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    Tumor vascularization and clinicopathologic parameters as prognostic factors in merkel cell carcinoma.
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Purpose: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with an increasing incidence. The clinical course is variable and reliable prognostic factors are scarce. Tumor angiogenesis has been shown to have prognostic impact in different types of cancer. Read More

    Frequent detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in tissues from 10 consecutive autopsies.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    1​Department of Health Science, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Piedmont 'Amedeo Avogadro', Novara, Italy 2​Department of Pathology, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, Novara, Italy.
    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been identified in samples of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer. Seroepidemiologic studies indicated a high frequency of MCPyV infection in humans, suggesting respiratory and faecal-oral routes, or transmission by skin contact. Since MCC is more frequent in immunocompromised patients, a reactivation of MCPyV latently infecting target cells has been proposed. Read More

    Age and gender associations of virus positivity in Merkel cell carcinoma characterized using a novel RNA in situ hybridization assay.
    Clin Cancer Res 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Pathology, University of Michigan
    Purpose: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) plays an oncogenic role in the majority of MCCs. Detection of MCPyV in MCCs has diagnostic utility and prognostic potential. Read More

    Constitutive and acquired mechanisms of resistance to immune checkpoint blockade in human cancer.
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy.
    Cancer immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies directed against regulatory pathways in T lymphocytes has been revolutionizing medical oncology, and the clinical success of monoclonal antibodies targeting either cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or program death-1 (PD-1) in patients affected by melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and head and neck, bladder, renal cell or non-small cell lung cancer is way beyond the most optimistic expectation. However, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has failed to arrest progression in a consistent amount of patients affected by those tumors, and various histological types, including breast, colon and prostate cancer, are less sensitive to this therapeutic approach. Such clinical findings have fueled massive research efforts in the attempt to identify pre-existing and acquired mechanisms of resistance to ICB. Read More

    Real-world treatment outcomes in patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma treated with chemotherapy in the USA.
    Future Oncol 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Aim: This retrospective study of patients in the USA with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) aimed to assess patient responses to second-line and later (2L+) and first-line (1L) chemotherapy.

    Patients & Methods: Out of 686 patients with MCC identified in The US Oncology Network, 20 and 67 patients with mMCC qualified for the 2L+ and 1L study, respectively; the primary analysis population was restricted to immunocompetent patients.

    Results: In the 2L+ primary analysis population, objective response rate (ORR) was 28. Read More

    Prognostic factors in Merkel cell carcinoma patients undergoing sentinel node biopsy.
    Eur J Surg Oncol 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Debate remains about prognostic factors in primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). We investigated clinicopathological factors as determinants of survival in patients with MCC submitted to sentinel node biopsy.

    Methods: Sixty-four consecutive patients treated for a primary MCC were identified from a prospectively maintained database at Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan. Read More

    Lymph Node Metastasis With Both Components of Combined Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma/Merkel Cell (Neuroendocrine) Carcinoma.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    *Cátedra de Dermatología Prof. Dr. Miguel Martínez, Hospital de Clínicas Dr. Manuel Quintela, Montevideo, Uruguay †Departamento de Anatomía Patológica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile ‡Cátedra de Anatomía Patológica, Hospital de Clínicas Dr. Manuel Quintela, Montevideo, Uruguay.

    PD-1 and PD-L1 in neoplastic cells and the tumor microenvironment of Merkel cell carcinoma.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Jun 1. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Kempf und Pfaltz histologische Diagnostik, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neoplasm, which is often associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 are key players of the tumor microenvironment (TME).

    Methods: Fourteen paraffin-embedded tissue samples of MCC were stratified by their MCPyV detection. Read More

    Advances in the Treatment of Advanced Extracutaneous Melanomas and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.
    Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2017 ;37:641-650
    From the Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY; Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH; City of Hope, Duarte, CA; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
    Cutaneous malignancies make up the greatest proportion of all human cancers and include melanomas as well as nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), as well as less common Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), cutaneous lymphomas, cutaneous adnexal tumors, Kaposi sarcomas, and other sarcomas. Each of these NMSCs differ significantly in biology, clinical behavior, and optimal treatment recommendations from each other and from cutaneous melanoma. Similarly, less common extracutaneous melanomas, such as mucosal (MMs) and uveal (UMs), are unique biologic and clinical entities that require distinct diagnostic and management considerations. Read More

    Skin Cancers in Organ Transplant Recipients.
    Am J Transplant 2017 May 29. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Departments of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06520-8059.
    Long-term utilization of immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) leads to decreased immune-mediated tumor surveillance and development of malignant tumors. A delicate balance needs to be maintained in the intensity of immunosuppression to keep the risk of malignancy low without jeopardizing life-saving graft function. OTRs are prone to developing skin cancers which exhibit unique epidemiologic, pathophysiologic and prognostic characteristics. Read More

    Overview of the 8th Edition TNM Classification for Head and Neck Cancer.
    Curr Treat Options Oncol 2017 Jul;18(7):40
    Department of Radiation Oncology, The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, RM 7-323, 700 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1Z5, Canada.
    Opinion Statement: The main purpose of the TNM system is to provide an anatomic-based classification to adequately depict cancer prognosis. Accurate cancer staging is important for treatment selection and outcome prediction, research design, and cancer control activities. To maintain clinical relevance, periodical updates to TNM are necessary. Read More

    Association of expression of the hedgehog signal with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and prognosis of Merkel cell carcinoma.
    Hum Pathol 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, 683-8503, Japan.
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer that mostly occurs in the elderly. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is detected in approximately 80% of MCCs and is associated with carcinogenesis. Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a role in human embryogenesis and organogenesis. Read More

    Intraepidermal Merkel cell carcinoma: A case series of a rare entity with clinical follow up.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Pathology, Dermatopathology Section, The University of Texas MD, Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive cutaneous carcinoma. MCC involves typically dermis and although epidermotropism has been reported, MCC strictly intraepidermal or in situ (MCCIS) is exceedingly rare. Most of the cases of MCCIS described so far have associated other lesions, such as squamous or basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and so on. Read More

    Frequency and locations of systemic metastases in Merkel cell carcinoma by imaging.
    Acta Radiol Open 2017 Mar 24;6(3):2058460117700449. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: The primary neuroendocrine skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), has a well-known predilection to metastasize systemically. However, the experience of systemic metastases in MCC is mainly disseminated through case reports due to the rarity of MCC.

    Purpose: To elucidate the frequency and locations of systemic metastasis in MCC by reviewing the imaging of patients with metastatic MCC in a national cohort. Read More

    Epigenetic priming restores the HLA class-I antigen processing machinery expression in Merkel cell carcinoma.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2290. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Translational Skin Cancer Research, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive, yet highly immunogenic skin cancer. The latter is due to its viral or UV-associated carcinogenesis. For tumor progression MCC has to escape the host's immuno-surveillance, e. Read More

    Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Initiates Merkel Cell Carcinoma-like Tumor Development in Mice.
    Cancer Res 2017 Jun 16;77(12):3151-3157. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumor cells express several markers detected in normal Merkel cells, a nonproliferative population of neuroendocrine cells that arise from epidermis. MCCs frequently contain Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA and express viral transforming antigens, sT and tLT, but the role of these putative oncogenes in MCC development, and this tumor's cell of origin, are unknown. Using a panel of preterm transgenic mice, we show that epidermis-targeted coexpression of sT and the cell fate-determinant atonal bHLH transcription factor 1 (ATOH1) leads to development of widespread cellular aggregates, with histology and marker expression mimicking that of human intraepidermal MCC. Read More

    Comparison of the incidence of skin cancers in patients on dialysis and after kidney transplantation.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Apr 13;34(2):138-142. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Nephrology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.
    Introduction: Kidney transplant (KTx) patients on immunosuppressive therapy are predisposed to the development of infections and cancers.

    Aim: To compare the incidence and type of malignant skin lesions in kidney transplant patients and the dialyzed population based on the initiated dermatologic screening.

    Material And Methods: The study included 598 patients: 486 kidney transplant recipients and 112 patients on maintenance dialysis. Read More

    Definitive radiotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma confers clinically meaningful in-field locoregional control: A review and analysis of the literature.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Jul 9;77(1):142-148.e1. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead Hospital, Australia; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:
    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon radiosensitive, neuroendocrine malignancy. Treatment often involves surgery; however, older, sicker patients may not be candidates for an operation. Institutions have published data favoring the role of definitive radiotherapy for macroscopic locoregional disease. Read More

    Virus-Induced Cancers of the Skin and Mucosa: Are We Dealing with "Smoking Guns" or "Smoke and Mirrors" in the Operating Theatre?
    Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2017 Jun 8;7(2):249-254. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Bielefeld University Hospital, Teutoburger Strasse 50, 33604, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) alone is thought to cause ~610,000 cases of cancer per year, and is the dominant aetiological agent for ano-genital (esp. cervical) and head and neck cancers (esp. oropharyngeal). Read More

    Merkel Cell Carcinoma.
    Surg Pathol Clin 2017 Jun 14;10(2):399-408. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) encompasses neuroendocrine carcinomas primary to skin and occurs most commonly in association with clonally integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus with related retinoblastoma protein sequestration or in association with UV radiation-induced alterations involving the TP53 gene and mutations, heterozygous deletion, and hypermethylation of the Retinoblastoma gene. Molecular genetic signatures may provide therapeutic guidance. Morphologic features, although patterned, are associated with predictable diagnostic pitfalls, usually resolvable by immunohistochemistry. Read More

    Phospho-STAT5B Expression Is a Prognostic Marker for Merkel Cell Carcinoma.
    Anticancer Res 2017 05;37(5):2335-2341
    Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.
    Background/aim: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. Although recent reports suggest that tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILs), especially CD8(+) T-cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of MCC, it is difficult for a single Institute with a small number of patients with MCC to determine the threshold number of CD8(+) cells. Therefore, clearer and easier methods of evaluating prognostic factors of MCC are needed. Read More

    A Review of the Global Guidelines on Surgical Margins for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017 Apr;10(4):37-46
    Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.
    Background: Adequate treatment and follow-up of a patient with nonmelanoma skin cancer is of utmost concern for a clinician. However, there is a lack of international consensus on recommendations for surgical excision margins. Furthermore, lack of familiarity of the published guidelines leads to a variety in practice styles. Read More

    Avelumab: First Global Approval.
    Drugs 2017 May;77(8):929-937
    Springer, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay 0754, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Avelumab (Bavencio(®)) is an intravenously administered programmed cell death ligand-1-blocking human antibody initially developed by EMD Serono Inc. (the biopharmaceutical division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) [now jointly developed and commercialized by EMD Serono Inc. and Pfizer] for the treatment of various tumours. Read More

    Evaluation of Merkel cell polyomavirus in non-small cell lung cancer and adjacent normal cells.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Jul 25;108:21-26. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; Microbiology Research Center (MRC), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
    Several risk factors have been linked to lung cancer (LC). Nevertheless, a viral etiology has been mentioned for a subset of patients developing LC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) on developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLCs). Read More

    The PP4R1 sub-unit of protein phosphatase PP4 is essential for inhibition of NF-κB by merkel polyomavirus small tumour antigen.
    Oncotarget 2017 Apr;8(15):25418-25432
    School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with a high metastatic potential. The majority of MCC cases are caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), through expression of the virus-encoded tumour antigens. Whilst mechanisms attributing tumour antigen expression to transformation are being uncovered, little is known of the mechanisms by which MCPyV persists in the host. Read More

    Avelumab Impresses in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.
    • Authors:
    Cancer Discov 2017 Jun 24;7(6):OF5. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    The PD-L1 inhibitor avelumab-approved by the FDA in March for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma-demonstrated a high number of durable responses in an international, open-label, prospective phase II study. The results of the study, which supported the FDA's decision, were presented in April at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2017. Read More

    RE: Adjuvant Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy in Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Survival Analyses of 6908 Cases From the National Cancer Data Base.
    J Natl Cancer Inst 2017 Oct;109(10)
    Affiliations of authors: Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (JAV, SB); Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (ERG); Department of Epidemiology, Epidemiology Data Center, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA (GKB).

    Non-melanoma skin cancer: new and future synthetic drug treatments.
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 2017 May 17;18(7):689-699. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    a Center for Dermatooncology, Department of Dermatology , University Hospital Tübingen , Tübingen , Germany.
    Introduction: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) mainly comprise two different entities: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); beneath these two entities, Merkel cell carcinoma, adnexal tumors, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, angiosarcoma, and cutaneous lymphoma belong to NMSC. These rare skin tumors are not the topic of this review. BCC and SCC are the most common cancers diagnosed in humans. Read More

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) vs quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) approach for detection and quantification of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) cutaneous biopsies.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Aug 14;246:15-20. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma and high viral load in the skin was proposed as a risk factor for the occurrence of this tumour. MCPyV DNA was detected, with lower frequency, in different skin cancers but since the viral load was usually low, the real prevalence of viral DNA could be underestimated.

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of two assays (qPCR and ddPCR) for MCPyV detection and quantification in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. Read More

    MGMT promoter methylation status in Merkel cell carcinoma: in vitro versus invivo.
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2017 Apr 12. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Translational Skin Cancer Research (tscr), University Hospital Essen, Universitätstraße 1, 45141, Essen, Germany.
    Purpose: Expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is very variable; thus, we tested whether this may be due to differential methylation of the MGMT gene promoter.

    Methods: Quantitative analysis of MGMT mRNA and protein expression, as well as MGMT promoter methylation status, was performed in a series of tissue samples of MCC tumors, representing both primary and metastatic lesions, as well as in six MCC cell lines.

    Results: These analyses revealed a very heterogeneous MGMT mRNA and protein expression in MCC both in vivo and in vitro. Read More

    Basal cell carcinoma: CD56 and cytokeratin 5/6 staining patterns in the differential diagnosis with Merkel cell carcinoma.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Jun;44(6):553-556
    Dermatopathology Division, Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can resemble Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) on histopathological examination and while CK20 is a useful marker in this differential, it is occasionally negative in MCC. CD56, a sensitive marker of neuroendocrine differentiation, is sometimes used to identify MCC, but has been reportedly variably positive in BCC as well. In contrast, CK5/6 consistently labels BCC but is not expressed in neuroendocrine tumors. Read More

    Molecular Profiling of Multiple Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma to Distinguish Genetically Distinct Tumors From Clonally Related Metastases.
    JAMA Dermatol 2017 Jun;153(6):505-512
    Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor3Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor4Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor.
    Importance: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma. In rare cases, the development of an additional cutaneous MCC tumor is clinically consistent with a second primary MCC tumor rather than a cutaneous metastasis, which has important treatment and prognostic implications.

    Objective: To evaluate genetic relatedness in 4 cases with the clinical diagnosis of multiple primary MCCs. Read More

    What's New in Eyelid Tumors.
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2017 Mar-Apr;6(2):143-152
    Department of Ophthalmology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY.
    Eyelid malignancies represent between 5% and 10% of all skin cancers. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and melanoma. The gold standard treatment for periocular epithelial malignancies is surgical excision. Read More

    Spontaneous lung metastasis formation of human Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines transplanted into scid mice.
    Int J Cancer 2017 Jul 21;141(1):160-171. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer entity that frequently leads to rapid death due to its high propensity to metastasize. The etiology of most MCC cases is linked to Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), a virus which is monoclonally integrated in up to 95% of tumors. While there are presently no animal models to study the role of authentic MCPyV infection on transformation, tumorigenesis or metastasis formation, xenograft mouse models employing engrafted MCC-derived cell lines (MCCL) represent a promising approach to study certain aspects of MCC pathogenesis. Read More

    Avelumab for patients with previously treated metastatic or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (JAVELIN Solid Tumor): dose-expansion cohort of a multicentre, open-label, phase 1b trial.
    Lancet Oncol 2017 May 31;18(5):599-610. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    University of California-Davis, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA, USA.
    Background: Avelumab, a human Ig-G1 monoclonal antibody targeting PD-L1 and approved in the USA for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, has shown antitumour activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced solid tumours in a dose-escalation phase 1a trial. In this dose-expansion cohort of that trial, we assess avelumab treatment in a cohort of patients with advanced, platinum-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Methods: In this dose-expansion cohort of a multicentre, open-label, phase 1 study, patients with progressive or platinum-resistant metastatic or recurrent NSCLC were enrolled at 58 cancer treatment centres and academic hospitals in the USA. Read More

    Impact of total radiotherapy dose on survival for head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma after resection.
    Head Neck 2017 Jul 29;39(7):1371-1377. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Background: Head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is commonly treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for high-risk features. The optimal radiation dose is unknown.

    Methods: One thousand six hundred twenty-five eligible patients with head and neck MCC were identified in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Read More

    Erythema ab igne: new technology rebounding upon its users?
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Dermatology and Pathology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Erythema ab igne (EAI) is a persistent, chronic skin condition resulting from prolonged exposure to infrared radiation, experienced as heat. Once associated with traditional warming sources like wood burning stoves or open fires, modern, infrared exposure originates also from newer sources like laptops and heating pads and may be creating a rebound of EAI. The epidemiology may be different too, with younger patients than previously seen. Read More

    Aberrant expression of ALK and EZH2 in Merkel cell carcinoma.
    BMC Cancer 2017 Mar 31;17(1):236. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, P.O. Box 21, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: Distinct characteristic features categorize Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) into two subgroups according to the Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Many mutational studies on MCC have been carried out in recent years without identifying a prominent driver mutation. However, there is paucity reporting the expression of cancer genes at the RNA level in MCC tumors. Read More

    Prognostic Value of the Staging System for Eyelid Tumors in the 7th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Mar 27. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    *Orbital Oncology and Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, and †Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To determine the prognostic value of the staging criteria for eyelid tumors in the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging manual and to determine, for each type of eyelid tumor, which AJCC T categories are associated with increased risk of nodal metastasis and thus potential usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Methods: Systematic review and analysis of articles found by searching PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms "AJCC," "eyelid," "carcinoma," and "melanoma."

    Results: Rates of local recurrence, regional nodal metastasis, and distant metastasis were approximately 7% to 10%, 1% to 9%, and 0% to 0. Read More

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