4,481 results match your criteria Meningitis Haemophilus


Neuronal Damage and Neuroinflammation, a Bridge Between Bacterial Meningitis and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 3;15:680858. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet Biomedicum, Stockholm, Sweden.

Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges which covers and protects the brain and the spinal cord. Such inflammation is mostly caused by blood-borne bacteria that cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and finally invade the brain parenchyma. Pathogens such as , , and are the main etiological causes of bacterial meningitis. Read More

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Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Infections after 3 Decades of Hib Protein Conjugate Vaccine Use.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2021 Jun 2;34(3):e0002821. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Medical Sciences Division, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) was previously the most common cause of bacterial meningitis and an important etiologic agent of pneumonia in children aged <5 years. Its major virulence factor is the polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) polysaccharide capsule. In the 1980s, PRP-protein conjugate Hib vaccines were developed and are now included in almost all national immunization programs, achieving a sustained decline in invasive Hib infections. Read More

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Assessing vaccine introduction and uptake timelines in Gavi-supported countries: are introduction timelines accelerating across vaccine delivery platforms?

BMJ Glob Health 2021 05;6(5)

International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Background: Previous studies identified factors influencing regulatory approval to introduction timelines for individual vaccines. However, introduction and uptake timelines have not been comprehensively assessed across the portfolio of Gavi-supported vaccines.

Methods: We analysed median times between introduction milestones from vaccine licensure to country introduction and uptake across six vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), three delivery platforms and 69 Gavi-supported countries. Read More

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Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative: a prospective analysis of surveillance data.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 06;3(6):e360-e370

Irish Meningitis and Sepsis Reference Laboratory, Children's Health Ireland at Temple Street, Dublin, Ireland; Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Read More

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Nontypeable Otitis Media: Mastoiditis and Meningitis Complicated with Central Venous Thrombosis in an Immunocompetent Child.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 13;2021:8845200. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Ataşehir Memorial Hospital, Clinic of Pediatrics, Istanbul, Turkey.

Implementation of the type B (Hib) conjugate vaccine brought about a reduction in the number of cases and morbidity from type B but an increase in nontypeable strain infections. Nontypeable (NTHi) commonly colonizes children's upper respiratory tract and causes otitis media, sinusitis, and bronchitis. Invasive NTHi diseases, such as meningitis and septicemia, have rarely been reported. Read More

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Meningitis Direct Diagnosis by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing: A Case Report.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 12;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

IHU Méditerranée Infection, 13005 Marseille, France.

Current routine real-time PCR methods used for the point-of-care diagnosis of infectious meningitis do not allow for one-shot genotyping of the pathogen, as in the case of deadly meningitis. Real-time PCR diagnosed meningitis in a 22-year-old male patient, during his hospitalisation following a more than six-metre fall. Using an Oxford Nanopore Technologies real-time sequencing run in parallel to real-time PCR, we detected the genome directly from the cerebrospinal fluid sample in six hours. Read More

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Long Term Impact of Conjugate Vaccines on Meningitis: Narrative Review.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 21;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Gold Coast Campus, School of Medicine & Dentistry, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222, Australia.

serotype b (Hib) used to be the commonest cause of bacterial meningitis in young children. The widespread use of Hib conjugate vaccine has profoundly altered the epidemiology of meningitis. This short review reports on the spectrum of meningitis thirty years after Hib conjugate vaccine was first introduced into a National Immunization Program (NIP). Read More

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Global Landscape Review of Serotype-Specific Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Surveillance among Countries Using PCV10/13: The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) Project.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

National Public Health Organisation, 15123 Athens, Greece.

Serotype-specific surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is essential for assessing the impact of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/13). The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project aimed to evaluate the global evidence to estimate the impact of PCV10/13 by age, product, schedule, and syndrome. Here we systematically characterize and summarize the global landscape of routine serotype-specific IPD surveillance in PCV10/13-using countries and describe the subset that are included in PSERENADE. Read More

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Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access, PATH, Seattle, WA 98121, USA.

Despite advances in the development and introduction of vaccines against the major bacterial causes of meningitis, the disease and its long-term after-effects remain a problem globally. The Global Roadmap to Defeat Meningitis by 2030 aims to accelerate progress through visionary and strategic goals that place a major emphasis on preventing meningitis via vaccination. Global vaccination against type B (Hib) is the most advanced, such that successful and low-cost combination vaccines incorporating Hib are broadly available. Read More

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RNA thermosensors facilitate Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae immune evasion.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 29;17(4):e1009513. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of death and disability in children worldwide. Two human restricted respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, are the major causative agents of bacterial meningitis, attributing to 200,000 deaths annually. These pathogens are often part of the nasopharyngeal microflora of healthy carriers. Read More

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Professor Mohamed Soussi Soltani: Leader, Innovator and Researcher in Public Health.

Tunis Med 2021 Jan;99(1):5-11

Mohamed Soussi SOLTANI (June 27, 1953 - March 2, 2016) is Professor of Preventive and Community Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of Monastir (Tunisia). The objective of this paper is to present, to new generations of the specialty in the Greater Maghreb, this leading teacher from the Center-East of Tunisia (Monastir), through the testimonies of his companions, and his indexed publications. All the colleagues of the late SOLTANI testified to his high human and professional qualities, particularly perseverance, commitment, forward thinking, integrity and professionalism. Read More

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January 2021

Epidemiological Profile of Meningitis following Pentavalent Vaccination in Iran: Impact of Vaccine Introduction.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Center for Communicable Diseases Control, Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Ensuring the effectiveness of the (DTwP-Hib-HepB) vaccine in reducing meningitis is an essential approach in evaluating the effectiveness of the vaccine. The study aimed to address the epidemiology of meningitis following pentavalent vaccination in Iran. Data on meningitis patients from 21st March 2011 to 21st July 2018 were extracted from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Read More

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Effect of Type b Vaccination on Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate in Children, Tehran, 2019.

Biomed Res Int 2021 15;2021:4923852. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: () strains, which commonly reside as commensals within the human pharynx and can remain as an asymptomatic carrier, but become invasive leading to pneumonia, septic arthritis, or meningitis. The Pentavac (pentavalent vaccine, manufactured by India, SII (DTwP-HepB-Hib)) was introduced to the Iranian National Immunization Plan in November 2014. The aim of this study is to investigate type b () carrier rate among children under 6 years old in Tehran. Read More

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Bacterial Meningitis in Children: Neurological Complications, Associated Risk Factors, and Prevention.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6t 1Z4, Canada.

Bacterial meningitis is a devastating infection, with a case fatality rate of up to 30% and 50% of survivors developing neurological complications. These include short-term complications such as focal neurological deficit and subdural effusion, and long-term complications such as hearing loss, seizures, cognitive impairment and hydrocephalus. Complications develop due to bacterial toxin release and the host immune response, which lead to neuronal damage. Read More

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Detection of , and in Culture Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Meningitis Patients Using a Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in Nepal.

Infect Dis Rep 2021 Mar 1;13(1):173-180. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal.

The rapid identification of bacteria causing meningitis is crucial as delays in the treatment increase mortality rate. Though considered as the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, culture might give false negative results in a case of patients under antibiotics prior to lumbar puncture. This study aimed to detect , and by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in culture-negative cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from clinically suspected meningitis cases attending different hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal from January 2017 to December 2019. Read More

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Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Serotype 1 Following Introduction of PCV10 and PCV13: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

Microorganisms 2021 03 27;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Children's Hospital Westmead Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) containing ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the pre-PCV10/13 period to each post-PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi-level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all-site IRRs using a linear mixed-effects regression (N = 45 sites). Read More

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In vitro antimicrobial activity of daptomycin alone and in adjunction with either amoxicillin, cefotaxime or rifampicin against the main pathogens responsible for bacterial meningitis in adults.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 24;25:193-198. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Infectious Diseases Department, University Hospital of Dijon, 14 rue Paul Gaffarel, 21000, Dijon, France; Vivexia, Résidence Richelieu, 10 Boulevard Carnot, 21000, Dijon, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: As daptomycin adjunction is currently under clinical evaluation in the multicentre phase II AddaMAP study to improve the prognosis of pneumococcal meningitis, the present work aimed at evaluating the in vitro antimicrobial activity of daptomycin-based combinations against some of the most frequent species responsible for bacterial meningitis.

Methods: Clinically relevant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis were obtained from National Reference Centers. The antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin, cefotaxime and rifampicin, either alone or in association with daptomycin, was explored through the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) as well as time-kill assay (TKA) using the broth microdilution method. Read More

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Community-acquired Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in adults.

J Infect 2021 05 25;82(5):145-150. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology, Neuroscience, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Haemophilus influenzae is an uncommon cause of meningitis in adults.

Methods: We analyzed episodes of community-acquired H. influenzae meningitis in adults included in a prospective nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands. Read More

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Unexpectedly High False-Positive Rates for Using a Meningoencephalitis Syndromic PCR Panel in Two Tertiary Centers.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 8;11:639658. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratory of Bacteriology, Division of Laboratory Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

False-positive results in the diagnostic of meningitis and encephalitis pose important challenges. This study aimed to determine false-positive rates for in cerebrospinal fluids evaluated by the BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel. We conducted a retrospective study of all -positive FilmArray. Read More

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Recurrent Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis in Adults.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Meibergdreef, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam.

Background: Recurrent bacterial meningitis has been found to occur in about 5% of meningitis cases.

Methods: We analyzed adults with recurrent episodes in a prospective nationwide cohort study of community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

Results: Of 2264 episodes of community-acquired bacterial meningitis between 2006 and 2018, 143 (6%) were identified as recurrent episodes in 123 patients. Read More

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October 2020

Molecular diagnostic assays for the detection of common bacterial meningitis pathogens: A narrative review.

EBioMedicine 2021 Mar 12;65:103274. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Bacterial meningitis is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. Rapid identification of the aetiological agent of meningitis is essential for clinical and public health management and disease prevention given the wide range of pathogens that cause the clinical syndrome and the availability of vaccines that protect against some, but not all, of these. Since microbiological culture is complex, slow, and often impacted by prior antimicrobial treatment of the patient, molecular diagnostic assays have been developed for bacterial detection. Read More

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A systematic literature review of economic evaluations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in east and southeast Asia (2006-2019).

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Mar 22:1-14. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Pneumococcal infections can lead to serious invasive diseases such as meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia, as well as milder but more common illnesses such as sinusitis and otitis media. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in infant National Immunization Program (NIP) programs worldwide. Decision-makers in Asian countries planning to introduce PCVs in their respective NIP will need a comprehensive evidence of effectiveness of PCVs at the population level and economic evidence including cost-effectiveness. Read More

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A Narrative Review of the Molecular Epidemiology and Laboratory Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Meningitis Agents: , , and .

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Laboratory for Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Diseases, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3R2, Canada.

This narrative review describes the public health importance of four most common bacterial meningitis agents, , , , and (group B ). Three of them are strict human pathogens that normally colonize the nasopharynx and may invade the blood stream to cause systemic infections and meningitis. colonizes the genito-gastrointestinal tract and is an important meningitis agent in newborns, but also causes invasive infections in infants or adults. Read More

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February 2021

The Global Burden of Meningitis in Children: Challenges with Interpreting Global Health Estimates.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 13;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a global roadmap to defeat meningitis by 2030. To advocate for and track progress of the roadmap, the burden of meningitis as a syndrome and by pathogen must be accurately defined. Three major global health models estimating meningitis mortality as a syndrome and/or by causative pathogen were identified and compared for the baseline year 2015. Read More

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February 2021

Invasive Bacterial Infections in Subjects with Genetic and Acquired Susceptibility and Impacts on Recommendations for Vaccination: A Narrative Review.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 24;9(3). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Institut Pasteur, Invasive Bacterial Infections Unit, 28 Rue du Dr. Roux, CEDEX 15, 75724 Paris, France.

The WHO recently endorsed an ambitious plan, "Defeating Meningitis by 2030", that aims to control/eradicate invasive bacterial infection epidemics by 2030. Vaccination is one of the pillars of this road map, with the goal to reduce the number of cases and deaths due to , , and . The risk of developing invasive bacterial infections (IBI) due to these bacterial species includes genetic and acquired factors that favor repeated and/or severe invasive infections. Read More

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February 2021

Bacterial Meningitis Among Adult Patients at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 15;14:565-574. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Bacterial meningitis is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. The most frequent causes of bacterial meningitis are , and . This study aimed to determine bacterial meningitis and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among adult patients. Read More

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February 2021

MRI Spectrum of Meningoencephalitis in Children.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2020 Sep-Oct;23(5):616-620. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Medanta, The Medicity, Gurugram, NCR, Haryana, India.

Background And Purpose: type b (Hib) infection occurs mostly in children and is transmitted from person to person through the respiratory pathway. Hib strain is associated with meningitis or encephalitis. It is not an uncommon infection, particularly, in the developing world. Read More

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December 2019

Ophthalmia neonatorum in a tertiary referral children's hospital: A retrospective study.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 14:1120672121994734. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Children's Health Ireland at Temple Street, Dublin, Ireland.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the aetiology, investigation and management of ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) presenting to a tertiary referral children's hospital over 5 years.

Methods: The eye swab data of all neonates presenting to Children's Health Ireland at Temple Street (Dublin, Ireland) between 1st January 2013 and 3rd September 2018 was analysed. The medical records of all patients with positive eye swab results were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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February 2021

Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae by quantitative PCR from CSF samples with negative culture in Morocco.

Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

2Laboratory of Medical Bacteriology, National Institute of Hygiene in Rabat, 27, Avenue Ibn Batouta, B.P. 769, Rabat 10 000, Morocco.

Bacteriological cultures from cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) have less sensitivity and specificity compared to quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and multiple facts still conduct to the increase of negative culture. The aims of this study are to determine the molecular epidemiology and the simultaneous detection of bacterial meningitis in Morocco by using RT-PCR and compared this molecular approach with culture method to improve the etiological diagnosis of meningitis. The CSFs were collected over one-year period in 2018 in different hospitals covering all regions of the Kingdom of Morocco, from patients with suspected meningitis. Read More

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January 2021

Fatal Cerebral Vasospasm following a Haemophilus influenzae Meningitis in a Young Child with Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 28;56(1):90-93. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

Introduction: Despite the successful implementation of Haemophilus influenzae vaccination, invasive serotypes still lead to a fatal infection. We recently cared for a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) and H. influenzae meningitis and septicemia complicated by vasospasm. Read More

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January 2021