Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    3210 results match your criteria Metabolic Alkalosis

    1 OF 65

    Consequences of SPAK inactivation on Hyperkalemic Hypertension caused by WNK1 mutations: evidence for differential roles of WNK1 and WNK4.
    Sci Rep 2018 Feb 19;8(1):3249. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Paris, France.
    Mutations of the gene encoding WNK1 [With No lysine (K) kinase 1] or WNK4 cause Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt). Previous studies have shown that the activation of SPAK (Ste20-related Proline/Alanine-rich Kinase) plays a dominant role in the development of FHHt caused by WNK4 mutations. The implication of SPAK in FHHt caused by WNK1 mutation has never been investigated. Read More

    Novel Compound Heterozygous CLCNKB Gene Mutations (c.1755A>G/ c.848_850delTCT) Cause Classic Bartter Syndrome.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China.
    Inactivated variants in CLCNKB gene encoding the basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb cause classic Bartter syndrome characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Here we identified two cBS siblings presenting hypokalemia in a Chinese family due to novel compound heterozygous CLCNKB mutations (c.848_850delTCT/c. Read More

    MILK-ALKALI SYNDROME (MAS) as a complication of the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.
    Endokrynol Pol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Warsaw University of Medicine.
    Milk-alkali syndrome (MAS), characterized by renal failure, metabolic alkalosis and hypercalcemia, is a severe and life-threatening complication of the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. The clinical course is often sudden and is not preceded by any prodromal symptoms. Occurrence does not depend on the duration of hypoparathyroidism treatment, although it is closely related to the applied therapy, especially the dose of calcium carbonate and active vitamin D preparations. Read More

    Nephropathic Cystinosis Mimicking Bartter Syndrome: a Novel Mutation.
    Iran J Kidney Dis 2018 Jan;12(1):61-63
    Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Kayseri, Turkey.
    Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defective lysosomal transport of cystine due to mutations in the cystinosin lysosomal cystine transporter (CTNS) gene. The clinical phenotype of nephropathic cystinosis is characterized by renal tubular Fanconi syndrome and development of end-stage renal disease during the first decade. Although metabolic acidosis is the classically prominent finding of the disease, a few cases may present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis mimicking Bartter syndrome. Read More

    Medical findings in 1,026 consecutive adult inpatient-residential eating disordered patients.
    Int J Eat Disord 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Eating Recovery Center, Denver, Denver, Colorado.
    Objective: Eating disorders are associated with multiple medical complications. We report contemporary medical data, for newly admitted adult inpatient and residential level of care patients.

    Method: Medical records of a transdiagnostic sample of 1,026 patients, with eating disorders, were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of a broad array of medical complications at time of admission. Read More

    Two mutations in the thiazide-sensitive NaCl co-transporter gene in a Romanian Gitelman syndrome patient: case report.
    Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 22;14:149-155. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Functional Sciences.
    Background: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is considered as the most common renal tubular disorder, and we report the first Romanian patient with GS confirmed at molecular level and diagnosed according to genetic testing.

    Patient And Methods: This paper describes the case of a 27-year-old woman admitted with severe hypokalemia, slight hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypocalciuria, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, low blood pressure, limb muscle weakness, marked fatigue and palpitations. Family history revealed a consanguineous family with autosomal-recessive transmission of GS with two cases over five generations. Read More

    Itraconazole induced hypertension and hypokalemia: Mechanistic evaluation.
    Mycoses 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, USA.
    We describe a case of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and low plasma renin activity) secondary to itraconazole therapy. Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 was demonstrated, and withholding itraconazole led to resolution of adverse effects that did not recur with voriconazole. This report adds to a growing body of evidence linking apparent mineralocorticoid excess with certain triazoles. Read More

    A novel compound heterozygous variant of the SLC12A3 gene in Gitelman syndrome pedigree.
    BMC Med Genet 2018 Jan 29;19(1):17. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Endocrinology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, 3 East Qing Chun Road, Zhejiang, Hangzhou, 310016, China.
    Background: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by genic mutations of SLC12A3 (Solute carrier family 12 member 3), which encodes the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), and presents with characteristic metabolic abnormalities, including hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. In this study, we report a case of a GS pedigree, including analysis of GS-associated gene mutations.

    Methods: We performed next-generation sequencing analysis and Sanger sequencing to explore the SLC12A3 mutations in a GS pedigree that included a 35-year-old female patient with GS and five family members within three generations. Read More

    Coexistence of Gitelman Syndrome and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Pregnant Woman.
    Acta Cardiol Sin 2018 Jan;34(1):92-95
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The symptoms and severity of the disease can vary greatly from one person to another and can range from mild to severe. Sudden cardiac arrest has been reported occasionally as well. Read More

    Retrospective Review of Hydrochloric Acid Infusion for the Treatment of Metabolic Alkalosis in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients.
    Ann Pharmacother 2018 Jan 1:1060028018754389. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    2 University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.
    Background: Older reports of use of hydrochloric acid (HCl) infusions for treatment of metabolic alkalosis document variable dosing strategies and risk.

    Objectives: This study sought to characterize use of HCl infusions in surgical intensive care unit patients for the treatment of metabolic alkalosis.

    Methods: This retrospective review included patients who received a HCl infusion for >8 hours. Read More

    Acquired pyloric stenosis resulting in hypokalaemic, hyperchloraemic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Persistent vomiting in an adult: cause and effect.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jan 17;2018. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Emergency, Royal United Hospital, Bath, UK.
    A 24-year-old woman presented with a history of persistent vomiting for at least 3 months. This resulted in severe dehydration with risk of acute kidney injury. In addition to volume depletion, loss of gastric fluid resulted in a specific metabolic derangement-hypokalaemic, hypochloraemic normal anion gap metabolic alkalosis with a reduced ionised calcium concentration and paradoxical aciduria. Read More

    Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update.
    Kidney Dis (Basel) 2017 Dec 5;3(4):136-148. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    Kidneys play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regulation of acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis, which is the prerequisite for numerous metabolic processes and organ functions in the human body. Chronic kidney diseases compromise the regulatory functions, resulting in alterations in electrolyte and acid-base balance that can be life-threatening. In this review, we discuss the renal regulations of electrolyte and acid-base balance and several common disorders including metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, dysnatremia, dyskalemia, and dysmagnesemia. Read More

    Potassium intake modulates the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) activity via the Kir4.1 potassium channel.
    Kidney Int 2018 Jan 6. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA. Electronic address:
    Kir4.1 in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in sensing plasma potassium and in modulating the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). Here we tested whether dietary potassium intake modulates Kir4. Read More

    The effect of metabolic alkalosis on the ventilatory response in healthy subjects.
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2018 Feb 4;249:47-53. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Intensive Care Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Background: Patients with acute respiratory failure may develop respiratory acidosis. Metabolic compensation by bicarbonate production or retention results in posthypercapnic alkalosis with an increased arterial bicarbonate concentration. The hypothesis of this study was that elevated plasma bicarbonate levels decrease respiratory drive and minute ventilation. Read More

    S737F is a new CFTR mutation typical of patients originally from the Tuscany region in Italy.
    Ital J Pediatr 2018 Jan 3;44(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Centro Regionale Toscano per la Fibrosi Cistica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Meyer, Via Gaetano Pieraccini 24, 50141, Florence, Italy.
    Background: An increasing number of patients have been described as having a number of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) variants for which it lacks a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. We assesses the clinical features of patients bearing the S737F (p.Ser737Phe) CFTR missense variant and evaluated the residual function of CFTR protein on nasal epithelial cells (NEC). Read More

    Significance of clinical observations and biochemical alterations in buffalo calves with dietary abomasal impaction.
    BMC Vet Res 2018 Jan 2;14(1). Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Animal Husbandry and Development of Animal Wealth, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.
    Background: The present study aimed to throw light on the clinical characteristics of abomasal impaction in buffalo calves and its associated biochemical alterations. For this reason, a total of 20 male buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) with abomasal impaction were studied. The investigated calves were at 6 to 12 months of age and were belonged to three private farms in Dakahlia Governorate besides sporadic cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. Read More

    Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation.
    Kidney Res Clin Pract 2017 Dec 31;36(4):305-317. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
    Departments of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Clabsorption and HCOsecretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl/HCOexchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCOadministration. Read More

    Clinical, genetic, and structural basis of apparent mineralocorticoid excess due to 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Dec 11;114(52):E11248-E11256. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029;
    Mutations in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene () cause an extraordinarily rare autosomal recessive disorder, apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). AME is a form of low renin hypertension that is potentially fatal if untreated. Mutations in thegene result either in severe AME or a milder phenotype (type 2 AME). Read More

    Oxidative stress in urea cycle disorders: Findings from clinical and basic research.
    Clin Chim Acta 2018 Feb 1;477:121-126. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Curso de Especialização em Análises Clínicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas - Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil; Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) comprise a group of over 600 disorders, each with a specific metabolic impairment due to a genetic defect. Urea cycle disorders (UCD) are IEM that affect the nitrogen disposal system, leading to hyperammonemia and the accumulation of other toxic metabolites in tissues of affected patients. UCD arise from mutations in the genes coding any of the enzymes participating in the urea cycle, either directly or as regulators of this pathway, causing severe respiratory alkalosis. Read More

    Long-term continuous renal replacement therapy and anticoagulation with citrate in critically ill patients with severe liver dysfunction.
    Crit Care 2017 Nov 29;21(1):294. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Medicine, Saarland University Medical Centre, Homburg/Saar, Germany.
    Background: As of 2009, anticoagulation with citrate was standard practice in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for critically ill patients at the University Medical Centre of Saarland, Germany. Partial hepatic metabolism of citrate means accumulation may occur during CRRT in critically ill patients with impaired liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual influence of hepatic function on citrate-associated complications during long-term CRRT. Read More

    Safety and efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation in continuous blood purification treatment of patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.
    Braz J Med Biol Res 2017 Nov 17;51(1):e6378. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Intensive Care Units, Branch of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Changji, Xinjiang, China.
    The aim of this study was to discuss the safety and efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) on continuous blood purification (CBP) during the treatment of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Thirty-five patients with MODS were divided into two groups: the local citrate anticoagulation (RCA) group, and the heparin-free blood purification (hfBP) group. The MODS severity was assessed according to Marshall's MODS score criteria. Read More

    Sodium bicarbonate improves 4 km time trial cycling performance when individualised to time to peak blood bicarbonate in trained male cyclists.
    J Sports Sci 2017 Nov 29:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    a Sports Nutrition and Performance Group, Department of Sport and Physical Activity , Edge Hill University , Ormskirk , UK.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO) on 4 km cycling time trial (TT) performance when individualised to a predetermined time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO). Eleven male trained cyclists volunteered for this study (height 1.82 ± 0. Read More

    Salicylate Intoxication in an Infant: A Case Report.
    Drug Saf Case Rep 2017 Nov 27;4(1):23. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Intensive Care Unit, Paediatric Department, Hospital of Santa Maria, Lisbon, Portugal.
    In children, the most common cause of an elevated anion gap (AG) with ketonemia, ketonuria, hyperglycemia, and glycosuria is diabetic ketoacidosis. However, when the clinical history is not clear, other causes must be considered. A 9-month-old girl was transferred to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) because of severe metabolic acidosis. Read More

    Complications of regional citrate anticoagulation: accumulation or overload?
    Crit Care 2017 Nov 19;21(1):281. Epub 2017 Nov 19.
    Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.
    Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is now recommended over systemic heparin for continuous renal replacement therapy in patients without contraindications. Its use is likely to increase throughout the world. However, in the absence of citrate blood level monitoring, the diagnosis of citrate accumulation, the most feared complication of RCA, remains relatively complex. Read More

    Antenatal Bartter syndrome presenting with vomiting and constipation mimicking subacute intestinal obstruction in a 20-day-old neonate.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Nov 14;2017. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a rare condition that can present with different clinical features. These features include early onset maternal polyhydramnios, failure to thrive, prematurity and nephrocalcinosis.We are presenting this 20-day-old girl who had an antenatal history of polyhydramnios. Read More

    The nutritional limitations of plant-based beverages in infancy and childhood.
    Nutr Hosp 2017 Oct 24;34(5):1205-1214. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Hospital La Fe.Valencia.
    Breastfeeding, infant formula and cow's milk are basic foods in infant nutrition. However, they are being increasingly replaced either totally or partially by plant-based beverages.The composition of 164 plant-based beverages available in Spain was reviewed based on the nutritional labeling of the package and the manufacturers' webpages. Read More

    Leigh syndrome in individuals bearing m.9185T>C MTATP6 variant. Is hyperventilation a factor which starts its development?
    Metab Brain Dis 2018 Feb 7;33(1):191-199. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Medical Genetics, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Aleja Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730, Warsaw, Poland.
    Leigh syndrome (LS), subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy is caused by various genetic defects, including m.9185T>C MTATP6 variant. Mechanism of LS development remains unknown. Read More

    [A case of Gitelman syndrome with physical retardation].
    Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 Oct;42(10):1236-1238
    Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.
    Gitelman syndrome is a rare disease. It is easy to be misdiagnosed and missed diagnosis due to the diverse clinical symptoms. A girl with long-term hypokalemia, who presented with intermittent pain of lower limb muscle and physical retardation, was treated in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. Read More

    Primary Hyperaldosteronism Due to Adrenocortical Adenoma: a Case Report.
    Acta Med Indones 2017 Jul;49(3):249-254
    Department of Internal Medicine Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University - Dr. Kariadi Hospital Semarang, Indonesia.
    Primary hyperaldosteronism is an adrenal abnormality in which there is some degree of autonomy of aldosterone secretion. We report a case of thirty three years old Javanese female presented with uncontrolled hypertension, muscular weakness, cramps  and progressing shortness of breath during working for 6 years. She had history of hypertension since age 20. Read More

    A Basic Therapy Gone Awry.
    Am J Crit Care 2017 Nov;26(6):491-494
    Laura B. Galinko is an anesthesiology resident at New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. At the time of this case report, Steven H. Hsu was a critical care medicine fellow and Michael L. Fingerhood was a pulmonary medicine fellow at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Cosmin Gauran is an assistant attending, Stephen M. Pastores is the critical care fellowship director, and Neil A. Halpern is the director of the Critical Care Center, and Sanjay Chawla is an associate attending in the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.
    Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is a common household item that has gained popularity as an alternative cancer treatment. Some have speculated that alkali therapy neutralizes the extracellular acidity of tumor cells that promotes metastases. Internet blogs have touted alkali as a safe and natural alternative to chemotherapy that targets cancer cells without systemic effects. Read More

    Unusual Complication of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis.
    Case Rep Nephrol 2017 18;2017:6835813. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Division of Medicine, Seth G.S. Medical College & KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India.
    Introduction: Capreomycin is a second-line drug often used for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis which can result in nephrotoxic effects similar to other aminoglycosides. We describe a case of capreomycin induced Bartter-like syndrome with hypocalcemic tetany.

    Case Report: 23-year-old female patient presented with carpopedal spasms and tingling sensations in hands. Read More

    Persistent severe hypokalemia: Gitelman syndrome and differential diagnosis.
    J Bras Nefrol 2017 Jul-Sep;39(3):337-340
    Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina.
    The main causes of hypokalemia are usually evident in the clinical history of patients, with previous episodes of vomiting, diarrhea or diuretic use. However, in some patients the cause of hypokalemia can become a challenge. In such cases, two major components of the investigation must be performed: assessment of urinary excretion potassium and the acid-base status. Read More

    Epidemiology of Acid-Base Derangements in CKD.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 09;24(5):280-288
    University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY; and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY. Electronic address:
    Acid-base disorders are in patients with chronic kidney disease, with chronic metabolic acidosis receiving the most attention clinically in terms of diagnosis and treatment. A number of observational studies have reported on the prevalence of acid-base disorders in this patient population and their relationship with outcomes, mostly focusing on chronic metabolic acidosis. The majority have used serum bicarbonate alone to define acid-base status due to the lack of widely available data on other acid-base disorders. Read More

    Maternal Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome Associated with Severe Perinatal Brain Injury.
    Indian Pediatr 2017 Sep;54(9):771-773
    Department of Neonatology, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100, Bukit Timah Road, Singapore. Correspondence to: Dr Shrenik Vora, Senior Staff Registrar, Department of Neonatology, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100, Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899,
    Background: Maternal electrolyte imbalance is rarely reported as causative factor of severe perinatal brain injury.

    Case Characteristics: This case outlines a unique maternal and neonatal pseudo-Bartter syndrome presented with metabolic alkalosis and hypochloremia due to maternal severe vomiting.

    Observation: Neonatal MRI brain revealed extensive brain hemorrhages with porencephalic cysts. Read More

    Late-onset Bartter syndrome type II.
    Clin Kidney J 2017 Oct 8;10(5):594-599. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), a joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centers, Berlin, Germany.
    Mutations in the ROMK1 potassium channel gene () cause antenatal/neonatal Bartter syndrome type II (aBS II), a renal disorder that begins, accounting for the polyhydramnios and premature delivery that is typical in affected infants, who develop massive renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. This BS type is believed to represent a disorder of the infancy, but not in adulthood. We herein describe a female patient with a remarkably late-onset and mild clinical manifestation of BS II with compound heterozygousmissense mutations, consisting of a novel c. Read More

    Acute Hypocalcemia and Metabolic Alkalosis in Children on Cation-Exchange Resin Therapy.
    Case Rep Nephrol 2017 1;2017:6582613. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Divisions of Nephrology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Background: Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) is a chelating agent used for the treatment of hyperkalemia. SPS has a wide range of exchange capacity requiring close monitoring of serum electrolytes. We observed two patients who developed acute hypocalcemia and increased metabolic alkalosis after initiating SPS therapy. Read More

    The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions.
    Int J Nephrol 2017 8;2017:7831358. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.
    Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Read More

    Changes in acid-base and ion balance during exercise in normoxia and normobaric hypoxia.
    Eur J Appl Physiol 2017 Nov 15;117(11):2251-2261. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Purpose: Both exercise and hypoxia cause complex changes in acid-base homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether during intense physical exercise in normoxia and hypoxia, the modified physicochemical approach offers a better understanding of the changes in acid-base homeostasis than the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach.

    Methods: In this prospective, randomized, crossover trial, 19 healthy males completed an exercise test until voluntary fatigue on a bicycle ergometer on two different study days, once during normoxia and once during normobaric hypoxia (12% oxygen, equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m). Read More

    Association of Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Bartter's Syndrome.
    Indian J Nephrol 2017 Sep-Oct;27(5):399-401
    Department of Nephrology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.
    Bartter's syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemia with normal blood pressure. Bartter's syndrome is associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of hereditary disorders that affect dental enamel. Read More

    [Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with Gitelman syndrome].
    • Authors:
    Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2017 Sep;56(9):712-716
    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive, salt-losing tubulopathy caused by inactivating mutations in the123 gene that encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC). GS is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. GS is one of the most common inherited renal tubulopathy with a prevalence estimated at about one to ten per 40 000 people. Read More

    Swimming Three Ice Miles within Fifteen Hours.
    Chin J Physiol 2017 08;60(4):197-206
    Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Ice Mile swimming (1608 m in water of below 5 °Celsius) is becoming increasingly popular. This case study aimed to identify body core temperature and selected haematological and biochemical parameters before and after repeated Ice Miles. An experienced ice swimmer completed three consecutive Ice Miles within 15 h. Read More

    Update in diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism.
    Clin Chem Lab Med 2018 Feb;56(3):360-372
    Graduate Program in Medical Sciences: Endocrinology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a group of disorders in which aldosterone is excessively produced. These disorders can lead to hypertension, hypokalemia, hypervolemia and metabolic alkalosis. The prevalence of PA ranges from 5% to 12% around the globe, and the most common causes are adrenal adenoma and adrenal hyperplasia. Read More

    Effect of Intravenously Administered Crystalloid Solutions on Acid-Base Balance in Domestic Animals.
    J Vet Intern Med 2017 Sep 20;31(5):1371-1381. Epub 2017 Aug 20.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, TN.
    Intravenous fluid therapy can alter plasma acid-base balance. The Stewart approach to acid-base balance is uniquely suited to identify and quantify the effects of the cationic and anionic constituents of crystalloid solutions on plasma pH. The plasma strong ion difference (SID) and weak acid concentrations are similar to those of the administered fluid, more so at higher administration rates and with larger volumes. Read More

    Prevalence and predictors associated with severe pulmonary hypertension in COPD.
    Am J Emerg Med 2018 Feb 5;36(2):277-280. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is one of the most common complications of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), but its severe form is uncommon. Various factors play an important role in the occurrence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in patients.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on patients with COPD referred to an emergency department over a one-year period. Read More

    α-Ketoglutarate drives electroneutral NaCl reabsorption in intercalated cells by activating a G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1.
    Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2017 Sep;26(5):426-433
    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: This review describes the recent discoveries about a powerful electroneutral NaCl reabsorption mechanism in intercalated cells, and its regulation by an intrarenal metabolite paracrine, α-ketoglutartate, and the G-protein coupled receptor, Oxgr1.

    Recent Findings: The distal nephron fine-tunes sodium, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, bicarbonate and water transport to maintain electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Intercalated cells have been traditionally viewed as the professional regulators of acid-base balance, but recent studies reveal that a specific population of intercalated cells, identified by the pendrin-transporter, have a surprising role in the regulation of salt balance. Read More

    Pseudo-Bartter syndrome as the sole manifestation of cystic fibrosis in a child with 711+G>T/IVS8-5T mutation: a new face of an old disease.
    Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2017 Aug;75(4):466-473
    Biochemistry laboratory, Children's hospital, Research laboratory 'Haemoglobinopathies and Cystic fibrosis, LR00SP03', Tunis, Tunisia.
    Pseudo-Bartter syndrome (PBS) describes an uncommon complication of cystic fibrosis leading to hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis. PBS as the sole manifestation of cystic fibrosis in children is extremely rare and has never been described in patients carrying 5T variant. We report a clinical, biochemical and genetic study of a four year-old boy presenting a pseudo-Bartter syndrome as the sole manifestation of cystic fibrosis. Read More

    Milk-Alkali syndrome induced by H1N1 influenza vaccine.
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2017 Jul-Aug;28(4):912-915
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
    Milk-Alkali syndrome (MAS) consists of a triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and acute renal failure. We hereby report a 75-year-old Indian gentleman who presented to our emergency department with a history of generalized weakness and easy fatigability. Investigations were consistent with MAS secondary to calcium carbonate and calcitriol treatment to prevent osteoporosis, aggravated by H1N1 influenza vaccine. Read More

    1 OF 65