658,389 results match your criteria Metabolic Disease and Stroke - Homocystinuria Homocysteinemia

Selenium respiration in anaerobic bacteria: Does energy generation pay off?

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Jun 5;222:111509. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, MSCO3 2020, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Selenium (Se) respiration in bacteria was revealed for the first time at the end of 1980s. Although thermodynamically-favorable, energy-dense and documented in phylogenetically-diverse bacteria, this metabolic process appears to be accompanied by a number of challenges and numerous unanswered questions. Selenium oxyanions, SeO and SeO, are reduced to elemental Se (Se) through anaerobic respiration, the end product being solid and displaying a considerable size (up to 500 nm) at the bacterial scale. Read More

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Computer modelling of heat strain responses of exercising personnel in tropical climate.

Comput Biol Med 2021 May 29;134:104530. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117575, Singapore.

Physiologically based thermoregulatory models are useful for deriving predictions of heat strain for pragmatic applications such as planning of continuous exercise/work-rest protocols. The SCENARIO model is an example of a thermoregulatory model that predicts heat strain including body core temperature (Tc) from individual characteristics, physical activity, clothing properties and environmental conditions. This paper presents work to optimize and enhance the SCENARIO model for prediction of Tc during high intensity load carriage tasks under predominantly tropical climate conditions. Read More

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High throughput proteomic and metabolic profiling identified target correction of metabolic abnormalities as a novel therapeutic approach in head and neck paraganglioma.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jun 9;14(8):101146. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, The Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, No. 639, Zhi-Zao-Ju Road, Shanghai 200011, China; Ear Institute, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine on Ear and Nose Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare neoplasms that represent difficult treatment paradigms in neurotology. Germline mutations in genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are the cause of nearly all familial HNPGLs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis remain unclear. Read More

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Phthalic acid esters degradation by a novel marine bacterial strain Mycolicibacterium phocaicum RL-HY01: Characterization, metabolic pathway and bioaugmentation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 5;791:148303. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Shenzhen Research Institute of Guangdong Ocean University, Shenzhen 518108, China; College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, School of Chemistry and Environment, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address:

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the most widely used plasticizers and the well-studied environmental pollutants with endocrine disrupting properties. Investigation about PAEs in terrestrial ecosystem has been extensively conducted while the fate of PAEs in marine environment remains underexplored. In this study, a novel di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) degrading marine bacterial strain, Mycolicibacterium phocaicum RL-HY01, was isolated and characterized from intertidal sediments. Read More

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Metagenomic insights into the effect of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment on microbial community of an anaerobic digestion system.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;791:148096. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Advanced Environmental Biotechnology Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637141, Singapore; School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore. Electronic address:

Thermal hydrolysis process (THP) is an effective pre-treatment method to reduce solids volume and improve biogas production during anaerobic digestion (AD) via increasing the biodegradability of waste activated sludge (WAS). However, the effects of THP pre-treated sludge on microbial diversity, interspecies interactions, and metabolism in AD systems remain largely unknown. We therefore setup and operated an anaerobic digester during a long-term period to shed light on the effect of THP pre-treatment on AD microbial ecology in comparison to conventional AD via Illumina based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and genome-centric metagenomics analysis. Read More

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Biostimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria used for treatment of hydrometallurgical waste by secondary metabolites of urea decomposition by Ochrobactrum sp. POC9: From genome to microbiome analysis.

Chemosphere 2021 May 31;282:131064. Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Ilji Miecznikowa 1, 02-096, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are key players in many passive and active systems dedicated to the treatment of hydrometallurgical leachates. One of the main factors reducing the efficiency and activity of SRB is the low pH and poor nutrients in leachates. We propose an innovative solution utilizing biogenic ammonia (B-NH), produced by urea degrading bacteria, as a pretreatment agent for increasing the pH of the leachate and spontaneously stimulating SRB activity via bacterial secondary metabolites. Read More

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Metabolic maturation of differentiating cardiosphere-derived cells.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Jun 5;54:102422. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy & Genetics, University of Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) can be expanded in vitro and induced to differentiate along the cardiac lineage. To recapitulate the phenotype of an adult cardiomyocyte, differentiating progenitors need to upregulate mitochondrial glucose and fatty acid oxidation. Here we cultured and differentiated CDCs using protocols aimed to maintain stemness or to promote differentiation, including triggering fatty acid oxidation using an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Read More

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Personalised Accelerometer Cut-point Prediction for Older Adults' Movement Behaviours using a Machine Learning approach.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 18;208:106165. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Computer Science, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, L39 4QP, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Body-worn accelerometers are the most popular method for objectively assessing physical activity in older adults. Many studies have developed generic accelerometer cut-points for defining activity intensity in metabolic equivalents for older adults. However, methodological diversity in current studies has led to a great deal of variation in the resulting cut-points, even when using data from the same accelerometer. Read More

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Exercise of high intensity ameliorates hepatic inflammation and the progression of NASH.

Mol Metab 2021 Jun 9:101270. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology ranging from simple fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Notably, immune cell-driven inflammation is a key mechanism in the transition from fatty liver to the more serious NASH. Although exercise training is effective at ameliorating obesity-related diseases, the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of exercise remain unclear. Read More

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Reactive oxygen species: The Yin and Yang in (auto-)immunity.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Jun 9:102869. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Rheumatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by immune cells in response to antigens. They are produced mostly in the mitochondria and their levels are tightly controlled by a series of metabolic processes. ROS are necessary for the development of the immune response but the role of ROS in the development of autoimmune disease needs further clarification. Read More

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The miRNA expression profile directly reflects the energy metabolic differences between slow and fast muscle with nutritional regulation of the Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jun 9:111003. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Quality Control of Aquatic Animals, Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha 410022, China. Electronic address:

Fish skeletal muscles are composed of two distinct types, slow and fast muscles, and they play important roles in maintaining the body's movement and energy metabolism. The two types of muscle are easy to separate, so they are often used as the model system for studies on their physiological and functional characteristics. In this study, we revealed that the carbohydrate and lipid metabolic KEGG pathways are different between slow and fast muscles of Chinese perch with transcriptome analysis. Read More

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A synthetic peptide AWRK6 ameliorates metabolic associated fatty liver disease: involvement of lipid and glucose homeostasis.

Peptides 2021 Jun 9:170597. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Health Commission of China, And Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education of China, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, China. Electronic address:

Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the leading common chronic liver disease affecting more than one-quarter of the population worldwide, but no pharmacological therapy was approved specifically. A synthetic peptide AWRK6 developed in our group based on the antimicrobial peptide Dybowskin-2CDYa was found to attenuated diabetes as a novel GLP-1 receptor agonist candidate. The effects of AWRK6 on MAFLD and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in this paper. Read More

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Glucose metabolic crosstalk and regulation in brain function and diseases.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 Jun 9:102089. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, United States; Department of Orthopedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, United States; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, United States; Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, United States. Electronic address:

Brain glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and glycogen turnover, produces ATP for energetic support and provides the precursors for the synthesis of biological macromolecules. Although glucose metabolism in neurons and astrocytes has been extensively studied, the glucose metabolism of microglia and oligodendrocytes, and their interactions with neurons and astrocytes, remain critical to understand brain function. Brain regions with heterogeneous cell composition and cell-type-specific profiles of glucose metabolism suggest that metabolic networks within the brain are complex. Read More

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The lipid paradox in neuroprogressive disorders: Causes and consequences.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

C.A.R., Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Chronic systemic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in an environment of low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and low total cholesterol and with the pathophysiology of neuroprogressive disorders. The causes and consequences of this lipid paradox are explored. Circulating activated neutrophils can release inflammatory molecules such as myeloperoxidase and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Read More

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The murburn precepts for aerobic respiration and redox homeostasis.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Institutskaya 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia. Electronic address:

Murburn concept is a new perspective to metabolism which posits that certain redox enzymes/proteins mediate catalysis outside their active site, via diffusible reactive oxygen species (DROS, usually deemed as toxic wastes). We have recently questioned the proton-centric chemiosmotic rotary ATP synthesis (CRAS) explanation for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and proposed an oxygen-centric murburn model in lieu. Herein, the chemical equations and thermodynamic foundations for this new model of mOxPhos are detailed. Read More

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Small dense low-density lipoprotein: analytical review.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: The causal relationship between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been firmly substantiated. LDL consists of a heterogeneous group of particles with different physicochemical and metabolic properties. Among them, small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles are considered an emerging CVD risk factor and a promising CVD risk biomarker. Read More

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Oncogene-regulated release of extracellular vesicles.

Dev Cell 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Oncogenes can alter metabolism by changing the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes. However, how oncogenes regulate tumor cell biomass remains poorly understood. Using isogenic MCF10A cells transformed with nine different oncogenes, we show that specific oncogenes reduce the biomass of cancer cells by promoting extracellular vesicle (EV) release. Read More

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Global analysis of protein-RNA interactions in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells reveals key regulators of infection.

Mol Cell 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, G61 1QH Glasgow, Scotland, UK; Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3QU Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 relies on cellular RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to replicate and spread, although which RBPs control its life cycle remains largely unknown. Here, we employ a multi-omic approach to identify systematically and comprehensively the cellular and viral RBPs that are involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Peripherally active dextromethorphan derivatives lower blood glucose levels by targeting pancreatic islets.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute for Vascular and Islet Cell Biology, German Diabetes Center (DDZ), Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Metabolic Physiology, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany; Center of Competence for Innovative Diabetes Therapy (KomIT), German Diabetes Center (DDZ), 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Dextromethorphan (DXM) acts as cough suppressant via its central action. Cell-protective effects of this drug have been reported in peripheral tissues, making DXM potentially useful for treatment of several common human diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pancreatic islets are among the peripheral tissues that positively respond to DXM, and anti-diabetic effects of DXM were observed in two placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials in humans with T2DM. Read More

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Circulating microRNA profile in humans and mice with congenital GH deficiency.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 12:e13420. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

Reduced inflammation, increased insulin sensitivity, and protection against cancer are shared between humans and mice with GH/IGF1 deficiency. Beyond hormone levels, miRNAs are important regulators of metabolic changes associated with healthy aging. We hypothesized that GH deficiency in humans alters the abundance of circulating miRNAs and that a subset of those miRNAs may overlap with those found in GH-deficient mice. Read More

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A comprehensive review on molecular mechanism of defective dry-cured ham with excessive pastiness, adhesiveness, and bitterness by proteomics insights.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, MOE, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P.R. China.

Excessive bitterness, pastiness, and adhesiveness are the main organoleptic and textural defects of dry-cured ham, which often cause a lot of financial losses to manufacturers and seriously damage the quality of the product. These sensory and textural defects are related to the protein degradation of dry-cured ham. Proteomics shows great potential to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of sensory and textural defects and identify biomarkers for monitoring their quality traits. Read More

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Cancer-induced muscle atrophy is determined by intrinsic muscle oxidative capacity.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21714

School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

We tested the hypothesis that cancer cachexia progression would induce oxidative post-translational modifications (Ox-PTMs) associated with skeletal muscle wasting, with different responses in muscles with the prevalence of glycolytic and oxidative fibers. We used cysteine-specific isotopic coded affinity tags (OxICAT) and gel-free mass spectrometry analysis to investigate the cysteine Ox-PTMs profile in the proteome of both plantaris (glycolytic) and soleus (oxidative) muscles in tumor-bearing and control rats. Histological analysis revealed muscle atrophy in type II fibers in plantaris muscle, with no changes in plantaris type I fibers and no differences in both soleus type I and II fibers in tumor-bearing rats when compared to healthy controls. Read More

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Glucose clearance and uptake is increased in the SOD1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through an insulin-independent mechanism.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21707

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Metabolic disturbances are associated with the progression of the neurodegenerative disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the molecular events that drive energy imbalances in ALS are not completely understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate deficits in energy homeostasis in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS. Read More

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Endogenous circadian regulation and phase resetting of clinical metabolic biomarkers.

J Pineal Res 2021 Jun 12:e12752. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, 02115.

Shiftwork and circadian disruption are associated with adverse metabolic effects. Therefore, we examined whether clinical biomarkers of metabolic health are under endogenous circadian regulation using a 40-h constant routine protocol (CR; constant environmental and behavioral conditions) and evaluated the impact of typical daily conditions with periodic sleep and meals (baseline; 8-h sleep at night, four meals during a 16-h wake episode) on the phase and amplitude of these rhythms. Additionally, we tested whether these circadian rhythms are reset during simulated shiftwork. Read More

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Time-Resolved Imaging of Mitochondrial Flavin Fluorescence and Its Applications for Evaluating the Oxidative State in Living Cardiac Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2275:403-414

Department of Biophotonics, International Laser Centre, Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Time-resolved fluorescence spectrometry is a highly valuable technological tool to detect and characterize mitochondrial metabolic oxidative changes by means of endogenous fluorescence. Here, we describe detection and measurement of endogenous mitochondrial flavin fluorescence directly in living cardiac cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) after excitation with 473 nm picoseconds (ps) laser. Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) method is employed. Read More

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January 2021

Mitochondrial Coenzyme Q10 Determination Via Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography -Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2275:329-339

Laboratory division HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) is an essential part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain . Here, we describe an accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of mitochondrial CoQ in isolated mitochondria . In the assay, mitochondrial suspensions are spiked with CoQ-[H] internal standard (IS), extracted with organic solvents and CoQ quantified by LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Read More

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January 2021

Protein Supercomplex Recording in Living Cells Via Position-Specific Fluorescence Lifetime Sensors.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2275:301-314

Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Cell Biology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Our group has previously established a strategy utilizing fluorescence lifetime probes to image membrane protein supercomplex (SC) formation in situ. We showed that a probe at the interface between individual mitochondrial respiratory complexes exhibits a decreased fluorescence lifetime when a supercomplex is formed. This is caused by electrostatic interactions with the adjacent proteins. Read More

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January 2021

Liposomal Delivery of Cyclocreatine Impairs Cancer Cell Bioenergetics Mediating Apoptosis.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2275:173-186

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy-Glendale Campus, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA.

Creatine kinase (CK) enzyme overexpression has been suggested to play a role in the process of tumorigenesis and metastasis. Cyclocreatine (CCR) is a substrate analog of creatine kinase (CK), where its phosphorylated form is a poor phosphate donor in comparison with native bioenergetic molecule, creatine phosphate (Cr-P). The compound CCR has been shown to markedly inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of cancers, both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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January 2021

Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Triphenylphosphonium Conjugates of Linear β-Phosphorylated Nitrones : Preparation, P NMR Mitochondrial Distribution, EPR Spin Trapping Reporting, and Site-Directed Antiapoptotic Properties.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2275:65-85

Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, Sondes Moléculaires en Biologie et Stress Oxydant, Marseille, France.

The mitochondrion can be considered as the metabolic powerhouse of the cell, having a key impact on energy production, cell respiration, and intrinsic cell death. Mitochondria are also the main source of endogenous reactive oxygen species , including free radicals (FR), which are physiologically involved in signaling pathways but may promote cell damage when unregulated or excessively formed in inappropriate locations. A variety of chronic pathologies have been associated with FR-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions , such as cancer, age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic syndrome. Read More

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January 2021

Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy as an Informational Reservoir Dynamically Linked to Metabolic and Immunological Processes Associated with COVID-19 Neurological Disorders.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Cognitive and Molecular Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is the dynamically determined co-expression of wild type (WT) inherited polymorphisms and collective time-dependent somatic mutations within individual mtDNA genomes. The temporal expression and distribution of cell-specific and tissue-specific mtDNA heteroplasmy in healthy individuals may be functionally associated with intracellular mitochondrial signaling pathways and nuclear DNA gene expression. The maintenance of endogenously regulated tissue-specific copy numbers of heteroplasmic mtDNA may represent a sensitive biomarker of homeostasis of mitochondrial dynamics, metabolic integrity, and immune competence. Read More

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