015-2028. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Dermatology, Integrated Microbiome Core and Center for Medical Mycology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Gut microbiome balance plays a key role in human health and maintains gut barrier integrity. Dysbiosis, referring to impaired gut microbiome, is linked to a variety of diseases, including cancers, through modulation of the inflammatory process. Most studies concentrated on adenocarcinoma of different sites with very limited information on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). Read More

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The Interplay of Four Main Pathways Recomposes Immune Landscape in Primary and Metastatic Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Front Oncol 2022 18;12:808448. Epub 2022 May 18.

Center for Neuroendocrine Tumors, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: The four major pathways in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) including chromatin remodeling, DNA damage repair, activation of mTOR signaling, and telomere maintenance were mediated by some critical molecules and constituted critical processes of regulation in cancer-causing processes. However, the interplay and potential role of these pathway-related molecules in the tumor microenvironment of the primary and metastatic site remained unknown.

Methods: We systematically evaluated the mRNA expression of 34 molecules associated with the four pathways in 227 GEP-NEN samples from 5 datasets. Read More

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Effective examination methods for identifying the primary origins of metastatic bone tumors of unknown primary origin during the initial visit: A retrospective chart review study.

SAGE Open Med 2022 24;10:20503121221097582. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime University, Toon City, Japan.

Objective: To provide appropriate treatment for patients, early diagnosis of the primary origin of skeletal metastases of unknown primary origin is important. This study aimed to assess the examination strategy effective for identifying the primary origin of skeletal metastases of unknown primary origin.

Methods: Sixty-one patients with skeletal metastases of unknown primary origin were reviewed. Read More

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Everolimus Added to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Patients With High-Risk Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Primary Breast Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2022 May 23:JCO2102179. Epub 2022 May 23.

Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: Everolimus, an oral inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, improves progression-free survival in combination with endocrine therapy (ET) in postmenopausal women with aromatase inhibitor-resistant metastatic breast cancer. However, the benefit of adding everolimus to ET in the adjuvant setting in early breast cancer is unknown.

Patients And Methods: In this randomized double-blind phase III study, women with high-risk, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative primary breast cancer were randomly assigned to everolimus or placebo for 2 years combined with standard ET. Read More

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Metastatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of Unknown Primary: Clues from Pathology Workup.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Apr 28;14(9). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 64 Stockholm, Sweden.

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are diverse tumors arising in various anatomical locations and may therefore cause a variety of symptoms leading to their discovery. However, there are instances in which a NEN first presents clinically as a metastatic deposit, while the associated primary tumor is not easily identified using conventional imaging techniques because of small primary tumor sizes. In this setting (which is referred to as a "NEN of unknown primary"; NEN-UP), a tissue biopsy is often procured to allow the surgical pathologist to diagnose the metastatic lesion. Read More

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An Appraisal of Immunohistochemical Stain Use in Hepatic Metastasis Highlights the Effectiveness of the Individualized, Case-Based Approach.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

From the Department of Pathology (Wang, Sebastian, Walther, Zhang, Jain), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Context.—: Liver biopsy plays an important role in the clinical management of metastases and often requires workup using immunohistochemical (IHC) markers, but the approach varies among institutions.

Objective. Read More

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Nationwide survey on family caregiver-perceived experiences of patients with cancer of unknown primary site.

Support Care Cancer 2022 Jul 28;30(7):6353-6363. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Nursing for Advanced Practice, Department of Integrated Health Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

Purpose: Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. As research on the experiences of CUP patients and their families is scarce, this study aimed to compare the family caregiver-perceived burden of CUP with that of common cancers (lung, colon, and stomach cancers). The association between family caregiver-perceived burden and CUP patients' quality of life (QOL) at end-of-life and family depression, respectively, was also explored. Read More

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Unusual presentation of HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the nasolacrimal duct as carcinoma of unknown primary.

Am J Otolaryngol 2022 May-Jun;43(3):103457. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Center for Head and Neck Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Most human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive carcinomas of unknown primary (CUP) in the cervical lymph nodes are ultimately found to arise from the oropharynx, which has by far the highest prevalence of HPV-positivity among head and neck tumors. However, HPV is also detected in a subset of tumors from other sites. In this case report, we describe the first reported instance of a lacrimal sac carcinoma presenting as an HPV-positive CUP. Read More

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Case Report: Molecular Profiling Assists in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer of Unknown Primary.

Front Oncol 2022 30;12:723140. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: For cancer of unknown primary (CUP), non-selective empiric chemotherapy is usually used. However, patients suffering from CUP are generally assumed to have a dismal prognosis with median overall survival of less than 1 year. Therefore, clinicians eagerly await the establishment of effective strategies for diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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Hypothesised cutaneous sites of origin of stage III melanomas with unknown primary: A multicentre study.

Int J Cancer 2022 Aug 25;151(3):396-401. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

Based on molecular evidence that melanomas with unknown primary (MUPs) arise from the skin, we hypothesised that sites of MUPs are disproportionately on trunk and lower limbs, sites that are not readily visible to patients and clinicians. We tested this hypothesis by inferring the anatomic site of origin of MUPs from the corresponding known cutaneous sites of melanoma patients with known primary tumours (MKPs). We analysed data from three separate cohorts of patients from Brisbane, Australia (n = 236); Manchester, UK (n = 51) and Padova, Italy (n = 33), respectively, who first presented with stage III melanoma with lymph node metastases. Read More

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Endometriosis in para-aortic lymph node resembling a malignancy: a case report and literature review.

BMC Womens Health 2022 04 5;22(1):101. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.

Background: Endometriosis is a common benign gynecological disease characterized by growing-functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Extra-pelvic endometriosis, which accounts for approximately 12% of endometriosis, is more challenging to diagnose because of its distance from the pelvic organs. Halban's theory of benign metastasis indicates that endometrial cells can appear in extra-pelvic organs via lymphatic and blood vessels, but endometrial lymph node metastasis cases are still rare. Read More

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Comprehensive evaluation on cancer of unknown primary site and how we managed it: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2022 Apr 16;93:106954. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Radiology, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.

Introduction And Importance: Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is metastatic cancer without primary tumor found from comprehensive medical history, physical examination, and regular laboratory examination. Eighty percent of CUP include unfavorable groups with 3 to 6 months of median survival despite chemotherapy treatment.

Case Presentation: A 52-year-old male was presented with a chief complaint of a recurrent lump in the neck and axilla. Read More

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Oral metastasis as the first indication of undiscovered malignancy at a distant site: A systematic review of 413 cases.

Head Neck 2022 Jul 25;44(7):1715-1724. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Dentistry, State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Brazil.

This systematic review is the first to provide evidence regarding demographic, clinical, and imaging characteristics, as well as information related to survival, of patients with oral and maxillofacial metastases of occult primary tumors. Case reports, case series, and cross-sectional studies were included. Ten databases were searched. Read More

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Clinicopathological and Molecular Features of Secondary Cancer (Metastasis) to the Thyroid and Advances in Management.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 17;23(6). Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Cancer Molecular Pathology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast 4222, Australia.

Secondary tumours to the thyroid gland are uncommon and often incidentally discovered on imaging. Symptomatic patients often present with a neck mass. Collision tumours of secondary tumours and primary thyroid neoplasms do occur. Read More

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SEOM-GECOD clinical guideline for unknown primary cancer (2021).

Clin Transl Oncol 2022 Apr 23;24(4):681-692. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Hospital Durán i Reynals-ICO Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain.

Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is defined as a heterogeneous group of tumors that appear as metastases, and of which standard diagnostic work-up fails to identify the origin. It is considered a separate entity with a specific biology, and nowadays molecular characteristics and the determination of actionable mutations may be important in a significant group of patients. In this guide, we summarize the diagnostic, therapeutic, and possible new developments in molecular medicine that may help us in the management of this unique disease entity. Read More

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Metastatic tumours to the eye. Review of metastasis to the iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, optic disc, vitreous, and/or lens capsule.

Eye (Lond) 2022 Mar 19. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Metastasis to the eye can involve the choroid (90%), ciliary body (2%), iris (8%), and retina, optic disc, vitreous, and/or lens capsule (<1-4%). The mean number of uveal metastasis per eye (1.7), mean tumour base (11. Read More

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[Genomic Analysis-Based Treatment for Cancer of Unknown Primary].

Kazuto Nishio

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2022 Mar;49(3):259-263

Dept. of Genome Biology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine.

Progress in genomic analysis are expected to improve the treatment outcome of cancers of unknown primary(CUP). We conducted a randomized phase Ⅱ trial of carboplatin plus paclitaxel versus site-specific therapy based on gene expression profiling(GEP)in patients with CUP. A phase Ⅱ trial was conducted in patients with CUP to evaluate the feasibility of site- specific therapy based on NGS-based primary site prediction from GEPs, including irGEP. Read More

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Overview of the 2022 WHO Classification of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

Endocr Pathol 2022 Mar 16;33(1):115-154. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Pathology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

In this review, we detail the changes and the relevant features that are applied to neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) in the 2022 WHO Classification of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors. Using a question-and-answer approach, we discuss the consolidation of the nomenclature that distinguishes neuronal paragangliomas from epithelial neoplasms, which are divided into well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). The criteria for these distinctions based on differentiation are outlined. Read More

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Safety, Feasibility, and Merits of Longitudinal Molecular Testing of Multiple Metastatic Sites to Inform mTNBC Patient Treatment in the Intensive Trial of Omics in Cancer.

JCO Precis Oncol 2022 03;6:e2100280

Center for Cancer Innovation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: Patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) have poor outcomes. The Intensive Trial of Omics in Cancer (ITOMIC) sought to determine the feasibility and potential efficacy of informing treatment decisions through multiple biopsies of mTNBC deposits longitudinally over time, accompanied by analysis using a distributed network of experts.

Methods: Thirty-one subjects were enrolled and 432 postenrollment biopsies performed (clinical and study-directed) of which 332 were study-directed. Read More

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Longitudinal Circulating Tumor DNA Profiling in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer During Anti-EGFR Therapy.

Front Oncol 2022 24;12:830816. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a heterogenous disease with limited precision medicine and targeted therapy options. Monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been a crucial treatment option for mCRC. However, proper biomarkers for predicting therapeutic response remain unknown. Read More

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February 2022

First experiences with PET-MRI/CT in radiotherapy planning for cervical cancer.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 Mar 9. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München (TUM), Ismaninger Straße 22, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: PET-CT has recently been included in the NCCN staging recommendations for cervical cancer stages II-IV and is already routinely applied to radiotherapy planning for other malignancies, as it is expected to provide higher accuracy for the detection of areas with tumor cell spread. In this study, we report on our first experiences of PET-based radiotherapy planning for cervical cancer.

Methods: 19 patients with cervical cancer that underwent pre-therapeutic PET imaging treated at our institution between January 2016 and April 2019 were included in the study. Read More

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Site-specific therapy in cancers of unknown primary site: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

ESMO Open 2022 04 3;7(2):100407. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is a term applied to characterize pathologically confirmed metastatic cancer with unknown primary tumor origin. It remains uncertain whether patients with CUP benefit from site-specific therapy guided by molecular profiling.

Patients And Methods: A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Benefit of Gene Expression Profiling in Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors of Unknown Primary Origin.

Anticancer Res 2022 03;42(3):1381-1396

Department of Pathology, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, U.S.A.;

Background/aim: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP), representing 3-5% of all newly diagnosed cancers in the United States, is a presumptive, non-definitive diagnosis rendered when a primary tumor site cannot be identified after exhaustive diagnostic evaluation, including cases of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). CUPs are characterized by findings that are challenging to reconcile, including inconclusive immunohistochemical (IHC) stains, an undifferentiated morphologic phenotype, history of multiple cancers, a clinical presentation that is discordant from histologic findings, an atypical distribution of metastases, or lack of expected response to treatment. For a significant subset of NENs (10%), traditional diagnostic evaluation is unable to determine a primary tumor site using histomorphology and IHC stains. Read More

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An abdominal wall neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary origin: A case report and review of the literature.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2022 Feb 10:e1610. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Piedmont Atlanta Hospital, Division of Surgical Oncology & HPB Surgery, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine and nervous system. NETs, often found in the gastrointestinal tract, can be found anywhere in the body, and have metastatic potential. NETs occasionally present with metastatic disease without an identifiable primary tumor. Read More

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February 2022

Sensitivity of [18F]FDG PET/CT and classification of the primary tumor site in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary.

Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur 2022 ;25(1):1-5

Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hatay, Turkey.

Background: The aim of this study is to find the sensitivity of the [18F]FDG PET/CT and the classification of the primary sites of carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) as a single-center experience.

Material And Methods: Sixty-eight patients with a mean age of 62.43 ± 12. Read More

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February 2022

Surgical treatment of hepatic oligometastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: An analysis of the National Cancer Database.

Surgery 2022 Jun 1;171(6):1464-1470. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with liver-only metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma have traditionally been offered palliative chemotherapy alone. Recent studies have explored the role of surgical resection among patients with limited metastatic disease. National practice patterns and the impact of surgery among these patients remains unknown. Read More

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Pan-Cancer DNA Methylation Analysis and Tumor Origin Identification of Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site Based on Multi-Omics.

Pengfei Liu

Front Genet 2021 6;12:798748. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center For Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The metastatic cancer of unknown primary (CUP) sites remains a leading cause of cancer death with few therapeutic options. The aberrant DNA methylation (DNAm) is the most important risk factor for cancer, which has certain tissue specificity. However, how DNAm alterations in tumors differ among the regulatory network of multi-omics remains largely unexplored. Read More

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January 2022