7,768 results match your criteria Meningitis Viral


A Mouse Model for Infection with Enterovirus A71 in Small Extracellular Vesicles.

mSphere 2020 Jul 1;5(4). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD); in some severe cases, it could develop into central nervous system (CNS) disease such as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and neurogenic pulmonary edema in children under 5 years. The EV-A71 pathogenesis which is involved with the CNS is unclear due to the lack of a simple and reliable mouse model thus far. Most clinical EV-A71 isolates could not effectively infect the neonatal mouse, which used to be an EV-A71 infection model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00377-20DOI Listing

Enteric viruses circulating in undiagnosed central nervous system infections at tertiary hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

São José do Rio Preto School of Medicine (FAMERP), São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Enterovirus (EV) is commonly associated with central nervous system (CNS) syndromes. Recently, gastroenteric viruses, including rotavirus (RVA), human astrovirus (HAstV) and norovirus (NoV), have also been associated with CNS neurological disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of EV, RVA, HAstV and NoV associated to CNS infections with undiagnosed etiology in Northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, and to conduct the molecular characterization of the positive samples detected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26216DOI Listing

Biological basis of child health 4: an overview of the central nervous system and principles of neurological assessment.

Authors:
Doreen Crawford

Nurs Child Young People 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Crawford-McKenzie, Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England.

This article is the fourth in a series on the biological basis of child health. It explains the embryological development of the nervous system and describes some of the anatomical and physiological features of the central nervous system, which is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. It also outlines the principles of neurological assessment in infants and children, before detailing the presentation and management of three conditions that can affect the central nervous system in this patient population - seizures, meningitis and raised intracranial pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ncyp.2020.e1249DOI Listing

Diagnostic Challenges with Acyclovir Crystalluria - A Case Study.

EJIFCC 2020 Jun 2;31(2):157-163. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Background/objective: Marked to abundant crystalluria may cause significant morbidity due to acute renal injury. Intravenous acyclovir administration may result in a pathologic crystalluria, especially in cases with increased renal concentration of the drug. It is important that clinical laboratory staff recognize and communicate the presence of abundant crystalluria to clinical staff to avoid irreversible kidney injury. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294811PMC

Management of Fever in Infants and Young Children.

Am Fam Physician 2020 06;101(12):721-729

Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Despite dramatic reductions in the rates of bacteremia and meningitis since the 1980s, febrile illness in children younger than 36 months continues to be a concern with potentially serious consequences. Factors that suggest serious infection include age younger than one month, poor arousability, petechial rash, delayed capillary refill, increased respiratory effort, and overall physician assessment. Urinary tract infections are the most common serious bacterial infection in children younger than three years, so evaluation for such infections should be performed in those with unexplained fever. Read More

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COVID-19 effects on national health system response to a local epidemic: the case of cerebrospinal meningitis outbreak in Ghana.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 30;35(Suppl 2):14. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, School of Public Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Hohoe, Ghana.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2020.35.2.23138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266470PMC

Amide Proton Transfer-Weighted (APTw) Imaging of Intracranial Infection in Children: Initial Experience and Comparison with Gadolinium-Enhanced T1-Weighted Imaging.

Biomed Res Int 2020 16;2020:6418343. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the performance of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging against the reference standard of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (Gd-T1w) in children with intracranial infection.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-eight pediatric patients (15 males and 13 females; age range 1-163 months) with intracranial infection were recruited in this study. 2D APTw imaging and conventional MR sequences were conducted using a 3 T MRI scanner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6418343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251435PMC

Investigating the etiologic agents of aseptic meningitis outbreak in Iranian children.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Mar 26;9(3):1573-1577. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Professor Alborzi Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Nemazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: This study aimed to determine the viral agent (s) and their genome burden associated with an aseptic meningitis outbreak that occurred in Yasuj, Iran.

Materials And Methods: During April to August 2015, 104 CSF samples from 104 patients under 14 years old admitted to the hospital of Yasuj, Iran, with aseptic meningitis associated clinical signs were collected. 200 μl CSF specimens was prepared for DNA and RNA viral genome extraction each and then subjected to diagnostic Taq-man real time PCR assays for the present of Enteroviruses, HSV, VZV, mumps, measles and rubella in the samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1003_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266184PMC

COVID-19: A Global Threat to the Nervous System.

Ann Neurol 2020 07;88(1):1-11

Department of Neurology, Medicine, and Immunology-Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

In less than 6 months, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide infecting nearly 6 million people and killing over 350,000. Initially thought to be restricted to the respiratory system, we now understand that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also involves multiple other organs, including the central and peripheral nervous system. The number of recognized neurologic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection is rapidly accumulating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300753PMC

Group B Streptococcus Meningitis in an Infant with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Detection.

J Pediatr 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt and Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

We cared for an infant with respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV) and group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteremia and meningitis. Concurrent GBS meningitis and RSV is rare but highlights the importance of correlating clinical symptoms with viral diagnostic testing during the evaluation of infants at risk for serious bacterial infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.06.002DOI Listing

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cerebrospinal Fluid Hydrodynamics in Patients with Meningitis.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2020 19;10:29. Epub 2020 May 19.

Departments of Neurology, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow alterations in meningitis using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI).

Materials And Methods: Fifty patients with clinically confirmed or strongly suspected infectious meningitis and 20 controls were evaluated with MRI. Quantitative CSF analysis was performed at the level of cerebral aqueduct using cardiac-gated PCMRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/JCIS_24_2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265375PMC

Utilization, yield, and accuracy of the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel with diagnostic stewardship and testing algorithm.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA

The impact of diagnostic stewardship and testing algorithms on utilization and performance of the FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel has received limited investigation. We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study assessing all individuals with suspected ME between February 2017 and April 2019 for whom the ME Panel was ordered. Testing was restricted to patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00311-20DOI Listing

West Nile Virus Restriction in Mosquito and Human Cells: A Virus under Confinement.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 29;8(2). Epub 2020 May 29.

Viral Trafficking, Restriction and Innate Signaling Team, Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier (IRIM), CNRS, 34090 Montpellier, France.

West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging neurotropic flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitoes and birds. However, WNV has a broad host range and can be transmitted from mosquitoes to several mammalian species, including humans, through infected saliva during a blood meal. Although WNV infections are mostly asymptomatic, 20% to 30% of cases are symptomatic and can occasionally lead to severe symptoms, including fatal meningitis or encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020256DOI Listing

Nasoseptal Flap Necrosis After Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery in the Setting of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19.

World Neurosurg 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA; Center for Skull Base and Pituitary Surgery, Neurological Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Background: A novel viral strain known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a worldwide pandemic known as Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Early reports from China highlighted the risks associated with performing endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery in patients with SARS-CoV-2. We present a rare complication of nasoseptal flap (NSF) necrosis associated with COVID-19, further emphasizing the challenges of performing these procedures in this era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.05.237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256530PMC

COVID-19 Case Detection: Cuba's Active Screening Approach.

Authors:
Conner Gorry

MEDICC Rev 2020 Jan;22(2):58-63

Meningitis, neuropathy, HIV, dengue-since the 1960s, Cuba has faced its share of epidemics. More recently, Cuban health pro-fessionals tackled domestic outbreaks of H1N1 (2009) and Zika (2016), and worked alongside colleagues from around the world to stem Ebola in West Africa; all three were categorized by WHO as public health emergencies of international concern. In December 2019, China reported its fi rst cluster of pneumo-nia cases, later identifi ed as the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19. Read More

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January 2020

Epidemiology of Toscana virus in South Tuscany over the years 2011-2019.

J Clin Virol 2020 Jul 22;128:104452. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; S. Maria delle Scotte Hospital, Viale Bracci, 1, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Background: Toscana virus (TOSV) is a Phlebovirus transmitted to humans by phlebotomines and represent an etiological agent of acute aseptic meningitis (AAM) in countries where the virus is endemic, including Italy. Incidence of TOSV infections is closely associated with the geographical distribution of the phlebotomine vectors which in turn is affected by climate changes that determine survival and spread. As a result, TOSV infections show a seasonal trend with a peak of incidence in summer months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104452DOI Listing

The neurology of COVID-19 revisited: A proposal from the Environmental Neurology Specialty Group of the World Federation of Neurology to implement international neurological registries.

J Neurol Sci 2020 07 7;414:116884. Epub 2020 May 7.

Pakistan International Neuroscience Society, Neurology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

A comprehensive review of the neurological disorders reported during the current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates that infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the muscle. CNS manifestations include: headache and decreased responsiveness considered initial indicators of potential neurological involvement; anosmia, hyposmia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia are frequent early symptoms of coronavirus infection. Respiratory failure, the lethal manifestation of COVID-19, responsible for 264,679 deaths worldwide, is probably neurogenic in origin and may result from the viral invasion of cranial nerve I, progressing into rhinencephalon and brainstem respiratory centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204734PMC

Bilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication of Mumps.

Cureus 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7768. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Pediatrics, United Medical and Dental College, Creek General Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Mumps is a contagious viral illness that classically presents with fever, parotid gland swelling, headache, and vomiting in unimmunized children. The complications of mumps most commonly include orchitis, pancreatitis, encephalitis, and meningitis. Optic neuritis, which refers to the inflammation of the optic nerve, in rare cases, can present after mumps meningoencephalitis and causes pain in the eye, and a decrease in visual acuity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243626PMC

Etiology of Pediatric Meningitis in West Africa Using Molecular Methods in the Era of Conjugate Vaccines against Pneumococcus, Meningococcus, and Type b.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Despite the implementation of effective conjugate vaccines against the three main bacterial pathogens that cause meningitis, , type b (Hib), and serogroup A, the burden of meningitis in West Africa remains high. The relative importance of other bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens in central nervous system infections is poorly characterized. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from children younger than 5 years with suspected meningitis presenting at pediatric teaching hospitals across West Africa in five countries including Senegal, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, and Niger. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0566DOI Listing
May 2020
2.699 Impact Factor

Enteroviral and herpes simplex virus central nervous system infections in infants < 90 days old: a Paediatric Investigators' Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 May 26;20(1):252. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, 4-590 ECHA, 11405-87 Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9, Canada.

Background: The relative contribution of viruses to central nervous system (CNS) infections in young infants is not clear. For viral CNS infections, there are limited data on features that suggest HSV etiology or on predictors of unfavorable outcome.

Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, seven centers from the Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada identified infants < 90 days of age with CNS infection proven to be due to enterovirus (EV) or herpes simplex virus (HSV) January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02151-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249448PMC
May 2020
1.918 Impact Factor

COVID-19 and the nervous system.

Authors:
Joseph R Berger

J Neurovirol 2020 04 23;26(2):143-148. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

A pandemic due to novel coronavirus arose in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and in 3 months' time swept the world. The disease has been referred to as COVID-19, and the causative agent has been labelled SARS-CoV-2 due to its genetic similarities to the virus (SARS-CoV-1) responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic nearly 20 years earlier. The spike proteins of both viruses dictate tissue tropism using the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE-2) receptor to bind to cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00840-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245181PMC

Etiology of Childhood Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Shandong Province, China.

Am J Audiol 2020 Jun 21;29(2):236-243. Epub 2020 May 21.

School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objectives The purpose of this study is to ascertain the etiology of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children aged ≤ 18 years living in Shandong province. Method Data were taken from a cross-sectional study, which was conducted between 2015 and 2017. The study included children aged ≤ 18 years, recruited from special schools for children with hearing loss and from hearing rehabilitation centers in Shandong province of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_AJA-19-00029DOI Listing

Acute Hydrocephalus in a Case of Mumps Meningoencephalitis: A Rare Occurrence.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):34-37. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, M S Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Mumps is an acute viral illness, which presents with glandular and/or nervous system involvement. The most common central nervous system manifestations of mumps include aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Mumps meningoencephalitis, which is characterized by fever, vomiting, nuchal rigidity, and altered sensorium, usually develops at least 3-10 days after mumps parotitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JPN.JPN_58_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227755PMC

Neurologic Manifestations of Severe Respiratory Viral Contagions.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Apr 29;2(4):e0107. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Both authors: Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Endemic and pandemic viral respiratory infections have recently emerged as a critical topic of investigation given the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 outbreak. Data from such outbreaks indicate that severe systemic comorbidities including acute neurologic illness are associated with illness and lead to significant outcome differences. Herein, we will discuss the neurologic manifestations of severe viral respiratory infections including coronavirus, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and enterovirus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188429PMC

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Signaling May Contribute to Chronic West Nile Virus Post-infectious Proinflammatory State.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 30;7:164. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, United States.

West Nile virus (WNV) causes a spectrum of human disease ranging from a febrile illness (WNV fever) to severe neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis). Since WNV gained entry into North America in 1999, clinicians caring for WNV survivors have observed persistent neurological symptoms occurring long-after the production of neutralizing antibodies and clearance of the virus. Accordingly, alternative pathogeneses other than direct viral invasion have been hypothesized to explain these post-infectious symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203783PMC

Proposal of a timing strategy for cholesteatoma surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: The COVID-19 infection is an aggressive viral illness with high risk of transmission during otolaryngology examination and surgery. Cholesteatoma is known for its potential to cause complications and scheduling of surgery during the pandemic must be done carefully. The majority of otological surgeries may be classified as elective and postponed at this time (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06037-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225247PMC

Experimental Infection of Newly Hatched Domestic Ducklings via Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Infected Mosquitoes.

Pathogens 2020 May 12;9(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Shanghai 200241, China.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic pathogen that is maintained by mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts including birds in a natural transmission cycle. Domestic ducklings are sensitive to JEV infection, but the clinical responses of domestic ducklings to natural JEV infection are unknown. In this study, we simulated the natural JEV infection of domestic ducklings via JEV-infected mosquito bites to evaluate the pathogenicity of JEV in domestic ducklings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281460PMC

Analysis of soluble interleukin-2 receptor as CSF biomarker for neurosarcoidosis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2020 Jul 11;7(4). Epub 2020 May 11.

From the Department of Neurology (C.O., O.W., K.R.), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health; Labor Berlin Charité-Vivantes GmbH (N.U., C.M.); and Institute for Medical Immunology (C.M.), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: To systematically analyze soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in CSF as a diagnostic and disease activity biomarker in patients with sarcoidosis involving the CNS (neurosarcoidosis).

Methods: sIL-2R was determined by chemiluminescent immunoassays in CSF/serum samples from patients with neurosarcoidosis (n = 23), MS (n = 19), neurotuberculosis (n = 8), viral (n = 18) and bacterial (n = 9) meningitis, cerebral lymphoma (n = 15), Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 8), and 115 patients with noninflammatory neurologic diseases (NINDs) as controls. The sIL-2R index was calculated by dividing the CSF/serum sIL-2R quotient (Q) through the CSF/serum albumin quotient (Q). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238895PMC

Efficacy of auditory evoked potential follow-up in viral meningitis of infants.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju 87, Dongdae-ro, Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 38067, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To examine the rate of occurrence of hearing impairments among the infants who had recovered from viral meningitis under 1 year of age through auditory evoked potential (AEP) test and to investigate the efficacy of the follow-up AEP test in viral meningitis infants.

Methods: Two hundred twenty infants (440 ears) were examined through AEP test once, and 47 (94 ears) of them went back for a second examination and were diagnosed with viral meningitis. The first AEP tests were compared with the second results in 47 infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04630-6DOI Listing

Infection and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Feb;45(2):181-186

Department of Neurology, Xiangya School of Medicine Affiliated Haikou Hospital, Central South University, Haikou 570208

The pathogenesis of neuromyelitisoptica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) is influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including infectious agents. Several viral and bacterial infectious diseases are related to the onset and the relapse of NMOSD.The cases of NMOSD with bacterial meningitis have also been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2020.190006DOI Listing
February 2020

Retinoic acid inducible gene-I mediated detection of bacterial nucleic acids in human microglial cells.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 May 1;17(1):139. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC, 28223, USA.

Background: Bacterial meningitis and meningoencephalitis are associated with devastating neuroinflammation. We and others have demonstrated the importance of glial cells in the initiation of immune responses to pathogens invading the central nervous system (CNS). These cells use a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to identify common pathogen motifs and the cytosolic sensor retinoic acid inducible gene-1 (RIG-I) is known to serve as a viral PRR and initiator of interferon (IFN) responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01817-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195775PMC

Potentially irreversible olfactory and gustatory impairments in COVID-19: Indolent vs. fulminant SARS-CoV-2 neuroinfection.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 07 27;87:107-108. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology, Athens Naval Hospital, Athens, Greece; Scientific Research Associate, Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larisa, Greece; Postdoctorate Research Fellow, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Volos, Greece. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185018PMC

Infections of the central nervous system as a risk factor for mental disorders and cognitive impairment: A nationwide register-based study.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark; National Centre for Register-based Research, Aarhus University, Denmark; Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: CNS infections have been suggested as risk factors for cognitive decline and mental disorders; however, large-scale studies have been lacking regarding types and agents of CNS infections.

Methods: We utilized the unique personal registration number to create a cohort of 1,709,867 individuals born 1977-2010. CNS infection was exposure and data were analysed with 1) cox regression analyses estimating hazard ratios (HR) for developing mental disorders and 2) binomial regression estimating relative risk (RR) for completion of 9th grade including average grade score in a sub-cohort born 1988-1998. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.072DOI Listing

[Etiology and molecular-epidemiological characteristics of viral meningo-encephalitis in Zhejiang province, 2002-2018].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Apr;41(4):562-566

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China.

To understand the pathogens and molecular-epidemiologic characteristics of viral meningo-encephalitis in Zhejiang province during 2002 to 2018. All the samples were collected from suspected patients admitted to the hospitals under the monitoring program. Of the total samples, 2 173 were cerebrospinal fluids while the other 455 were stool specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20190625-00463DOI Listing

Etiology, Treatment, and Outcome of Children Aged 3 to 36 Months With Fever Without a Source at a Community Hospital in Southern Thailand.

J Prim Care Community Health 2020 Jan-Dec;11:2150132720915404

Thasala Hospital, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.

Fever without a source (FWS) in young children can result from occult bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI), meningitis, or certain viral infections. In rural areas of Thailand, where bacterial cultures are not available in some community hospitals, the appropriate examination and management of FWS remain controversial. We retrospectively searched electronic medical records for medical diagnoses associated with FWS and evaluated the characteristics and clinical courses of children aged 3 to 36 months with FWS who were admitted to a community hospital in southern Thailand between January 2015 and December 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150132720915404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232878PMC

CNS infections in HIV.

Authors:
Kiran T Thakur

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2020 Jun;33(3):267-272

Winifred Mercer Pitkin Assistant Professor of Neurology, Division of Critical Care and Hospitalist Neurology, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center and New York Presbyterian, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Central nervous system (CNS) infections associated with HIV remain significant contributors to morbidity and mortality, particularly among people living with HIV (PLWH) in resource-limited settings worldwide. In this review, we discuss several recent important scientific discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis, and management around two of the major causes of CNS opportunistic infections-tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis including immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) associated with cryptococcal meningitis. We also discuss the CNS as a possible viral reservoir, highlighting Cerebrospinal fluid viral escape. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000652DOI Listing

Molecular Pathogenicity of Enteroviruses Causing Neurological Disease.

Front Microbiol 2020 9;11:540. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Viral Diseases Division, National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Enteroviruses are single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that primarily cause self-limiting gastrointestinal or respiratory illness. In some cases, these viruses can invade the central nervous system, causing life-threatening neurological diseases including encephalitis, meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). As we near the global eradication of poliovirus, formerly the major cause of AFP, the number of AFP cases have not diminished implying a non-poliovirus etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161091PMC

Predictors of infectious meningitis or encephalitis: the yield of cerebrospinal fluid in a cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Apr 23;20(1):304. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Clinic for Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses are recommended in patients with meningitis and/or encephalitis, but evidence regarding its diagnostic yield is low. We aimed to determine predictors of infectious pathogens in the CSF of adult patients presenting with meningitis, and/or encephalitis.

Methods: Consecutive patients with meningitis and/or encephalitis form 2011-17 at a Swiss academic medical care center were included in this cross-sectional study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05022-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181581PMC
April 2020
2.613 Impact Factor

Experimental Infection of Dogs with Toscana Virus and Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus to Determine Their Potential as Possible Vertebrate Hosts.

Microorganisms 2020 Apr 20;8(4). Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Unite des Virus Emergents (UVE: Aix Marseille Univ, IRD 190, INSERM U1207, IHU Mediterranee Infection), 13005 Marseille, France.

The sandfly-borne Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV), a close relative of the sandfly fever Sicilian phlebovirus (SFSV), is one of the most common causes of acute meningitis or meningoencephalitis in humans in the Mediterranean Basin. However, most of human phlebovirus infections in endemic areas either are asymptomatic or cause mild influenza-like illness. To date, a vertebrate reservoir for sandfly-borne phleboviruses has not been identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8040596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232252PMC

Clinical profile and atypical manifestation of fever cases between 2011 and 2018 in Chennai, India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2020 Feb 28;9(2):1119-1123. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of General Medicine, Sri Muthukumaran Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Affiliated to the Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Chikkarayapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral disease which has reached alarming size in the past few years. It is endemic in more than 100 countries and significant differences were found in clinical profile and atypical manifestation.

Aim Of The Study: A retrospective observational study of clinical profile and atypical manifestations in patients with dengue fever. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_926_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113926PMC
February 2020

MG132 exerts anti-viral activity against HSV-1 by overcoming virus-mediated suppression of the ERK signaling pathway.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 21;10(1):6671. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto, 607-8412, Japan.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a number of clinical manifestations including cold sores, keratitis, meningitis and encephalitis. Although current drugs are available to treat HSV-1 infection, they can cause side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Moreover, owing to the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-1 strains, new anti-HSV-1 compounds are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63438-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174428PMC

Human herpesvirus 6 meningitis in an adult.

Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2020 Apr 27;33(2):246-247. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences CenterAmarilloTexas.

Many cases of viral meningitis are idiopathic, but increased utilization of polymerase chain reaction testing has enabled physicians to better recognize rare causes of viral meningitis. This will likely continue to improve the rate of causative agent identification in seemingly idiopathic viral meningitis, including this case of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) meningitis in an immunocompetent adult patient. More common viral etiologies need to be excluded before diagnosing HHV-6 meningitis, as this maximizes pretest probability and therefore increases validity of a positive result. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08998280.2020.1719784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7155960PMC

Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in children.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 04 20;4:CD004407. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Azienda Sanitaria Locale ASL AL, Servizio Regionale di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia, SSEpi-SeREMI, Via Venezia 6, Alessandria, Italy, 15121.

Background: Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) are serious diseases that can lead to serious complications, disability, and death. However, public debate over the safety of the trivalent MMR vaccine and the resultant drop in vaccination coverage in several countries persists, despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. This is an update of a review published in 2005 and updated in 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169657PMC

Jamestown Canyon virus in Massachusetts: clinical case series and vector screening.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):903-912

Infectious Disease and Microbiome Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a neuroinvasive arbovirus that is found throughout North America and increasingly recognized as a public health concern. From 2004 to 2012, an average of 1.7 confirmed cases were reported annually in the United States, whereas from 2013 to 2018 this figure increased over seventeen-fold to 29. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1756697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273174PMC
December 2020

Impact of rapid enterovirus polymerase chain reaction testing on management of febrile young infants < 90 days of age with aseptic meningitis.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Apr 16;20(1):166. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Diagnostic evaluation of febrile young infants is challenging. Empirical antimicrobial treatment is therefore common practice in this setting despite high percentage of causative viral infections. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rapid enterovirus cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction (CSF EV PCR) test on hospital length of stay (LOS) and antimicrobial treatment duration in young febrile infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02066-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161008PMC

Bacterial Pigment Prodigiosin Demonstrates a Unique Antiherpesvirus Activity That Is Mediated through Inhibition of Prosurvival Signal Transducers.

J Virol 2020 Jun 16;94(13). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is among the most prevalent viral infections worldwide and remains incurable. While nucleoside analogs are used to relieve symptoms of infection, they suffer from having serious adverse effects and are unable to abolish the virus from the host. Here, we demonstrate a unique antiviral effect of prodigiosin (PG), a natural secondary metabolite produced by , on HSV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00251-20DOI Listing
June 2020
4.439 Impact Factor

Early Entry Events in Echovirus 30 Infection.

J Virol 2020 Jun 16;94(13). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Biological and Environmental Science/Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland

Echovirus 30 (E30), a member of the enterovirus B species, is a major cause of viral meningitis, targeting children and adults alike. While it is a frequently isolated enterovirus and the cause of several outbreaks all over the world, surprisingly little is known regarding its entry and replication strategy within cells. In this study, we used E30 strain Bastianni (E30B) generated from an infectious cDNA clone in order to study early entry events during infection in human RD cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00592-20DOI Listing

Regulation of Mumps Virus Replication and Transcription by Kinase RPS6KB1.

J Virol 2020 Jun 1;94(12). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, Georgia, USA

Mumps virus (MuV) caused the most viral meningitis before mass immunization. Unfortunately, MuV has reemerged in the United States in the past several years. MuV is a member of the genus , in the family , and has a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00387-20DOI Listing

Late Presenters of HIV Infection in an HIV Unit of a Tertiary University Hospital in a Rural Region of Greece.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2020 Jul 12;36(7):601-605. Epub 2020 May 12.

HIV Unit, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

A significant progress has been made over the years in the prognosis and treatment of patients with early diagnosis of HIV infection. However, late presentation of a large number of patients remains a serious public health problem. The aim of our study is to highlight the dimensions of the problem by evaluating the data from the HIV Unit of Alexandroupolis, a rural region with population heterogeneity and a strategic position between West and East, Europe, and Asia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2019.0246DOI Listing