World J Gastrointest Surg 2021 Mar;13(3):231-255
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, PR2 9HT, Preston, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road M13 9PL, Manchester Metropolitan University, All Saints Building M15 6BH, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Our understanding about the epidemiological aspects, pathogenesis, molecular diagnosis, and targeted therapies of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have drastically advanced in the past decade. Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NENs originate from the enteroendocrine cells of the embryonic gut which share common endocrine and neural differentiation factors. Most NENs are well-differentiated, and slow growing. Read More