565,277 results match your criteria Mental Retardation


[The multifaceted concept of mental disorder].

Authors:
Heinz Häfner

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit, AG Schizophrenieforschung; Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim / Universität Heidelberg.

The concept of mental disorder has many facets. Specific concepts of disease or disorder stand for individual entities, classified as diagnoses. Ideally, they are based on discrete physical, neurobiological or - as is the case with hereditary diseases - genetic findings. Read More

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December 2018

Schizophrenia patients are impaired in recognition task but more for intentionality than physical causality.

Conscious Cogn 2018 Dec 14;67:98-107. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratoire HANDIReSP (EA4047), Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-En-Yvelines, Versailles, France; Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte et d'Addictologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

It is now largely accepted that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit to attribute mental states to others, such as intentions, needs and motivations but also to perform memory tasks. According to one hypothesis, these impairments may be due to an early visual attention deficit during the encounter of social stimuli. Another hypothesis posits a robust correlation between intention attribution and autobiographical memory that results in impaired recollection of past events making it difficult to infer others' intentions. Read More

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December 2018

Experimentally induced subclinical hypothyroidism causes decreased functional connectivity of the cuneus: A resting state fMRI study.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 12;102:158-163. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; Department of Psychology II, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Objective: The aim of this study was to experimentally evaluate the effects of subclinical mild hypothyroidism on brain network connectivity as determined by resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) which serves as a proxy for global changes in brain function.

Methods: Fifteen otherwise healthy patients with complete hypothyroidism under stable, long term levothyroxine substitution volunteered for the study. They reduced their pretest levothyroxine dosage by 30% for 52-56 days. Read More

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December 2018

Systematic review and meta-analysis of basal cortisol levels in Borderline Personality Disorder compared to non-psychiatric controls.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 10;102:149-157. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Central Clinical School, Monash University and The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a prevalent, complex, and serious mental disorder involving multiple symptoms and maladaptive behaviour. The underlying psychobiological mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood, but increasing evidence indicates that changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis (HPA) activity may contribute to BPD. Whilst various studies have demonstrated elevated levels of cortisol (the end-product of the HPA axis) in BPD sufferers, others have presented opposite findings. Read More

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December 2018

Contingent biofeedback outperforms other methods to enhance the accuracy of cardiac interoception: A comparison of short interventions.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2018 Dec 4;63:12-20. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Deviations in interoception might contribute to the development and maintenance of mental disorders. The improvement of interoceptive accuracy (IA) is desirable but assessment and training methods remain controversial. For instance, it was assumed that performance increases in heartbeat counting paradigms after cardiac feedback were due to an improvement of knowledge with regard to heart rate rather than due to an actual improvement in IA. Read More

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December 2018

One of us? how facial and symbolic cues to own- versus other-race membership influence access to perceptual awareness.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:19-27. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Information that conveys racial group membership plays a powerful role in influencing people's information processing including perceptual, memory and evaluative judgments. Yet whether own- and other-race information can differentially impact people's perceptual awareness at a preconscious level remains unclear. Employing a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm, we investigated whether compared with other-race stimuli, participants' own-race stimuli would be prioritized to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness. Read More

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December 2018

Does the frequency of administration of long acting injectable antipsychotics impact psychiatric outcomes and adverse effects: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 10;109:193-201. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane, Australia; Metro South Addiction and Mental Health Service, Brisbane, Australia.

Dosing regimens for depot antipsychotics range from two-to twelve-weekly administration. There are limited meta-analytic data regarding the effect of different injection frequencies of the same depot antipsychotic at the equivalent dose on psychiatric outcomes and adverse effects. This study investigated differences in psychiatric outcomes and adverse effects between different frequencies of depot antipsychotics through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

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December 2018

Residential noise exposure and the longitudinal risk of hospitalization for depression after pregnancy: Postpartum and beyond.

Environ Res 2018 Dec 3;170:26-32. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre, 900 Saint Denis St, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 0A9; Institut national de santé publique du Québec, 190 Cremazie Blvd E, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2P 1E2; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, 1020 Pine Ave W, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1A2; School of Public Health, University of Montreal, 7101 du Parc Ave, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3N 1X9. Electronic address:

Objective: Depression is a major public health concern, but the link with the built environment is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between residential noise during pregnancy and later risk of severe depression in women.

Methods: We analyzed a population-based cohort of 140,456 women with no documented history of mental illness who were pregnant in Montreal between 2000 and 2016. Read More

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December 2018

Single-trial EEG dissociates motivation and conflict processes during decision-making under risk.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

In making decisions under risk (i.e., choosing whether to gamble when the outcome probabilities are known), two aspects of decision are of particular concern. Read More

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December 2018

Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels predict brain hypometabolism in people with underlying β-amyloid pathology.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Melbourne Dementia Research Centre, The Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Cooperative Research Center for Mental Health, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

β-Amyloid pathology is elevated in ~30% of cognitively normal people over 65, and is associated with accelerated neurodegeneration in the pre-clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings reveal that brain iron might also act to propel neurodegeneration in people with underlying amyloid pathology. Here, repeated PET scans of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were used as a biomarker for brain hypometabolism and a downstream biomarker of neurodegeneration to investigate whether levels of ferritin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; a reporter of brain iron load) are associated with prodromal disease progression of people with high β-amyloid pathology determined by established cut-off values in CSF t-tau/Aβ ratio. Read More

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December 2018

YMCA exercise intervention to augment smoking cessation treatment in adults with high anxiety sensitivity: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Institute for Mental Health Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States.

Extant evidence suggests that exercise can reduce anxiety related vulnerability factors, such as anxiety sensitivity (AS), or fear of bodily sensations related to anxiety, that negatively impact smoking cessation outcomes. Building upon emerging evidence supporting the efficacy of exercise as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with high AS, we are conducting a trial to examine the efficacy and feasibility of this clinical application when implemented in a community setting. Partnering with the YMCA, this study aims to enroll 150 adults in a standard smoking cessation protocol (i. Read More

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December 2018

A tale of two steroids: the importance of the androgens DHEA and DHEAS for early neurodevelopment.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Health & Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University - Bundoora Campus, Melbourne, 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

DHEA and DHEAS are neuroactive neurosteroids that interact with several major receptor system in the brain, including sigma (σ), glutamate, and GABA-A receptors. It has been recognized as early as 1952, that the loss of DHEA/DHEAS in adult life is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders (eg schizophrenia, depression). However, the mechanistic role for DHEA/DHEAS in any of these domains remains speculative, not the least because the presence of these androgens in the adrenal gland and brain is largely confined to humans and only some non-human primates. Read More

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December 2018

Mental imagery and colour cues can prevent interference between motor tasks.

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurosciences and Movement Sciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Motor interference can be observed when two motor tasks are learnt in subsequent order. The aim of the current study was to test two approaches potentially mitigating interference effects. The first approach used contextual colour cues requiring only little cognitive attention thus being assumed to be primarily implicit while the second, mental practice/rehearsal that demands much more active cognitive processing being considered explicit. Read More

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December 2018

The Golden Section and beauty in nature: The perfection of symmetry and the charm of asymmetry.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Botânica,Campus Universitário, S/N, C.P. 345 Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

It is not unanimous among scientists if there is beauty in science. Some deny it. Mental clarity of conclusions when captured in simple looking equations is mathematical beauty. Read More

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December 2018

Experiences of mobile health in promoting physical activity: A qualitative systematic review and meta-ethnography.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208759. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Allied Health, University of Limerick, Castletroy, Limerick, Ireland.

Objective: Despite evidence supporting physical activity in primary and secondary prevention, many individuals do not meet recommended levels. Mobile health is a field with a growing evidence base and is proposed as a convenient method for delivering health interventions. Despite qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives, there is a lack of synthesis to inform evidence-based design. Read More

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December 2018

Multimorbidity patterns in high-need, high-cost elderly patients.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208875. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: Patients with complex health care needs (PCHCN) are individuals who require numerous, costly care services and have been shown to place a heavy burden on health care resources. It has been argued that an important issue in providing value-based primary care concerns how to identify groups of patients with similar needs (who pose similar challenges) so that care teams and care delivery processes can be tailored to each patient subgroup. Our study aims to describe the most common chronic conditions and their combinations in a cohort of elderly PCHCN. Read More

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December 2018

The effectiveness of art therapy for anxiety in adults: A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208716. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Faculty of Health, University of Applied Sciences Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Anxiety disorders are one of the most diagnosed mental health disorders. Common treatment consists of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. In clinical practice, also art therapy is additionally provided to patients with anxiety (disorders), among others because treatment as usual is not sufficiently effective for a large group of patients. Read More

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December 2018

Williams syndrome: recent advances in our understanding of cognitive, social and psychological functioning.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Since the last review of Williams syndrome in Current Opinion (2001) there have been many advances in knowledge about the cognitive, social and psychological impairments that characterize the disorder. The present review focuses on current research in these areas.

Recent Findings: Williams syndrome is associated with a wide range of cognitive, linguistic, social and other difficulties. Read More

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December 2018

Opioid and Cannabis Co-Use among Adults with Chronic Pain: Relations to Substance Misuse, Mental Health, and Pain Experience.

J Addict Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX (AHR, JB, DJP, MJV); Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (JDB); College of Nursing, Washington State University, Washington, DC (MFO); Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, New York, NY (JWD); Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MJZ); and HEALTH Institute, University of Houston, Houston, TX (MJZ).

Objectives: Opioid misuse constitutes a significant public health problem and is associated with a host of negative outcomes. Despite efforts to curb this increasing epidemic, opioids remain the most widely prescribed class of medications. Prescription opioids are often used to treat chronic pain despite the risks associated with use, and chronic pain remains an important factor in understanding this epidemic. Read More

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December 2018

Under the face mask: Racial-ethnic minority student-athletes and mental health use.

J Am Coll Health 2018 Dec 17:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Arizona State University , Counseling Psychology , Tempe , AZ , USA.

Objective: To investigate racial-ethnic minority student-athletes' (REMSA) symptoms of distress (mental health need), mental health use (usage rate), and factors that influence mental health usage.

Participants: There were 241 varsity athletes (African American = 108, Latinos = 66, Asian American= 67) from the American College Health Association Fall 2015 data set.

Results: Seventy-eight percent of REMSA reported some form of mental health need and only 11% of these athletes in need reported using mental health services in the past year. Read More

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December 2018

Mental health and academic impacts of intimate partner violence among IHE-attending women.

J Am Coll Health 2018 Dec 17:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Institute on Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault, Steve Hicks School of Social Work , The University of Texas at Austin , Austin , TX , USA.

Objective: The study assesses the prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female college students, and associated mental health and academic outcomes.

Participants: Participants (n = 6,818) were randomly selected female students attending one of eight campuses of a University System in the Southwest. Their mean age was 25, and 45% identified as Hispanic/Latina. Read More

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December 2018

Ischemic Lesions in Acute and Subacute Perimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2018 Dec 17:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

5 Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal.

Objective: Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a subtype of nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In patients with aneurysmal SAH, the occurrence of acute ischemic lesions is associated with severity and poor outcome. We investigated the frequency of ischemic lesions on DWI in patients with PMH and compared it with the frequency of ischemic lesions in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Read More

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December 2018

Working with consumers who hear voices: The experience of early career nurses in mental health services in Australia.

Int J Ment Health Nurs 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Mental health consumers who hear voices frequently experience distress and express a desire to discuss their voice-hearing experience. Nurses do not regularly demonstrate a willingness to engage in such discussions. With the introduction of educational strategies that develop empathy and an understanding of voice-hearing experiences, it is anticipated that early career nurses will be able to translate such understanding into their professional nursing practice. Read More

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December 2018

Geometric Calibration of Markerless Optical Surgical Navigation System.

Int J Med Robot 2018 Dec 17:e1978. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, uangdong Academy of Medical Science, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Patient-to-image registration is required for image-guided surgical navigation, but marker-based registration is time consuming and subject to manual error. Markerless registration is an alternative solution to avoid these issues.

Methods: This study designs a calibration board and proposes a geometric calibration method to calibrate the near infrared tracking and structured light components of the proposed optical surgical navigation system simultaneously. Read More

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December 2018

Integration of metabolomic and transcriptomic data reveals metabolic pathway alteration in breast cancer and impact of related signature on survival.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Breast Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Objective: Breast cancer (BC) is a malignant tumor which threat to women's physical and mental health. However, the mechanism of metabolism alteration in BC remains unclear. This study is intended to figure out the relationship between the alternation of metabolism and the progression of BC. Read More

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December 2018

Acute Mental Health Symptoms in Adolescent Marijuana Users.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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December 2018

Cortisol levels among older people with and without depression and dementia.

Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Dec 17:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health,Vestfold Hospital Trust,Tønsberg,Norway.

ABSTRACTCortisol dysregulation has been reported in dementia and depression. Cortisol levels and its associates were investigated among older people living at home and in nursing homes, in a cross-sectional study. A sample of 650 older people, from the community (home and nursing homes) and specialized care (memory clinics and old age psychiatry wards), mean age 76. Read More

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December 2018

Early intervention for bereaved children: What mental health professionals think.

Death Stud 2018 Dec 17:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Center for Crisis Psychology, Faculty of Psychology , University of Bergen , Bergen , Norway.

People rarely specify what "early intervention" following bereavement means, so we explored the views of experienced professionals working primarily with bereaved children. In an anonymous online survey, 84 mental health professionals answered questions about the content and timeframe of early intervention. The types of interventions varied, but conversation and support were most frequent. Read More

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December 2018

Orthorexia nervosa: A behavioral complex or a psychological condition?

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 17:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1 Psychotherapy and Systems Neuroscience, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen , Giessen, Germany.

Background And Aims: Numerous studies have provided evidence for orthorexia nervosa (ON), an eating pattern characterized by an almost manic obsession for and fixation on healthy eating, to be of epidemiological relevance. However, there is scientific debate on whether it is merely a behavioral or lifestyle phenomenon as compared to a mental disorder. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether ON is of epidemiological and clinical relevance, and whether ON can be distinguished from other mental health disorders and healthy lifestyle features. Read More

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December 2018

Gender-related differences in cue-elicited cravings in Internet gaming disorder: The effects of deprivation.

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 17:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

5 Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Online gaming has become a popular leisure activity, in which males more frequently develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD) compared to females. However, gender-related neurocognitive differences have largely not been systematically investigated in IGD.

Methods: Cue-elicited-craving tasks were performed before game playing and immediately after deprivation operationalized as a forced break from gaming when the Internet was disconnected. Read More

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December 2018

Adjuvant endocrine therapy side-effects among postmenopausal breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

Climacteric 2018 Dec 17:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a Faculty of Pharmacy , Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia.

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their associated risk factors among postmenopausal breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy.

Methods: Postmenopausal breast cancer patients on endocrine therapy were recruited at three hospitals in Malaysia. Presence and severity of menopausal symptoms were determined using the Menopause Rating Scale. Read More

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December 2018

Hospitalization risk factors in antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder or major depressive disorder.

J Comp Eff Res 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Lundbeck, 6 Parkway North, Deerfield, IL 60015, USA.

Aim: To examine hospitalization risk factors in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder (BD-I) or major depressive disorder (MDD).

Patients & Methods: Using Truven Health MarketScan Commercial, Medicaid and Medicare Supplemental data (01/01/2012-06/30/2016), logistic regression models were performed to identify risk factors for both psychiatric and all-cause hospitalization in three separate analyses.

Results: Significant risk factors included prior hospitalization (schizophrenia: odds ratio [95% CI]: 2. Read More

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December 2018

Deriving alternative criteria sets for alcohol use disorders using statistical optimization: Results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychological Sciences.

Much of the foundation of clinical practice, psychiatric epidemiology, and research into the etiology, course, prevention, and treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) rests on psychiatric diagnosis. However, existing research has failed to adequately exploit empirical techniques and existing databases to derive criteria considered optimal with respect to predicting external correlates. The current project adopts a novel approach to deriving new diagnostic criteria sets and rules for AUD. Read More

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December 2018

Does antagonism at 5-HT2A receptors potentiate D₂ blockade-induced disruption of conditioned avoidance response?

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Southwest University.

Existing evidence in the literature shows that antagonism at 5-HT receptors potentiates D₂ antagonism-induced disruption of conditioned avoidance response (CAR), a behavioral index of antipsychotic activity, suggesting that combining 5-HT antagonism with D₂ antagonism may confer an enhanced antipsychotic effect. The present study reexamined this issue and further investigated other behavioral effects of drug-drug interaction, mainly the conditioned drug effect (via drug-drug conditioning) and 5-HT antagonism's modulation on antipsychotic-induced sensitization (an enhanced avoidance disruption). Well-trained adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were first repeatedly tested for 7 days under haloperidol (HAL; 0. Read More

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December 2018

The Milwaukee Youth Belongingness Scale (MYBS): Development and validation of the scale utilizing item response theory.

Sch Psychol Q 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology.

The examination of belonging in schools, connecting school belonging to a plethora of academic and psychosocial outcomes, has been well established in the literature. Researchers have measured school belonging most frequently with the Psychological Sense of School Membership, but its psychometric properties have been called into question by several researchers. Further, the scale measures 1 subset of belonging (i. Read More

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December 2018

Motherhood reimagined: Experiences of women with SMI surrounding parenting.

Psychiatr Rehabil J 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Psychology, Fielding Graduate University.

Objective: Much of the extant literature on women with serious mental illness (SMI) has focused on the risks associated with motherhood, including violence, custody loss, poverty, and homelessness. The present study was conducted to characterize women's broader experiences surrounding the parenting role.

Method: Twenty women with SMI, both those with and without children, were interviewed. Read More

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December 2018

Examining criterion a: DSM-5 level of personality functioning as assessed through life story interviews.

Personal Disord 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis.

The alternative model for personality disorders offers a two-part definition of personality pathology, separating personality functioning from traits. The Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition alternative model for personality disorders encapsulates the personality functioning criterion, and several methods have been used to assess it. Previous interview rating methods have overlapped with an assessment of personality traits and symptoms, biasing the assessment of functioning, and recently developed self-report instruments rely on the participant's awareness of their personality pathology. Read More

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December 2018

Alcohol motivations and behaviors during months young adults experience social role transitions: Microtransitions in early adulthood.

Psychol Addict Behav 2018 Dec;32(8):895-903

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington.

The study examines how young adult transitions into and out of social roles (i.e., starting or ending a job, a romantic relationship, school) are associated with drinking motives (coping, enhancement, social, and conformity) and alcohol use in a given month. Read More

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December 2018

No pain, no gain? Recovery and strenuousness of physical activity.

J Occup Health Psychol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University.

The present study aimed to advance insight in the role of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in the recovery process, by focusing on the strenuousness of LTPA. It was proposed that-compared with less strenuous LTPA-more strenuous LTPA would show stronger positive relationships with recovery through higher levels of mental disengagement from stressors resulting from more strenuous LTPA. This hypothesis was examined in two studies, in which participants' positive and negative affective states were included as indicators of recovery. Read More

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December 2018

Mental Disorders and Learning Disabilities in Children and Adolescents: Eating Disorders.

FP Essent 2018 Dec;475:23-29

University of Michigan Medical School Department of Pediatrics, 1522 Simpson Road, East Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5718.

Eating disorders are common. The typical onset of eating disorders is in mid- to late adolescence, affecting females more often than males. However, rates of eating disorders are increasing among younger children, males, and minority groups. Read More

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December 2018

Mental Disorders and Learning Disabilities in Children and Adolescents: Learning Disabilities.

Authors:
Thomas W Bishop

FP Essent 2018 Dec;475:18-22

University of Michigan Medical School Department of Family Medicine, 1018 Fuller St., Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1213.

Learning disabilities are estimated to affect 5% to 9% of US children. Risk factors include a family history of learning disabilities, environmental factors during gestation or birth, and social adversity. Individuals with learning disabilities may experience social exclusion and bullying, poor self-image, or underachievement. Read More

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December 2018

Mental Disorders and Learning Disabilities in Children and Adolescents: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Authors:
Barbara T Felt

FP Essent 2018 Dec;475:11-17

University of Michigan Medical School Department of Pediatrics - Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 1522 Simpson Road, East Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5718.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral condition that affects more than 9% of US children and adolescents and often is seen in family medicine settings. A comprehensive evaluation for ADHD gathers information across time and settings; considers common comorbid or alternative conditions, such as learning disabilities and disorders of mood or anxiety, vision, hearing, and sleep; and includes a thorough physical examination. The need for additional evaluation is determined by the history and physical examination results. Read More

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December 2018

Mental Disorders and Learning Disabilities in Children and Adolescents: Foreword.

Authors:
Karl T Rew

FP Essent 2018 Dec;475

University of Michigan Health System, 24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive Lobby H SPC 5795, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5795,

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December 2018

What is so frightening about spiders? Self-rated and self-disclosed impact of different characteristics and associations with phobia symptoms.

Scand J Psychol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Spider phobia is a common and impairing mental disorder, yet little is known about what characteristics of spiders that spider phobic individuals find frightening. Using screening data from a clinical trial, we explored which characteristics that spider-fearful individuals (n = 194) rated as having the greatest impact on fear, used factor analysis to group specific characteristics, and explored linear associations with self-reported phobia symptoms. Second, a guided text-mining approach was used to extract the most common words in free-text responses to the question: "What is it about spiders that you find frightening?" Both analysis types suggested that movement-related characteristics of spiders were the most important, followed by appearance characteristics. Read More

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December 2018

The role of organizational trust and organizational support on employees' well-being.

Med Lav 2018 Dec 20;109(6):459-470. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Dipartimento di Scienze Psicologiche, Pedagogiche e della Formazione, Università di Palermo.

Background: In available scientific literature, the impact of organizational trust and perceived organizational support on employees' wellbeing has mainly been investigated without focusing on the different targets they can refer to.

Objectives: The aim of the study is to test the direct role of these variables as precursors of well-being, job satisfaction and turnover intentions, by distinguishing two different levels in trust and support: the first one stemming from the employees' own team (in which employees have direct and daily interpersonal relationships, and within which they build their work experience), the second stemming from the organization itself.

Methods: In this study, a survey was administered to more than 1,000 employees of a Sicilian hospital. Read More

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December 2018

Long-Term Cognitive Effects of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) Use.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2018 Dec 15:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

a Centre for Drug Research , Universiti Sains Malaysia , Penang , Malaysia.

Kratom or Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) is a medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. As a result of its opioid-like effects, it remains unknown whether consumption of kratom tea is associated with impaired cognitive function. Read More

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December 2018
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