542,242 results match your criteria Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders [Journal]


[Cobalamin deficiency in dogs and cats].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2018 Oct 12;46(5):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Cobalamin is a member of the B-group of vitamins and a cofactor for metabolic processes like nucleic acid synthesis, amino acid synthesis, and the citric acid cycle. Mammals are unable to synthesize cobalamin and therefore rely on adequate food intake. Cobalamin absorption is a complex process in the stomach, duodenum, and ileum, requiring a functional exocrine pancreas. Read More

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October 2018
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Pancreatic Islet Transplantation in Humans: Recent Progress and Future Directions.

Endocr Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA.

Pancreatic islet transplantation has become an established approach to β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of insulin deficient diabetes. Recent progress in techniques for islet isolation, islet culture, and peri-transplant management of the islet transplant recipient have resulted in substantial improvements in metabolic and safety outcomes for patients. For patients requiring total or sub-total pancreatectomy for benign disease of the pancreas, isolation of islets from the diseased pancreas with intrahepatic transplantation of autologous islets can prevent or ameliorate post-surgical diabetes, and for patients previously experiencing painful recurrent acute or chronic pancreatitis, quality-of-life is substantially improved. Read More

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December 2018
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Functional expansion of a TCA cycle operon mRNA by a 3' end-derived small RNA.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

RNA Biology Group, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, University of Würzburg, D-97080 Würzburg, Germany.

Global RNA profiling studies in bacteria have predicted the existence of many of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) that are processed off mRNA 3' ends to regulate other mRNAs via the RNA chaperones Hfq and ProQ. Here, we present targets of SdhX (RybD), an Hfq-dependent sRNA that is generated by RNase E mediated 3' processing of the ∼10 000-nt mRNA of the TCA cycle operon sdhCDAB-sucABCD in enteric bacteria. An in silico search predicted ackA mRNA, which encodes acetate kinase, as a conserved primary target of SdhX. Read More

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December 2018

The Gly385(388)Arg Polymorphism of the FGFR4 Receptor regulates Hepatic Lipogenesis under healthy Diet.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Vascular Disease, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Germany.

Context: The effect of a lifestyle intervention to reduce liver fat content in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans is influenced by genetics. We hypothesized that the functionally active amino acid exchange in humans Gly388Arg (mouse homologue: Gly385Arg) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), which regulates bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism, may determine the dynamics of hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in humans. Mechanisms of this substitution were studied in mice under normal chow and high-fat diet. Read More

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December 2018
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Validated screening tools for the assessment of cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition: a systematic review.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1196-1208

Clinical Surgery, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: There is great overlap between the presentation of cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition. Distinguishing between these conditions would allow for better targeted treatment for patients.

Objectives: The aim was to systematically review validated screening tools for cachexia, sarcopenia, and malnutrition in adults and, if a combined tool is absent, make suggestions for the generation of a novel screening tool. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect modification of FADS2 polymorphisms on the association between breastfeeding and intelligence: results from a collaborative meta-analysis.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. Read More

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December 2018
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Redefining the practical utility of blood transcriptome biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Genetics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Centre, Warsaw, Poland.

Background And Aims: The study investigates the practical utility of whole blood gene expression profiling to diagnose inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs).

Methods: The discovery cohorts included 102 and 51 pediatric IBD patients and controls, and 95 and 46 adult IBD patients and controls, respectively. The replication cohorts included 447 and 76 pediatric IBD patients and controls, and 271 and 108 adult IBD patients and controls, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
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Impaired Consciousness in the Emergency Department.

Eur Neurol 2018 Dec 12;80(3-4):179-186. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Munich,

Background: The approach to unconscious patients in the emergency department (ED) is difficult, often depends on local resources and interests, and workup strategies often lack standardization. One reason for this is that data on causes, management, and outcome of patients who present to the ED with sudden onset unconsciousness of unknown cause is limited.

Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the causes of acute impaired consciousness in patients in an interdisciplinary ED. Read More

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December 2018
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A Renewable Source of Human Beige Adipocytes for Development of Therapies to Treat Metabolic Syndrome.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3215-3228.e9

Center for Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074, USA; School of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA; Tufts University School of Medicine, 145 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address:

Molecular- and cellular-based therapies have the potential to reduce obesity-associated disease. In response to cold, beige adipocytes form in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and convert energy stored in metabolic substrates to heat, making them an attractive therapeutic target. We developed a robust method to generate a renewable source of human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Read More

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December 2018
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Drp1 Controls Effective T Cell Immune-Surveillance by Regulating T Cell Migration, Proliferation, and cMyc-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3059-3073.e10

Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; IRCCS, Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are key players in the regulation of T cell biology by dynamically responding to cell needs, but how these dynamics integrate in T cells is still poorly understood. We show here that the mitochondrial pro-fission protein Drp1 fosters migration and expansion of developing thymocytes both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we find that Drp1 sustains in vitro clonal expansion and cMyc-dependent metabolic reprogramming upon activation, also regulating effector T cell numbers in vivo. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Stepping Up Human Beige Fat Cell Production.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):2935-2936

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Beige fat cells hold significant promise for reducing obesity and metabolic disease. Su et al. (2018) present a robust method to produce human beige adipocytes from pluripotent stem cells via the generation of an expandable intermediary population of mesenchymal progenitor cells. Read More

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December 2018
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Biphenyl Gal and GalNAc FmlH Lectin Antagonists of Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC): Optimization through iterative rational drug design.

J Med Chem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The F9/Yde/Fml pilus, tipped with the FmlH adhesin, has been shown to provide Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) a fitness advantage in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Here, we used X-ray structure guided design to optimize our previously described ortho-biphenyl Gal and GalNAc FmlH antagonists such as compound 1, by replacing the carboxylate with a sulfonamide as in 50. Other groups which can accept H-bonds were also tolerated. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluating the impact of meloxicam oral suspension administered at parturition on subsequent production, health, and culling in dairy cows: A randomized clinical field trial.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209236. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Solvet Animal Health, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Parturition is a painful event experienced by cows at the onset of lactation. This pain could lead to a reduced feed intake, altered metabolic and immunological status, and a host of other diseases that could seriously limit her productive herd lifespan. The objective of the current study was to assess the effect of administration of a single dose of oral meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on the production and health status of cows during their lactation. Read More

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December 2018

Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) among candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery: Emphasis to possible beneficial role of TAC on serum vitamin D.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208806. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: Recently, the clinical importance of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its protective role against several chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and several types of cancers has been reported. However, its association with cardio-metabolic risk factors among patients candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has not been evaluated yet. CABG is associated with increased oxidative stress and free radicals; so, the current study was aimed to evaluate the potential association of TAC with cardiovascular risk factors among patients candidate for CABG. Read More

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December 2018
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Cardiovascular disease risk in patients with hepatitis C infection: Results from two general population health surveys in Canada and the United States (2007-2017).

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208839. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is controversial. The objective of the present study is to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD in HCV- positive subjects and describe their profile of cardiometabolic risk markers compared to HCV-negative subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate 10-year CVD risk, calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), in participants from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS; 2007-2015, n = 10,115) and the US-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2007-2016, n = 16,668). Read More

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December 2018
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Assessing the potential of sputtered gold nanolayers in mass spectrometry imaging for metabolomics applications.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208908. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a molecular imaging technique that maps the distribution of molecules in biological tissues with high spatial resolution. The most widely used MSI modality is matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), mainly due to the large variety of analyte classes amenable for MALDI analysis. However, the organic matrices used in classical MALDI may impact the quality of the molecular images due to limited lateral resolution and strong background noise in the low mass range, hindering its use in metabolomics. Read More

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December 2018

Lower circulating levels of CTRP12 and CTRP13 in polycystic ovarian syndrome: Irrespective of obesity.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208059. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Altered production of adipokines is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) play diverse roles in regulation of metabolism in physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the present study, we assessed serum concentrations of adiponectin, CTRP12, and CTRP13 in individuals with PCOS and those without PCOS. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of a single factor representing the indicators of metabolic syndrome as a continuous measure of metabolic load and its association with health and cognitive function.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208231. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Lipid Clinic at the Interdisciplinary Metabolism Center, Berlin, Germany.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease associated with reduced physical fitness, higher disease burden, and impaired cognitive functions. Little is known about the operation of these risk factors in older adults when considered comprehensively without relying on the cut-off values of the single MetS components. The three main aims of the current study were to: (i) establish a latent metabolic load factor (MetL), using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and representing a continuous measure of MetL, defined by indicators that are commonly used to separate MetS groups from healthy individuals; (ii) examine the associations of this MetL factor with objective health, and cognitive function in men and women; (iii) compare the magnitude of these associations to those observed for the individual indicators used to define the MetL factor as well to the classical categorized MetS vs. Read More

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December 2018

Coordinated regulation of transcription by CcpA and the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system HptRS.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207161. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America.

The success of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen is due in part to its ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions using signal transduction pathways, such as metabolite- responsive regulators and two-component systems. S. aureus has a two-component system encoded by the gene pair sav0224 (hptS) and sav0223 (hptR) that regulate the hexose phosphate transport (uhpT) system in response to extracellular glucose-6-phosphate. Read More

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December 2018

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other Conditions in Children: A Joint Position Paper From the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Children's Nutrition and Research Center, Houston, TX.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming part of the treatment algorithms against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) both in adult and pediatric gastroenterology practice. With our increasing recognition of the critical role the microbiome plays in human health and disease, FMT is also being considered as a potential therapy for other disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis), graft versus host disease, neuropsychiatric diseases, and metabolic syndrome. Controlled trials with FMT for rCDI have not been performed in children, and numerous clinical and regulatory considerations have to be considered when using this untraditional therapy. Read More

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December 2018

MRI T2 signal intensity and tumor response in patients with GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma: PRIMARYS post-hoc analysis.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

P Caron, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Larrey, Toulouse, France.

Objective Pituitary adenoma MRI T2 signal intensity associates with tumor characteristics including responsiveness to somatostatin analogs (SSAs). These analyses determined whether baseline T2 signal intensity predicts response to primary medical treatment with long-acting SSA. Design Post-hoc analyses of the prospective multicenter, open-label, single-arm PRIMARYS study in which patients with treatment-naïve GH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas received fixed-dose lanreotide autogel (120mg) every 4-weeks for 48-weeks. Read More

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December 2018

An inducible knockout of Dicer in adult mice does not affect endurance exercise-induced muscle adaptation.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Waseda University, Japan.

The contractile and metabolic properties of adult skeletal muscle change in response to endurance exercise. The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptation, including fiber-type switching and mitochondrial biogenesis, have been investigated intensively, whereas the role of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated posttranscriptional gene regulation is less well understood. We used tamoxifen-inducible Dicer1 knockout (iDicer KO) mice to reduce the global expression of miRNAs in adult skeletal muscle and subjected these mice to 2 weeks of voluntary wheel running. Read More

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December 2018

Peroxisomes can oxidize medium- and long-chain fatty acids through a pathway involving ABCD3 and HSD17B4.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 12:fj201801498R. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Peroxisomes are essential organelles for the specialized oxidation of a wide variety of fatty acids, but they are also able to degrade fatty acids that are typically handled by mitochondria. Using a combination of pharmacological inhibition and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein 9 genome editing technology to simultaneously manipulate peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) in HEK-293 cells, we identified essential players in the metabolic crosstalk between these organelles. Depletion of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)2 activity through pharmacological inhibition or knockout (KO) uncovered a significant residual peroxisomal oxidation of lauric and palmitic acid, leading to the production of peroxisomal acylcarnitine intermediates. Read More

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December 2018

Association of Antipsychotic Treatment With Risk of Unexpected Death Among Children and Youths.

JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

Importance: Children and youths who are prescribed antipsychotic medications have multiple, potentially fatal, dose-related cardiovascular, metabolic, and other adverse events, but whether or not these medications are associated with an increased risk of death is unknown.

Objective: To compare the risk of unexpected death among children and youths who are beginning treatment with antipsychotic or control medications.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from 1999 through 2014 and included Medicaid enrollees aged 5 to 24 years in Tennessee who had no diagnosis of severe somatic illness, schizophrenia or related psychoses, or Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder. Read More

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December 2018
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Cardiac Vagus and Exercise.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):71-80

William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London , London , United Kingdom.

Lower resting heart rate and high autonomic vagal activity are strongly associated with superior exercise capacity, maintenance of which is essential for general well-being and healthy aging. Recent evidence obtained in experimental studies using the latest advances in molecular neuroscience, combined with human exercise physiology, physiological modeling, and genomic data suggest that the strength of cardiac vagal activity causally determines our ability to exercise. Read More

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January 2019

Evolving and Expanding the Roles of Mitophagy as a Homeostatic and Pathogenic Process.

Physiol Rev 2019 Jan;99(1):853-892

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego , La Jolla, California ; and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

The central functions fulfilled by mitochondria as both energy generators essential for tissue homeostasis and gateways to programmed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mandate tight control over the quality and quantity of these ubiquitous endosymbiotic organelles. Mitophagy, the targeted engulfment and destruction of mitochondria by the cellular autophagy apparatus, has conventionally been considered as the mechanism primarily responsible for mitochondrial quality control. However, our understanding of how, why, and under what specific conditions mitophagy is activated has grown tremendously over the past decade. Read More

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January 2019

Higher physiological vulnerability to hypoxic exposure with advancing age in the human brain.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Dec 12:271678X18818291. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark.

The aging brain is associated with atrophy along with functional and metabolic changes. In this study, we examined age-related changes in resting brain functions and the vulnerability of brain physiology to hypoxic exposure in humans in vivo. Brain functions were examined in 81 healthy humans (aged 18-62 years) by acquisitions of gray and white matter volumes, cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen consumption, and concentrations of lactate, N-acetylaspartate, and glutamate+glutamine using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Read More

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December 2018

Development and evaluation of a combined bioenergetics and organic chemical mass-balance bioaccumulation model for fish.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

This study describes the development and evaluation of a new bioenergetically-balanced bioaccumulation (3B) model for organic chemicals in fish. The 3B model is developed from a large database of routine metabolic (oxygen consumption) rates comprising a range of species, body mass and temperature. The chemical uptake and elimination rates of the 3B model are compared against those from three existing bioaccumulation models. Read More

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December 2018

From anatomy to function: the role of the somatosensory cortex in emotional regulation.

Braz J Psychiatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Mood Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

 : Since the pioneering work of Penfield and his colleagues in the 1930s, the somatosensory cortex, which is located on the postcentral gyrus, has been known for its central role in processing sensory information from various parts of the body. More recently, a converging body of literature has shown that the somatosensory cortex also plays an important role in each stage of emotional processing, including identification of emotional significance in a stimulus, generation of emotional states, and regulation of emotion. Importantly, studies conducted in individuals suffering from mental disorders associated with abnormal emotional regulation, such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and panic disorders, specific phobia, obesity, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, have found structural and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex. Read More

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December 2018

POSTOPERATIVE CHANGES IN INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA AND USE OF PROBIOTICS IN ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS AND SLEEVE VERTICAL GASTRECTOMY: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW.

Arq Bras Cir Dig 2018 Dec 6;31(4):e1400. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Postgraduate Program in Food and Nutrition.

Introduction: Studies suggest that weight loss induced by bariatric surgery and the remission of some comorbidities may be related to changes in the microbiota profile of individuals undergoing this procedure. In addition, there is evidence that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota may prove to be a therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic diseases.

Objective: To verify the changes that occur in the intestinal microbiota of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, and the impact of the usage of probiotics in this population. Read More

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December 2018
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Kinetics of acid-base parameters in conventional hemodialysis.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2018 Dec 10;52(1):e7974. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Section of Nephrology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Details about the acid-base changes in hemodialysis are scarce in the literature but are potentially relevant to adequate management of patients. We addressed the acid-base kinetics during hemodialysis and throughout the interdialytic period in a cross-sectional study of adults undergoing conventional hemodialysis. Samples for blood gas analysis were obtained from the arterial limb of the arteriovenous fistula before the first session of the week (HD1), immediately at the end of HD1, and on sequential collections at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min post-HD1. Read More

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December 2018

Ethanol exposed maturing rat cerebellar granule cells show impaired energy metabolism and increased cell death after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):485-490

Division of Physiology and Neuroscience, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Alcohol, a widely abused drug, has deleterious effects on the immature nervous system. This study investigates the effect of chronic in vitro ethanol exposure on the metabolism of immature rat cerebellar granular cells (CGCs) and on their response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Primary CGC cultures were exposed to ethanol (100 mM in culture medium) or to control ethanol-free medium starting day one in vitro (DIV1). Read More

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imaging of structural, metabolic and functional brain changes in glaucoma.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):446-449

NYU Langone Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health; Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Health; Center for Neural Science, Faculty of Arts and Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Glaucoma, the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness, is a condition for which elevated intraocular pressure is currently the only modifiable risk factor. However, the disorder can continue to progress even at reduced intraocular pressure. This indicates additional key factors that contribute to the etiopathogenesis. Read More

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March 2019
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The metabolome identity: basis for discovery of biomarkers in neurodegeneration.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):387-390

MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, UK.

Neurodegenerative disorders are often associated with cellular dysfunction caused by underlying protein-misfolding signalling. Numerous neuropathologies are diagnosed at late stage symptomatic changes which occur in response to these molecular malfunctions and treatment is often too late or restricted only to the slowing of further cell death. Important new strategies to identify early biomarkers with predictive value to intervene with disease progression at stages where cell dysfunction has not progressed irreversibly is of paramount importance. Read More

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Macrophage Raptor Deficiency-Induced Lysosome Dysfunction Exacerbates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Sep 19;7(1):211-231. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an increasingly prevalent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatocellular damage. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has been investigated extensively in the context of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role of mTORC1 in NASH remains largely unknown. Read More

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September 2018

Terpenoid-rich Elettaria cardamomum extract prevents Alzheimer-like alterations induced in diabetic rats via inhibition of GSK3β activity, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:405-416. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Purpose: Recent studies suggested that the non-familiar form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be consequence of metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Elettaria cardamomum extract (EC) has exhibited antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of EC on AD-like alterations in rats induced by high fructose and high fat diet coupled with a single small dose of STZ (25 mg/kg) (T2DM rats). Read More

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January 2019

An extensive review regarding the adipokines in the pathogenesis and progression of osteoarthritis.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 28;113:1-12. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of aging-related joint diseases, and its etiology is still not fully understood. Obesity has been recognized as one of the most significant and potentially preventable risk factors for osteoarthritis. Beyond mechanical loading, adipokines, including leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and others, are demonstrated to have metabolic implications in the pathogenesis and progression in obesity-induced osteoarthritis by modulating the pro/anti-inflammatory and anabolic/catabolic balance, apoptosis, matrix remodeling and subchondral bone ossification. Read More

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January 2019

Impact of lifestyle modification on some components of metabolic syndrome in persons with severe mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 7;202:17-25. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (INI), Bengaluru 560029, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is reportedly associated with high mortality from mostly cardiovascular causes in patients with severe mental disorders (SMD). Lifestyle interventions augment effective management of MS in patients with SMD. The present meta-analysis aims at updating the recent evidence on the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention for MS in patients with SMD. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of statin therapy on survival of patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

Curr Drug Targets 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Metabolic syndrome Research center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad. Iran.

Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors that may play an important role in the evolution of cancers, due to their effects on cancer cell metabolism. Statins effect several potential pathways, including: cell proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. The number of trials assessing the putative clinical benefits of statins in cancer is increasing. Read More

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December 2018
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Biochemical Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies in Gastrointestinal and Metabolic Disorders.

Curr Pharm Des 2018 ;24(27):3153-3154

School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia.

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January 2018

MYO-INOSITOL OXYGENASE ACCENTUATES RENAL TUBULAR INJURY INITIATED BY ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) STRESS.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Ward 6-140, Pathology Department, Northwestern University Medical School, United States.

Besides oxidant stress, ER stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders affecting kidney. These two forms of stresses are not mutually exclusive to each other and may operate by a feedback loop in worsening the cellular injury. To attest to this contention studies were performed to assess if in such a setting there is worsening of tubulo-interstitial injury. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of obesity as an independent risk factor for the development of renal injury: implications from rat models of obesity.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, United States.

Diabetes and hypertension are the major causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Epidemiological studies within the last few decades have revealed that obesity-associated renal disease is a emerging epidemic and that the increasing prevalence of obesity parallels the increased rate of CKD. This has led to the inclusion of obesity as an independent risk factor for CKD. Read More

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December 2018

The metabolic signature of Primary Biliary Cholangitis and its comparison with Coeliac Disease.

J Proteome Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease characterized by ongoing inflammatory destruction of the interlobular bile ducts, eventually leading to chronic cholestasis and biliary cirrhosis. This study primarily aims to define the metabolomic signature of PBC after comparison with healthy controls (HC). Secondly it aims at evaluating the possible metabolic association between PBC and coeliac disease (CD), an immune-mediated disorder frequently associated with PBC. Read More

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December 2018
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Lean non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (lean NAFLD): characteristics, metabolic outcomes and risk factors from a 7-year prospective, community cohort study from Sri Lanka.

Hepatol Int 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Thalagolla Road, P O Box 6, Ragama, GQ, 11010, Sri Lanka.

Introduction: While patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are mostly overweight or obese, some are lean.

Methods: In a community-based follow-up study (baseline and follow-up surveys performed in 2007 and 2014), we investigated and compared the clinical characteristics, body composition, metabolic associations and outcomes, and other risk factors among individuals with lean (BMI < 23 kg/m) NAFLD, non-lean (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m) NAFLD and those without NAFLD. To investigate associations of selected genetic variants, we performed a case-control study between lean NAFLD cases and lean non-NAFLD controls. Read More

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December 2018

A Review on Ingested Cyanide: Risks, Clinical Presentation, Diagnostics, and Treatment Challenges.

J Med Toxicol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine and Toxicology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12700 E. 19th Ave., Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Cyanide, a metabolic poison, is a rising chemial threat and ingestion is the most common route of exposure. Terrorist organizations have threatened to attack the USA and international food and water supplies. The toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of oral cyanide are unique, resulting in high-dose exposures, severe symptoms, and slower onset of symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

Diastolic dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis patients with low disease activity.

Clin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Rheumatology and Connective Tissue Diseases, Medical University of Lublin, Ul. Jaczewskiego 8, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Introduction/objectives: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for congestive heart failure (CHF) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), as compared to the general population. High disease activity is to be associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), CHF, and mortality in RA patients. LVDD is not anticipated in RA patients without CVD symptoms and may be underdiagnosed especially in those with low disease activity. Read More

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December 2018

Mitochondrial health and muscle plasticity after spinal cord injury.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Mitochondria are responsible for aerobic respiration and large-scale ATP production in almost all cells of the body. Their function is decreased in many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease states, in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity, and as a normal component of aging. Disuse of skeletal muscle from immobilization or unloading triggers alterations of mitochondrial density and activity. Read More

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December 2018
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International Space Station conditions alter genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in Aspergillus nidulans.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, 1985 Zonal Avenue, Rm 406A, Los Angeles, CA, 90089-9121, USA.

The first global genomic, proteomic, and secondary metabolomic characterization of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans following growth onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is reported. The investigation included the A. nidulans wild-type and three mutant strains, two of which were genetically engineered to enhance secondary metabolite production. Read More

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December 2018

Glycerol inhibition of melanin biosynthesis in the environmental Aeromonas salmonicida 34mel.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The environmental strain Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolytica 34mel produces abundant melanin through the homogentisate pathway in several culture media, but unexpectedly not when grown in a medium containing glycerol. Using this observation as a starting point, this study investigated the underlying causes of the inhibition of melanin synthesis by glycerol, to shed light on factors that affect melanin production in this microorganism. Read More

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December 2018
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