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    Cylindrospermopsin toxicity in mice following a 90-d oral exposure.
    J Toxicol Environ Health A 2018 Apr 25:1-18. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    a National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory , US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development , Research Triangle Park , NC , USA.
    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin associated with numerous species of freshwater cyanobacteria throughout the world. It is postulated to have caused an episode of serious illnesses in Australia through treated drinking water, as well as lethal effects in livestock exposed to water from farm ponds. Toxicity included effects indicative of both hepatic and renal dysfunction. Read More

    Lactobacilli Are Prominent Members of the Microbiota Involved in the Ruminal Digestion of Barley and Corn.
    Front Microbiol 2018 10;9:718. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.
    The chemical composition of barley grain can vary among barley varieties (Fibar, Xena, McGwire, and Hilose) and result in different digestion efficiencies in the rumen. It is not known if compositional differences in barley can affect the microbiota involved in the ruminal digestion of barley. The objective of this study was to characterize the rumen degradability and microbiota of four barley grain varieties and to compare these to corn. Read More

    The Road to Infection: Host-Microbe Interactions Defining the Pathogenicity of Complex Members.
    Front Microbiol 2018 10;9:603. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Pathology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    The complex (SBSEC) comprises several species inhabiting the animal and human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). They match the pathobiont description, are potential zoonotic agents and technological organisms in fermented foods. SBSEC members are associated with multiple diseases in humans and animals including ruminal acidosis, infective endocarditis (IE) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Read More

    Acid Balance, Dietary Acid Load, and Bone Effects-A Controversial Subject.
    Nutrients 2018 Apr 21;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Deparment of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Modern Western diets, with higher contents of animal compared to fruits and vegetable products, have a greater content of acid precursors vs. base precursors, which results in a net acid load to the body. To prevent inexorable accumulation of acid in the body and progressively increasing degrees of metabolic acidosis, the body has multiple systems to buffer and titrate acid, including bone which contains large quantities of alkaline salts of calcium. Read More

    Mechanism of Tau Hyperphosphorylation Involving Lysosomal Enzyme Asparagine Endopeptidase in a Mouse Model of Brain Ischemia.
    J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Department of Neurochemistry, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY, USA.
    Dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD) are multifactorial disorders that involve several different etiopathogenic mechanisms. Cerebral ischemia has been suspected in the altered regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases that leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau and further neurofibrillary pathology, a key hallmark of AD and related neurodegenerative diseases. However, the deregulation of these enzymes and their relationship with ischemia and AD remain unclear. Read More

    Severe lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia due to acute metformin intoxication in a dog.
    J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616.
    Objective: To report a case of severe lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia due to acute metformin intoxication in a dog.

    Case Summary: A female neutered Rat Terrier was presented for an acute onset of seizure-like episodes, weakness, and vomiting approximately 14 hours after ingestion of 198 mg/kg of metformin. The dog was found to be laterally recumbent, paddling, and unresponsive shortly before presentation. Read More

    Beating the urine drug test - a case report on niacin toxicity.
    J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018 17;8(2):73-75. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Internal Medicine, Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Towson, MD, USA.
    Niacin is a form of vitamin B3 which is used for the medical treatment of hyperlipidemia and niacin deficiency. However, within the last few years, it is being advertised on the Internet as a quick way to detoxify the human body in an attempt to evade urine drug tests. This claim is without any medical or scientific evidence and as a result, many cases have been reported where young adults have ended up with niacin toxicity. Read More

    [Metabolic lactic acidosis as a sign of voluntary poisoning in adolescents].
    An Pediatr (Barc) 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Servicio de Urgencias, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, España; Influencia del entorno en el bienestar del niño y del adolescente, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

    Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus with remarkable elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes.
    Am J Emerg Med 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    Emergency and Critical Care Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital, 2-34-10, Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0013, Japan. Electronic address:
    Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus progresses extremely rapidly and is accompanied by ketoacidosis. Patients with the disease present at emergency departments with non-specific symptoms, including fever, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Here, we present a case of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus where the patient was initially misdiagnosed with gastroenteritis and acute pancreatitis. Read More

    Acid/base alterations during major abdominal surgery: 6% hydroxyethyl starch infusion versus 5% albumin.
    Korean J Anesthesiol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea.
    Background: To compare the effects of intraoperative infusions of balanced electrolyte solution (BES)-based hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and saline-based albumin on metabolic acidosis and acid/base changes during major abdominal surgery conducted using Stewart's approach.

    Methods: Forty patients, aged 20-65 years, undergoing major abdominal surgery, were randomly assigned to the HES group (n = 20; received 500 ml of BES-based 6% HES 130/0.4) or the albumin group (n = 20; received 500 ml of normal saline-based 5% albumin). Read More

    GABA regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of MAC-T cells through the LPS-induced TLR4 signaling pathway.
    Res Vet Sci 2018 Apr 18;118:395-402. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Animal Science & Verterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, China. Electronic address:
    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can cause rapid lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elevation and milk yield decline in lactating ruminants. LPS has been shown to promote apoptosis and reduce the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Previous studies have shown that γ- amino butyric acid (GABA) can enhance production performance, regulating β-cell apoptosis and proliferation. Read More

    Harmful or Physiologic: Diagnosing Fibrinolysis Shutdown in a Trauma Cohort With Rotational Thromboelastometry.
    Anesth Analg 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Despite its central role in early trauma coagulopathy, abnormal fibrinolysis continues to be poorly understood. Excessive fibrinolysis is a known contributor to mortality. Recent studies with thromboelastography (TEG) suggest decreased fibrinolysis (or shutdown) may be just as harmful. Read More

    Extending the phenotypic spectrum of Sengers syndrome: Congenital lactic acidosis with synthetic liver dysfunction.
    Transl Sci Rare Dis 2018 Apr 13;3(1):45-48. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Children's National Health System, Rare Disease Institute, Genetics and Metabolism, Washington, DC, USA.
    Sengers syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease characterized by lactic acidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and bilateral cataracts. We present here a case of neonatal demise, within the first day of life, who initially presented with severe lactic acidosis, with evidence of both chorioamnionitis and cardiogenic shock. Initial metabolic labs demonstrated a severe lactic acidosis prompting genetic testing which revealed a homozygous pathogenic variant for Sengers syndrome in c. Read More

    Colonic Mucosal Ulceration and Gastrointestinal Bleeding Associated with Sevelamer Crystal Deposition in a Patient with End Stage Renal Disease.
    Case Rep Nephrol 2018 28;2018:4708068. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Hematology and Oncology, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Tulsa, OK, USA.
    End stage renal disease (ESRD) population account for 1.9 per patient year of hospital admissions annually. ESRD population are at increased risk of bleeding secondary to use of anticoagulation during hemodialysis and uremia induced platelet dysfunction. Read More

    A neurodegenerative mitochondrial disease phenotype due to biallelic loss-of-function variants in PNPLA8 encoding calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ.
    Am J Med Genet A 2018 May;176(5):1232-1237
    Department of Medical Genetics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.
    Animal studies have demonstrated the critical roles of the patatin-like protein family plays in cellular growth, lipid homeostasis, and second messenger signaling the nervous system. Of the nine known calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ, only PNPLA2, PNLPA6, PNPLA9 and most recently a single patient with PNPLA8 are associated with mitochondrial-related neurodegeneration. Using whole exome sequencing, we report two unrelated individuals with variable but similar clinical features of microcephaly, severe global developmental delay, spasticity, lactic acidosis, and progressive cerebellar atrophy with biallelic loss-of-function variants in PNPLA8. Read More

    LIPT1 deficiency presenting as early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, Leigh disease, and secondary pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.
    Am J Med Genet A 2018 May;176(5):1184-1189
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
    Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for the mitochondrial 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes and the glycine cleavage system. Lipoyltransferase 1 catalyzes the covalent attachment of lipoate to these enzyme systems. Pathogenic variants in LIPT1 gene have recently been described in four patients from three families, commonly presenting with severe lactic acidosis resulting in neonatal death and/or poor neurocognitive outcomes. Read More

    Effect of kidney transplantation on sleep-disordered breathing in patients with End Stage Renal Disease: a polysomnographic study.
    Sleep Med 2018 May 15;45:140-145. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Nephrology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, 110029, India.
    Background: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SDB is associated with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, interplaying with metabolic derangements in the form of uremia, acidosis, and hypervolemia. Renal transplant has been observed to correct most of these metabolic derangements and to control progression of comorbidities. Read More

    Acid Stimulation of the Citrate Transporter NaDC-1 Requires Pyk2 and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways.
    J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Urine citrate is reabsorbed exclusively along the renal proximal tubule the apical Na-dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC-1. We previously showed that an acid load and media acidification increase NaDC-1 activity through endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin B (ET) signaling. Here, we further examined the signaling pathway mediating acid-induced NaDC-1 activity. Read More

    Dietary Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Nutrients 2018 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    University Stone Centre, Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, D-53105 Bonn, Germany.
    Chronic kidney disease and reduced glomerular filtration rate are risk factors for the development of chronic metabolic acidosis. The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Dietary composition can strongly affect acid⁻base balance. Read More

    Acid-base status and its clinical implications in critically ill patients with cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure and without liver disease.
    Ann Intensive Care 2018 Apr 19;8(1):48. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: Acid-base disturbances are frequently observed in critically ill patients at the intensive care unit. To our knowledge, the acid-base profile of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has not been evaluated and compared to critically ill patients without acute or chronic liver disease.

    Results: One hundred and seventy-eight critically ill patients with liver cirrhosis were compared to 178 matched controls in this post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data. Read More

    A Mixed Periodic Paralysis & Myotonia Mutant, P1158S, Imparts pH-Sensitivity in Skeletal Muscle Voltage-gated Sodium Channels.
    Sci Rep 2018 Apr 19;8(1):6304. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Skeletal muscle channelopathies, many of which are inherited as autosomal dominant mutations, include myotonia and periodic paralysis. Myotonia is defined by a delayed relaxation after muscular contraction, whereas periodic paralysis is defined by episodic attacks of weakness. One sub-type of periodic paralysis, known as hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP), is associated with low potassium levels. Read More

    Intravenous and intratracheal thyrotropin releasing hormone and its analog taltirelin reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression in isoflurane anesthetized rats.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Massachusetts General Hospital
    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone and a neurotransmitter widely-expressed in the CNS that regulates thyroid function and that maintains physiologic homeostasis. Following injection in rodents, TRH has multiple effects including increased blood pressure and breathing. We tested the hypothesis that TRH and its long-acting analog, taltirelin, will reverse morphine-induced respiratory depression in anesthetized rats following intravenous(IV) or intratracheal(IT) administration. Read More

    Inflammatory mechanism of Rumenitis in dairy cows with subacute ruminal acidosis.
    BMC Vet Res 2018 Apr 19;14(1):135. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun, Jilin, 130062, China.
    Background: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a metabolic disease in high-producing dairy cattle, and is accompanied by rumenitis. However, the mechanism of rumenitis remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of rumenitis in dairy cows with SARA. Read More

    Intermittent Hypoxia Inhibits Na+-H+ Exchange-Mediated Acid Extrusion Via Intracellular Na+ Accumulation in Cardiomyocytes.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 16;46(3):1252-1262. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Physiology, Hualien, Taiwan.
    Background/aims: Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been shown to exert preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects. It also has been reported that IH preserves intracellular pH (pHi) during ischemia and protects cardiomyocytes against ischemic reperfusion injury. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. Read More

    Pediatric primary calcific band keratopathy with or without glaucoma from biallelic SLC4A4 mutations.
    Ophthalmic Genet 2018 Apr 19:1-3. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    b Department of Ophthalmology , King Abdullah Medical City , Mecca , Saudi Arabia.
    Biallelic mutations in the gene SLC4A4 (Solute Carrier Family 4 Member 4) cause protean manifestations in children that include proximal retinal tubular acidosis, developmental delay, band keratopathy, and glaucoma. A unique SLC4A4 mutation causes an ocular-only phenotype. In this retrospective case series, we highlight our experience with children referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist who were found to harbor underlying biallelic SLC4A4 mutations. Read More

    Feeding fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with either barley straw or pasture silage to non-lactating dairy cows.
    N Z Vet J 2018 Apr 18:1-23. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    b DairyNZ, Lincoln University , PO Box 85066, 7647 , New Zealand.
    Aims: To determine the suitability of diets containing either approximately 85% fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with barley straw or 65% fodder beet with pasture silage when fed to non-lactating dairy cows by measuring intakes, digestibility, rumen function including microbial growth, and N excretion.

    Methods: Holstein-Friesian cows fitted with permanent rumen fistulae were fed either 65% fodder beet with pasture silage (Silage; n=8) or 85% fodder beet with barley straw (Straw; n=8) in an indoor facility over a 9-day period, for measurement of intakes, digestibility, rumen function and urine production. Read More

    A longitudinal 1H-NMR metabolomics analysis of urine from newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing hypothermia therapy. Clinical and medical legal insights.
    PLoS One 2018 18;13(4):e0194267. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Neonatal Intensive Care, Neonatology, ASO S. Croce e Carle, Cuneo, Italy.
    Perinatal asphyxia is an event affecting around four million newborns worldwide. The 0.5 to 2 per 1000 of full term asphyxiated newborns suffer from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), which is a frequent cause of death or severe disability and, as consequence, the most common birth injury claim for obstetrics, gynaecologists, and paediatricians. Read More

    Chronic lithium treatment induces novel patterns of pendrin localization and expression.
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Medicine - Renal Division, Emory University School of Medicine, United States.
    Prolonged lithium treatment is associated with various renal side effects and is known to induce inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) remodeling. In animals treated with lithium, the fraction of intercalated cells (ICs), which are responsible for acid-base homeostasis, increases as compared to renal principal cells (PCs). In order to investigate the intricacies of lithium-induced IMCD remodeling, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a lithium-enriched diet for 0,1, 2, 3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks. Read More

    Renal Tubular Acidosis an Adverse Effect of PD-1 Inhibitor Immunotherapy.
    Case Rep Oncol Med 2018 31;2018:8408015. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Northwell Health Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA.
    Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is gaining popularity among oncologists for treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. The widespread use of these agents resulted in increasing incidence of renal immune-related adverse events. Reported renal toxicity described so far includes acute interstitial nephritis, minimal change disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. Read More

    Alterations in the health of hibernating bats under pathogen pressure.
    Sci Rep 2018 Apr 17;8(1):6067. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.
    In underground hibernacula temperate northern hemisphere bats are exposed to Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal agent of white-nose syndrome. While pathological and epidemiological data suggest that Palearctic bats tolerate this infection, we lack knowledge about bat health under pathogen pressure. Here we report blood profiles, along with body mass index (BMI), infection intensity and hibernation temperature, in greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). Read More

    Metabolic abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a mini-review.
    Biochem Soc Trans 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.
    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Read More

    Taurine supplementation for prevention of stroke-like episodes in MELAS: a multicentre, open-label, 52-week phase III trial.
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Neurology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-dose taurine supplementation for prevention of stroke-like episodes of MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes), a rare genetic disorder caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA that lead to a taurine modification defect at the first anticodon nucleotide of mitochondrial tRNA, resulting in failure to decode codons accurately.

    Methods: After the nationwide survey of MELAS, we conducted a multicentre, open-label, phase III trial in which 10 patients with recurrent stroke-like episodes received high-dose taurine (9 g or 12 g per day) for 52 weeks. The primary endpoint was the complete prevention of stroke-like episodes during the evaluation period. Read More

    [Damage control resuscitation in pediatric severe trauma].
    Rev Chil Pediatr 2018 Feb;89(1):118-127
    Unidad de Paciente Crítico Pediátrico, Complejo Asistencial Dr. Sótero del Río, Chile,
    Introduction: Trauma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. It has the first place in mortality in our country without considering perinatal pathologies and congenital malformations. An important percentage of early and late deaths secondary to this cau se, as well as its sequelae, could be prevented with optimal and timely resuscitation. Read More

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Presenting with Liver Infiltration and Severe Lactic Acidosis.
    Am J Case Rep 2018 Apr 17;19:453-457. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    BACKGROUND Type-B lactic acidosis is a rare complication of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. It occurs secondary to Warburg effect, when glucose metabolism in cancer cells switches from the oxidative pathway to the glycolytic pathway. Malignant lactic acidosis is a life-threatening condition if not promptly diagnosed and treated urgently. Read More

    Better Selection Criteria With Prognostic Factors for Liver Transplantation.
    Transplant Proc 2018 Apr;50(3):766-768
    Liver and Gastrointestinal Transplant Division, Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Liver transplantation has evolved significantly in recent years, with each advancement part of the effort toward increasing patient and graft survival as well as quality of life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors and selection criteria for liver transplantation.

    Methods: Our study was a statistical analysis, logistic regression, and survival evaluation of a total of 80 liver transplants that were performed between June 1, 2016 and September 24, 2016. Read More

    Recurrent Pyroglutamic Acidosis Related to Therapeutic Acetaminophen.
    Am J Med Sci 2018 Apr 3;355(4):387-389. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Memphis, Tennessee. Electronic address:
    Pyroglutamic acid, an intermediate in glutathione metabolism, can lead to elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis as rare complication of acetaminophen therapy in adults. Acquired pyroglutamic acidosis has been observed primarily in settings associated with glutathione deficiency. Risk factors for glutathione deficiency include critical illness, chronic liver or kidney disease, advanced age, female gender, alcohol abuse, malnutrition, pregnancy, antiepileptic drugs, and chronic acetaminophen use. Read More

    Pyruvate in reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salt corrected lactic acidosis in sever scald rats.
    J Surg Res 2018 Jun 22;226:173-180. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Shanghai Sandai Pharmaceutical R&D Co, Ltd, Pudong, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Background: A novel pyruvate-based oral rehydration salt (Pyr-ORS) was demonstrated of superiority over bicarbonate- or citrate-based one to preserve organ function and correct lactic acidosis in rehydration of lethal shock in animals. This study further compared these effects between low-osmolar Pyr-ORS and equimolar citrate-based counterpart.

    Methods: Eighty rats, using a fatal burn shock model, were randomized into four groups (two subgroups per group: n = 10): the sham group (group SR), Pyr-ORS group (group PR), WHO-ORS III group (group CR), and no rehydration group. Read More

    Acute high-altitude exposure shortens survival after uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats.
    J Surg Res 2018 Jun 22;226:150-156. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Blood Products and Substitutes, Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Science, HaiDian, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Uncontrolled hemorrhage (UH) remains the most common cause of death on the battlefield. This study examined the pathophysiological characteristics of UH in rats acutely exposed to high altitude.

    Material And Methods: Rats raised at sea level were randomly divided into two groups. Read More

    Distal renal tubular acidosis in Sjögren's syndrome.
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 Mar-Apr;29(2):470-473
    Department of Neurology, M. E. S. Medical College, Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India.
    Interstitial nephritis and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis are the two common renal manifestations of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Here, we discuss three cases of primary SS where presenting manifestation was distal renal tubular acidosis. The possibility of an underlying autoimmune disorder should be considered in a patient presenting with distal tubular acidosis or recurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis as treatment of primary disease improves the outcome of illness. Read More

    Systemic lupus erythematosus with Sjögren's syndrome and renal tubular acidosis presenting as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 Mar-Apr;29(2):440-442
    Division of Internal Medicine, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting as diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare association; there is a case report of neurogenic DI in patients of SLE; however, SLE and nephrogenic DI has not been reported in literature. We present a case of SLE presenting as nephrogenic DI. We report a case who presented with DI (nephrogenic) and fulfilled criteria for SLE and Sjögren's syndrome with renal tubular acidosis. Read More

    Real-time monitoring of pH-dependent intracellular trafficking of ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 in living leukocytes.
    J Biosci Bioeng 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan; Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.
    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many diseases and important biological phenomena; elucidating the mechanisms underlying regulation of their signal transduction potentially provides both novel targets for drug discovery and insight into living systems. A proton-sensing GPCR, ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1), has been reported to be related to acidosis and diseases that cause tissue acidification, but the mechanism of proton-induced activation of OGR1-mediated signal transduction in acidic conditions remains unclear. Here, pH-dependent intracellular trafficking of OGR1 was visualized in living leukocytes by a real-time fluorescence microscopic method based on sortase A-mediated pulse labeling of OGR1. Read More

    Exploring fetal response to acidosis in ewes: Choosing an adequate experimental model.
    J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    University Lille, EA 4489 - Perinatal Environment and Health, F-59000 Lille, France; CHU Lille, Department of Obstetrics, F-59000 Lille, France.
    Introduction: Knowledge of fetal physiology during labor has been largely generated from animal models. Our team recently developed a new index to assess parasympathetic activity using different experimental protocols to obtain acidosis. The objective of the present study was to discuss the different protocols and to review other models proposed in the literature. Read More

    Muscle Weakness, Cardiomyopathy, and L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria Associated with a Novel Recessive SLC25A4 Mutation.
    JIMD Rep 2018 Apr 14. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
    NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Mutations in SLC25A4 (syn. ANT1, Adenine nucleotide translocase, type 1) are known to cause either autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) or recessive mitochondrial myopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lactic acidosis.

    Methods And Results: Whole exome sequencing in a young man with myopathy, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial aggregations, cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) revealed a new homozygous mutation in SLC25A4 [c. Read More

    Adaptor protein 1 B mu subunit does not contribute to the recycling of kAE1 protein in polarized renal epithelial cells.
    Mol Membr Biol 2018 Apr 13:1-15. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    a Department of Physiology , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.
    Mutations in the gene encoding the kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) can lead to distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). dRTA mutations reported within the carboxyl (C)-terminal tail of kAE1 result in apical mis-targeting of the exchanger in polarized renal epithelial cells. As kAE1 physically interacts with the μ subunit of epithelial adaptor protein 1 B (AP-1B), we investigated the role of heterologously expressed μ1B subunit of the AP-1B complex for kAE1 retention to the basolateral membrane in polarized porcine LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells that are devoid of endogenous AP-1B. Read More

    Association between acidosis and outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.
    Am J Emerg Med 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, Taiwan; Department of Emergency Medicine, Ton-Yen General Hospital, Zhubei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

    Follow-up Management of Cystectomy Patients.
    Urol Clin North Am 2018 May;45(2):241-247
    Moores Cancer Center, UC San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:
    Bladder cancer is the sixth leading cancer in the United States. Radical cystectomy is a lifesaving procedure for bladder cancer with or without muscle invasion. Radical cystectomy is performed on 39% of these patients, and 35% will have a life-threatening recurrence. Read More

    Accuracy of Acid-Base Diagnoses Using the Central Venous Blood Gas in the Medical Intensive Care Unit.
    Nephron 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Renal, Electrolyte and Hypertension Division of the Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Background: Acid-base disturbances are frequent in critically ill patients. Arterial blood gas (ABG) is the gold standard in the diagnosis of these disturbances, but it is invasive with potential hazards. For patients with a central venous catheter, venous blood gas (VBG) sampling may be an alternative, less-invasive diagnostic tool. Read More

    On the Efficacy of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation and Epinephrine Following Cyanide- and HS Intoxication-Induced Cardiac Asystole.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, 500 University Drive, H041, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.
    This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (HS)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or HS solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0. Read More

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