8,431 results match your criteria Meningitis Viral

Molnupiravir and Its Active Form, EIDD-1931, Show Potent Antiviral Activity against Enterovirus Infections In Vitro and In Vivo.

Viruses 2022 May 25;14(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

National Engineering Research Center for the Emergency Drug, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing 100850, China.

Enterovirus infections can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFDM), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and acute flaccid myelitis, leading to death of infants and young children. However, no specific antiviral drug is currently available for the treatment of this type of infection. The Unites States and United Kingdom health authorities recently approved a new antiviral drug, molnupiravir, for the treatment of COVID-19. Read More

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Reversal of CSF HIV-1 Escape during Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis in Botswana.

Biomedicines 2022 Jun 13;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape has been poorly described among people with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. We determined the prevalence of CSF viral escape and HIV-1 viral load (VL) trajectories in individuals treated for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using paired CSF and plasma collected prior to and during the antifungal treatment of 83 participants recruited at the Botswana site of the phase-3 AMBITION-cm trial (2018-2021). Read More

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Heparin-Binding Protein (HBP), Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and S100 Calcium-Binding Protein B (S100B) Can Confirm Bacterial Meningitis and Inform Adequate Antibiotic Treatment.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Jun 19;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

The empirical administration of antibiotics for suspected bacterial meningitis denotes a poor bacterial stewardship. In this context, the use of biomarkers can distinguish between bacterial and viral infections before deciding treatment. Our study assesses how levels of heparin-binding protein (HBP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in blood can promptly confirm bacterial etiology and the need for antibiotic treatment. Read More

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Molecular typing of enteroviruses: comparing 5'UTR, VP1 and whole genome sequencing methods.

Pathology 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Serology and Virology Division (SAViD), NSW Health Pathology East, Department of Microbiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; Department of Infectious Diseases, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; Virology Research Laboratory, Serology and Virology Division (SAViD), New South Wales Health Pathology East, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Enteroviruses (EV) commonly cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and can also cause potentially fatal neurological and systemic complications. In our laboratory, sequencing 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genome has been the routine method of genotyping EVs. During a recent localised outbreak of aseptic meningitis, sequencing the 5'UTR identified the causative virus as EV-A71, which did not fit with the clinical syndrome or illness severity. Read More

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Etiology and Outcomes of Healthcare-Associated Meningitis and Ventriculitis-A Single Center Cohort Study.

Infect Dis Rep 2022 Jun 3;14(3):420-427. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Šalata 3b, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Healthcare associated meningitis and ventriculitis (HCAMV) are serious complications of neurosurgical procedures. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with HCAMV treated at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases Zagreb during the 2013-2019 period. A total of 144 patients with 151 episodes of HCAMV were included. Read More

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The epidemiological profile of meningitis among adults in a South African district hospital.

Pan Afr Med J 2022 29;41:256. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Biostatistics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa.

Introduction: understanding the epidemiological profile of a disease in a particular region allows for proper planning of public health resources for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. In this present study, we describe the epidemiological profile of viral, fungal, tuberculous and bacterial meningitis among adults at National District Hospital (NDH), Free State province, over three years period (January 2017 to December 2019).

Methods: a retrospective, observational study of all adult meningitis cases, managed at the National District Hospital (NDH) Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa between January 2017 and December 2019. Read More

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Engineered coxsackievirus B3 containing multiple organ-specific miRNA targets showed attenuated viral tropism and protective immunity.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 Jun 16:105316. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China; Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Child Development and Nutriomics, Beijing, China; Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) can cause viral myocarditis, pancreatitis, and aseptic meningitis. This study aimed to construct an engineered CVB3 harboring three different tissue-specific miRNA targets (CVB3-miR3*T) to decrease the virulence of CVB3 in muscles, pancreas, and brain. CVB3-miR3*T and CVB3-miR-CON (containing three sequences not found in the human genome) were engineered and replicated in HELA cells. Read More

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Circulation of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) causing respiratory illness in New South Wales, Australia, between August 2018 and November 2019.

Pathology 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Virology Research Laboratory, Serology and Virology Division (SAViD), NSW Health Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales Medicine, Kensington, NSW, Australia; Serology and Virology Division (SAViD), NSW Health Pathology East, Department of Microbiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

The incidence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in New South Wales, Australia, is unknown. As part of a state-wide surveillance program, enterovirus positive diagnostic specimens were assessed from patients presenting to hospitals with respiratory and meningitis syndromes from August 2018 to November 2019. Diagnostic enterovirus positive samples were collected from 339 patients and re-extracted followed by targeted PCR across the whole EV-D68 genome (7. Read More

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Risk factors for acute encephalitis and early seizure recurrence in complex febrile seizures.

Eur J Pediatr 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pediatrics, National Hospital Organization Beppu Medical Center, 1473 Oaza-Uchikamado, Beppu, Oita, 874-0011, Japan.

The purpose of this study is to elucidate risk factors for central nervous system infection and early seizure recurrence in children with febrile seizures (FSs) and thus facilitate outpatient management of complex FS. This single-center, retrospective cohort study investigated 688 children (6-60 months old) with FSs in Japan during 2011-2021. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of children with acute encephalitis or bacterial meningitis. Read More

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A semiparametric approach for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies with multiple cut-offs.

Res Synth Methods 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The accuracy of a diagnostic test is often expressed using a pair of measures: sensitivity (proportion of test positives among all individuals with target condition) and specificity (proportion of test negatives among all individuals without target condition). If the outcome of a diagnostic test is binary, results from different studies can easily be summarized in a meta-analysis. However, if the diagnostic test is based on a discrete or continuous measure (e. Read More

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Outbreak of central nervous system infections among children in Thai Binh, Viet Nam.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Dec;11(1):1683-1692

IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

From July to October 2020, 99 cases of central nervous system (CNS) infections were identified in Thai Binh Pediatric Hospital, Viet Nam, representing a five-fold increase compared to the baseline incidence during the previous five years. Clinical data were retrospectively collected. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) were secondarily tested for pathogens using viral culture and PCR assays. Read More

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December 2022

Infectious causes of acute encephalitis syndrome hospitalizations in Central India, 2018-20.

J Clin Virol 2022 May 28;153:105194. Epub 2022 May 28.

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, Telangana, India.

Background: We enhanced surveillance of hospitalizations of all ages for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) along with infectious aetiologies, including the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).

Methods: From October 2018 to September 2020, we screened neurological patients for AES in all age groups in Maharashtra and Telangana States. AES cases were enrolled at study hospitals along with other referrals and sampled with cerebrospinal fluid, acute and convalescent sera. Read More

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Differences Between Viral Meningitis and Abusive Head Trauma.

Pediatrics 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Divisions of Child Adversity and Resilience.

Objectives: To evaluate the hypothesis that viral meningitis may mimic abusive head trauma (AHT) by comparing the history of present illness (HPI) and clinical presentation of young children with proven viral meningitis to those with AHT and those with subdural hemorrhage (SDH) only. We hypothesized that significant differences would exist between viral meningitis and the comparison groups.

Methods: We performed a 5-year retrospective case-control study of subjects aged <2 years, comparing those with confirmed viral meningitis (controls) to those with SDH evaluated by the hospital child abuse pediatrics team (cases). Read More

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Clinical and Neurodevelopmental Characteristics of and Meningitis in Neonates.

Front Pediatr 2022 20;10:881516. Epub 2022 May 20.

Medical and Surgical Department of Fetus-Newborn-Infant, "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital Scientific Hospitalization and Treatment Institute (IRCCS), Rome, Italy.

Background: Non-polio-enteroviruses (EV) and human parechoviruses (HPeV) are small RNA viruses, which in newborns cause infections with a wide range of severity. Today molecular biology tools allow us to diagnose viral meningitis in neonates, sparing patients from useless antibiotics. Data on neurodevelopmental outcome of children who contract enterovirus meningitis in early childhood are still limited in the literature. Read More

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Turnaround times for molecular testing of pediatric viral cerebrospinal fluid samples in United Kingdom laboratories.

World J Clin Pediatr 2022 May 18;11(3):289-294. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Torbay Hospital, Torquay TQ2 7AA, United Kingdom.

Background: Rapid molecular testing has revolutionized the management of suspected viral meningitis and encephalitis by providing an etiological diagnosis in < 90 min with potential to improve outcomes and shorten inpatient stays. However, use of molecular assays can vary widely.

Aim: To evaluate current practice for molecular testing of pediatric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples across the United Kingdom using a structured questionnaire. Read More

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Serotype analysis of pediatric enteroviral meningitis in Gwangju, Republic of Korea: Number of annual cases, distribution by age group, and characteristics of each serotype.

J Clin Virol 2022 May 24;153:105192. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Chonnam National University Children's Hospital, 42, Jebong-ro, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61469, Republic of Korea; Department of Pediatrics, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Enteroviral meningitis is a common disease in children; however, serotype data are still lacking, especially for late childhood.

Objectives: This study analyzed the number of annual cases, distribution by age group, and characteristics of each serotype among children with enteroviral meningitis.

Study Design: After the initial screening of 1,009 children (<18 years) with viral meningitis between 2008 and 2021, the data of enteroviral meningitis were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 transmission, persistence of immunity, and estimates of Omicron's impact in South African population cohorts.

Sci Transl Med 2022 May 31:eabo7081. Epub 2022 May 31.

Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, 2131, South Africa.

Understanding the build-up of immunity with successive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the epidemiological conditions that favor rapidly expanding epidemics will help facilitate future pandemic control. We analyzed high-resolution infection and serology data from two longitudinal household cohorts in South Africa to reveal high cumulative infection rates and durable cross-protective immunity conferred by prior infection in the pre-Omicron era. Building on the history of past exposures to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccination in the more representative urban cohort given South Africa's high urbanization rate, we used mathematical models to explore the fitness advantage of the Omicron variant and its epidemic trajectory. Read More

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A Review on Chikungunya Virus Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Current Vaccine Development.

Viruses 2022 05 5;14(5). Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Virology and Experimental Therapy, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz, Recife 50740-465, PE, Brazil.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that recently re-emerged in many parts of the world causing large-scale outbreaks. CHIKV infection presents as a febrile illness known as chikungunya fever (CHIKF). Infection is self-limited and characterized mainly by severe joint pain and myalgia that can last for weeks or months; however, severe disease presentation can also occur in a minor proportion of infections. Read More

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Analysis of Coxsackievirus B5 Infections in the Central Nervous System in Brazil: Insights into Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity.

Viruses 2022 04 26;14(5). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Laboratório de Enterovírus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil.

Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) is one of the most prevalent enteroviruses types in humans and causes annual epidemics worldwide. In the present study, we explored viral genetic diversity, molecular and epidemiological aspects of CVB5 obtained from cerebrospinal fluid and stool samples of patients with aseptic meningitis or acute flaccid paralysis, information that is still scarce in Brazil. From 2005 to 2018, 57 isolates of CVB5 were identified in the scope of the Brazilian Poliomyelitis Surveillance Program. Read More

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Recent Synergy of Nanodiamonds: Role in Brain-Targeted Drug Delivery for the Management of Neurological Disorders.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research-Raebareli, New Transit Campus, Bijnor-Sisendi Road, Sarojini Nagar, Near CRPF Base Camp, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226002, India.

The aim of the present review article is to summarize the role of nanodiamonds in various neurological diseases. We have taken related literature of making this review article from ScienceDirect, springer, Research gate, PubMed, Sci-finder, etc. The current approaches for treating neurological conditions such as glioblastoma includes chemotherapy or combination anti-retro viral therapy for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) or use of anti-Alzheimer drugs during cognitive impairment. Read More

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Aseptic Meningitis and Its Viral Etiologies, Clinical Characteristics and Management Practices in Children: A Retrospective Hospital-Based Study From Jordan.

Cureus 2022 Apr 22;14(4):e24383. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Pediatrics, The University of Jordan, Amman, JOR.

Purpose In this study, we aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, aetiologies, and role of PCR in the decision on the management plan and duration of hospital stay in Jordanian children diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study included children diagnosed with meningitis who were admitted to the paediatric ward at Jordan University Hospital (JUH) during the period from January 2016 to August 2020. Patients were identified through the ICD9 discharge code of meningitis. Read More

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Identifying Japanese Encephalitis Virus Using Metatranscriptomic Sequencing, Xinjiang, China.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 06;28(6):1298-1300

The treat of infectious disease epidemics has increased the critical need for continuous broad-ranging surveillance of pathogens with outbreak potential. Using metatranscriptomic sequencing of blood samples, we identified several cases of Japanese encephalitis virus infection from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. This discovery highlights the risk for known viral diseases even in nonendemic areas. Read More

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Central nervous system infections in solid organ transplant recipients: Results from the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study.

J Infect 2022 Jul 21;85(1):1-7. Epub 2022 May 21.

Service of Infectious Diseases and Transplantation Center, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and clinical presentation of central nervous system (CNS) infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients in the current era of transplantation.

Methods: Patients from the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS) transplanted between 2008 and 2018 were included with a median follow-up of 3.8 years. Read More

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In-vitro antiviral activity of doxepin hydrochloride against group B coxsackievirus.

Virus Res 2022 Aug 19;317:198816. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China; College of Pharmacy, Shenzhen Technology University, Shenzhen, 518118, China. Electronic address:

Group B coxsackievirus is an enterovirus that can cause a variety of diseases, including myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, and hand, foot, and mouth disease. Currently, there is no effective antiviral drug against this virus. In this study, we used a cytopathic effect-based viral inhibition assay to screen an FDA-approved drug library and found that doxepin hydrochloride had potential antiviral activity. Read More

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The nonstructural protein 2C of Coxsackie B virus has RNA helicase and chaperoning activities.

Virol Sin 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China; State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

RNA-remodeling proteins, including RNA helicases and chaperones, play vital roles in the remodeling of structured RNAs. During viral replication, viruses require RNA-remodeling proteins to facilitate proper folding and/or re-folding the viral RNA elements. Coxsackieviruses B3 (CVB3) and Coxsackieviruses B5 (CVB5), belonging to the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, have been reported to cause various infectious diseases such as hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, and viral myocarditis. Read More

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Immunodeficiency Should Be Excluded in Patients With Recurrent Viral Meningitis and Breakthrough COVID-19.

Josef Finsterer

J Korean Med Sci 2022 05 16;37(19):e161. Epub 2022 May 16.

Neurology & Neurophysiology Center, Vienna, Austria.

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Molecular Characterization of Herpesviral Encephalitis in Cetaceans: Correlation with Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Findings.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Apr 29;12(9). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Atlantic Cetacean Research Center, Veterinary Histology and Pathology, Institute of Animal Health (IUSA), Veterinary School, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), Trasmontaña, s/n, 35413 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.

Herpesviruses are causative agents of meningitis and encephalitis in cetaceans, which are among the main leading known natural causes of death in these species. Brain samples from 103 stranded cetaceans were retrospectively screened for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the brain. Molecular detection of Cetacean Morbillivirus was performed in HV positive brain cases. Read More

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A 9-Month-Old Boy With "3 Months of Croup" a Devil Inside.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2022 Jan-Dec;10:23247096211066392

UCLA Kern Medical, Bakersfield, CA, USA.

Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is an endemic fungal disease that is prevalent in the Southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. The majority of cases are asymptomatic. Symptomatic cases primarily present with pneumonic disease, varying in severity from mild to severe. Read More

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A Rare Case of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Transverse Myelitis in a 40-Year-Old Patient With COVID-19.

Cureus 2022 Apr 6;14(4):e23877. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Infectious Disease, Saint Peter's University Hospital, New Brunswick, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes an extensive spectrum of clinical manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Previous studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 often exhibits central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, including encephalitis, meningitis, and spinal cord pathologies. To date, few cases of COVID-19-associated transverse myelitis (TM) have been described. Read More

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Quantitative proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid reveals CD163, A2M and full-length APP as potential diagnostic biomarkers of paediatric bacterial meningitis.

Proteome Sci 2022 May 6;20(1). Epub 2022 May 6.

Pediatrics Research Institute of Hunan Province, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China.

Background: Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a life-threatening infectious disease of the central nervous system in infants and children. To date, no diagnostic methods for the early and precise diagnosis of paediatric BM have been developed.

Methods: A label-free cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) quantitative proteomic analysis of 8 patients with confirmed or suspected BM, 9 patients with confirmed or suspected viral meningitis (VM) and 6 non-CNS-infected hospital patients was performed via high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Read More

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