282,476 results match your criteria Memory Hove England[Journal]


Crossed obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and impaired theory of mind in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Diagnostics and Applied Technology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy.

People with epilepsy often suffer psychiatric symptoms or exhibit maladaptive personality characteristics which can impact them more than seizures. This case illustrates a selective association of a Theory of Mind dysfunction, including an impaired comparison of reality and others' behavior, with an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in a patient with left temporal lobe epilepsy and crossed cognitive functions. The patient revealed visual memory deficits and impaired interpretation of other people's behavior, mental rigidity, and a tendency to formulate inflexible judgements. Read More

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December 2018

Translation of basic research in cognitive science to HIV-risk: a randomized controlled trial.

J Behav Med 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, 1100 NE 45th Street, Suite 300, Box 354944, Seattle, WA, 98195-4944, USA.

Many people enrolled in drug diversion programs are not receiving evidence-based prevention for HIV or hepatitis. This study translated basic research from cognitive science to increase screening for infection and condom use in this population. A parallel three-condition randomized trial was conducted in a drug diversion sample (N = 358), comparing a memory practice condition with two active control conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Neurocognitive, academic and functional outcomes in survivors of infant ependymoma (UKCCSG CNS 9204).

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Children's Brain Tumour Research Centre, Academic Division of Child Health, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

Purpose: This is the first UK multi-centre case-controlled study with follow-up in excess of 10 years to report the neurocognitive, academic and psychological outcomes of individuals diagnosed with a brain tumour in early childhood. Children enrolled into the UKCCSG CNS 9204 trial, diagnosed with intracranial ependymoma when aged ≤ 36 months old, who received a primary chemotherapy strategy to defer or avoid radiotherapy, were recruited.

Methods: Outcomes of those who relapsed and subsequently received radiotherapy (n = 13) were compared to those enrolled who did not relapse (n = 16), age-matched controls-diagnosed with solid non-central nervous system (SN-CNS; n = 15) tumours or low-grade posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma (PFPA; n = 15), and normative data. Read More

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December 2018

Functional connectivity analysis and prediction of cognitive change after carotid artery stenting.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec 14:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

OBJECTIVEThe neurocognitive course of patients who have undergone cerebral revascularization has been the subject of many studies, and the reported effects of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on cognitive function have varied from study to study. The authors hypothesized that cognitive amelioration after CAS is associated with alteration of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity, and they investigated the correlation between functional connectivity (FC) of the DMN and post-CAS changes in cognitive function in order to find a clinical marker that can be used to predict the effect of cerebral revascularization on patients' cognitive function in this preliminary exploratory study.METHODSThe authors examined post-CAS changes in cognitive function in relation to FC in patients treated for unilateral carotid artery stenosis. Read More

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December 2018

SMART-CPT for veterans with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and history of traumatic brain injury: a randomised controlled trial.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA.

Objective: To better concurrently address emotional and neuropsychological symptoms common in veterans with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we integrated components of compensatory cognitive training from the Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) programme into cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD to create a hybrid treatment, SMART-CPT (CogSMART+CPT). This study compared the efficacy of standard CPT with SMART-CPT for treatment of veterans with comorbid PTSD and history of TBI reporting cognitive symptoms.

Methods: One hundred veterans with PTSD, a history of mild to moderate TBI and current cognitive complaints were randomised and received individually delivered CPT or SMART-CPT for 12 weeks. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive mechanisms of alexithymia in schizophrenia: Investigating the role of basic neurocognitive functioning and cognitive biases.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 4;271:573-580. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

II Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw, Poland.

Alexithymia is an important but poorly understood emotional deficit in schizophrenia. We aimed at investigating the role of basic cognitive functions, cognitive biases, and symptom severity in alexithymia among patients with schizophrenia. Sixty patients (31 females) with schizophrenia were assessed with standardized clinical interviews for symptom severity. Read More

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December 2018

Intranasal insulin activates Akt2 signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type but not in APP/PS1 Alzheimer model mice.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 17;75:98-108. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Human AD brains show reduced glucose metabolism as measured by [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Here, we used 14-month-old wild-type (WT) and APP/PS1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice to investigate how a single dose of intranasal insulin modulates brain glucose metabolism using FDG-PET and affects spatial learning and memory. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of the protective effect of Myrtus communis in scopolamine-induced Alzheimer model through cholinergic receptors.

Gene 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing common health problem with increasing age. Evidences show that the key symptoms of AD are mainly caused by cholinergic system dysfunction which has a role in cognitive disorders. Cholinergic pathways especially muscarinic receptors like M subtype also have a major role in learning, memory, cognitive functions and emotional state. Read More

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December 2018

Non-motor predictors of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

Gait Posture 2018 Dec 6;68:311-316. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic, Las Vegas, NV, USA; Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The etiology of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) is yet to be clarified. Non-motor risk factors including cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance and mood disorders have been shown in freezing of gait.

Research Question: We aimed to determine the predictive value of non-motor features in freezing of gait development. Read More

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December 2018

NMDA receptors of blood lymphocytes anticipate cognitive performance variations in healthy volunteers.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Working memory (WM) system, temporarily stores information and uses this information for complex cognitive tasks. WM connects memory, emotional feelings and perception. Evidence compelling that N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) expression relatively affect WM performance in animal models. Read More

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December 2018

Longitudinal trajectories of hippocampal and prefrontal contributions to episodic retrieval: Effects of age and puberty.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Center for Mind and Brain, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA; Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address:

The current study investigated longitudinal change in hippocampal and prefrontal contribution to episodic retrieval. Functional neuroimaging data were collected during an item-context association memory task for children between the ages of 8 and 14 with individuals scanned 1-3 times over the course of 0.75-3. Read More

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November 2018

Enhancing memory with stress: Progress, challenges, and opportunities.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Yale Stress Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, 2 Church Street South, Suite 209, New Haven, CT 06519, United States. Electronic address:

Stress can strongly influence what we learn and remember, including by making memories stronger. Experiments probing stress effects on hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents have revealed modulatory factors and physiological mechanisms by which acute stress can enhance long-term memory. However, extending these findings and mechanisms to understand when stress will enhance declarative memory in humans faces important challenges. Read More

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December 2018

Engagement of Pulvino-cortical Feedforward and Feedback Pathways in Cognitive Computations.

Neuron 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA; Shanghai Research Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address:

Computational modeling of brain mechanisms of cognition has largely focused on the cortex, but recent experiments have shown that higher-order nuclei of the thalamus participate in major cognitive functions and are implicated in psychiatric disorders. Here, we show that a pulvino-cortical circuit model, composed of the pulvinar and two cortical areas, captures several physiological and behavioral observations related to the macaque pulvinar. Effective connections between the two cortical areas are gated by the pulvinar, allowing the pulvinar to shift the operation regime of these areas during attentional processing and working memory and resolve conflict in decision making. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of ghrelin and adenosine mono phosphate kinase (AMPK) on the passive avoidance memory in male wistar rats.

Neuropeptides 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Neuroscience Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

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November 2018

Prof. Dr. Rodolfo R.Brenner 1922-2018 in memoriam.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2019 Jan 22;140:1-2. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Tel Aviv University, Ramat Gan 55613, Israel.

Rodolfo R. Brenner, died on 3rd July 2018, two weeks before his 96th birthday. His memory will remain forever with all of us who had the privilege of knowing him. Read More

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January 2019

Primary cultured neuronal networks and type 2 diabetes model mouse fatty liver tissues in aqueous liquid observed by atmospheric SEM (ASEM): Staining preferences of metal solutions.

Micron 2018 Nov 23;118:9-21. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Neural networking, including axon targeting and synapse formation, is the basis of various brain functions, including memory and learning. Diabetes-mellitus affects peripheral nerves and is known to cause fatty liver disease. Electron microscopy (EM) provides the resolution required to observe changes in fine subcellular structures caused by such physiological and pathological processes, but samples are observed in vacuum. Read More

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November 2018

Delays in the reading and spelling of children with cerebral palsy: Associations with phonological and visual processes.

Res Dev Disabil 2018 Dec 12;85:131-142. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.

Background: This investigation addresses the question of whether there exists a significant discrepancy in the cognitive abilities of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who, despite the presence of age appropriate communication and language, have reading and spelling delays.

Aims: We wanted to discover whether there was a relationship between the phonological and visual perceptual abilities of children with CP and their progress in reading and spelling.

Methods And Procedures: Fifteen children with CP (aged between 6:9 years and 11:6 years) were assessed on reading and spelling; communication and language; non-verbal reasoning; phonological processing; and visual perception. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis and evaluation of clioquinol-rolipram/roflumilast hybrids as multitarget-directed ligands for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 7;163:512-526. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Considering the importance of PDE4D inhibition and the modulation of biometals in Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics, we have designed, synthesized and evaluated a series of new clioquinol-rolipram/roflumilast hybrids as multitarget-directed ligands for the treatment of AD. In vitro studies demonstrated that some of the molecules processed remarkable inhibitory activity against phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), strong intracellular antioxidant capacity, potent inhibition of metal-induced aggregation of Aβ, and potential blood-brain barrier permeability. Compound 7a demonstrated significant improvement in cognitive and spatial memory in an Aβ-induce mouse model in Morris water-maze test (MWM). Read More

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December 2018

Attentional priming: recent insights and current controversies.

Curr Opin Psychol 2018 Nov 28;29:71-75. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Icelandic Vision Laboratory, School of Humanitites and Social Sciences, University of Akureyri. Hafnarstræti 97, Akureyri IS600, Iceland.

Humans possess a primitive memory system for attention deployments that allows quick reorientation of visual attention to stimuli that are relevant to behavior at any given moment. We review recent evidence regarding such attentional priming effects from a number of different perspectives. We discuss recent findings on the time course and duration of such effects, the potential interaction of priming and top-down attentional guidance; how priming can be used to probe the nature of visual representations and attentional templates; findings on the basic nature of priming effects and recent relevant findings on so-called serial dependencies that share many characteristics with attentional priming. Read More

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November 2018
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An enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor probe with sensitivity to detect astrocytic versus glioma uptake of glutamate in real time in vitro.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Nov 16;126:751-757. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Biomedical Engineering, PO Box 10157, Ruston, LA 71272, USA; Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, PO Box 10157, Ruston, LA 71272, USA. Electronic address:

Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is essential for regulation of thought, movement, memory, and other higher functions controlled by the brain. Dysregulation of glutamate signaling is associated with severe neuropathological conditions, such as epilepsy, and glioma, a form of brain cancer. Glutamate signals are currently detected by several types of neurochemical probes ranging from microdialysis-based to enzyme-based carbon fiber microsensors. Read More

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November 2018
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Cortisol stress reactivity moderates the effects of parental corporal punishment on Chinese preschoolers' executive function.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 12;88:288-297. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Research Center for Child Development, College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, No.105 Xisan Huan Beilu, Beijing, 100048, China. Electronic address:

Background: To date whether the effects of parental corporal punishment (CP) on executive function (EF) distinct components are different is less clear. Moreover, theory and empirical work suggest that physiological regulation system may help to explain the individual differences in the developmental outcomes associated with parental CP.

Objective: This study examined the effects of parental CP on Chinese preschoolers' EF and whether the cortisol stress reactivity would moderate such effects. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of acute psychosocial stress on the neural correlates of episodic encoding: Item versus associative memory.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Saarland University.

Acute stress is known to modulate episodic memory, but little is known about the extent to, and the circumstances under, which stress affects encoding of item vs. inter-item associative information for words of different valences. Furthermore, the precise neuro-cognitive mechanisms underlying stress effects on episodic encoding in humans are largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over parietal cortex improves associative memory.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Associative memory plays a key role in everyday functioning, but it declines with normal aging as well as due to various pathological states and conditions, thus impairing quality of life. Associative memory enhancement via neurostimulation over frontal areas resulted in limited success, while posterior stimulation sites seemed to be more promising. We hypothesized that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of parietal areas would lead to higher performance in associative memory due to high connectivity between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

ADHD symptoms are associated with decreased activity of fast sleep spindles and poorer procedural overnight learning during adolescence.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

ADHD and its subclinical symptoms have been associated with both disturbed sleep and weakened overnight memory consolidation. As sleep spindle activity during NREM sleep plays a key role in both sleep maintenance and memory consolidation, we examined the association between subclinical ADHD symptoms and sleep spindle activity. Furthermore, we hypothesized that sleep spindle activity mediates the effect of ADHD symptoms on overnight learning outcome in a procedural memory task. Read More

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December 2018

Higher sleep spindle activity is associated with fewer false memories in adolescent girls.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Sleep facilitates the extraction of semantic regularities amongst newly encoded memories, which may also lead to increased false memories. We investigated sleep stage proportions and sleep spindles in the recollection of adolescents' false memories, and their potential sex-specific differences.

Methods: 196 adolescents (mean age 16. Read More

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December 2018

Altered α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor function and expression in hippocampus in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The Brain and Muscle Energy Group, Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, NO-0316, Oslo, Norway; Synaptic Neurochemistry and Amino Acid Transporters Labs, Division of Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IMB) and Healthy Brain Ageing Centre (SERTA), University of Oslo, NO-0317, Oslo, Norway; Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Glutamatergic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) carry the bulk of excitatory synaptic transmission. Their modulation plays key roles in synaptic plasticity, which underlies hippocampal learning and memory. A dysfunctional glutamatergic system may negatively affect learning abilities and underlie symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Read More

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December 2018

Localization of Contextual and Context Removed Auditory Fear Memory within the Basolateral Amygdala Complex.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology at Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia; Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, USU School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Debilitating and persistent fear memories can rapidly form in humans following exposure to traumatic events. Fear memories can also be generated and studied in animals via Pavlovian fear conditioning. The current study was designed to evaluate basolateral amygdala complex involvement following the formation of different fear memories (two contextual fear memories and one adjusted auditory fear memory). Read More

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December 2018

How does physical activity and different models of exercise training affect oxidative parameters and memory?

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Post-graduate Program in Physical Education, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas 96055-630, Brazil.

The present study investigated the chronic effects of different physical exercise and physical activity models on cognitive function, cholinergic activity, and oxidative stress markers in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Eighty 60-day old C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following five groups: Sedentary (SED), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), resistance training (RT), and physical activity (RW, for "running wheel"). Cognitive function (recognition and spatial memory), oxidative stress parameters, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Morus alba L. Diminishes visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, behavioral alterations via regulation of gene expression of leptin, resistin and adiponectin in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Ethanolic extract of leaves of Morus alba L. (M. alba), known as white mulberry, was orally administered (100 mg/kg b. Read More

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December 2018

Astaxanthin ameliorates scopolamine-induced spatial memory via reduced cortical-striato-hippocampal oxidative stress.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission and impaired cognitive functions. In rodents, scopolamine has been used to induce cholinergic dysfunction resulting in cognitive impairments and an increment of oxidative stress in the brain. Here we tested whether oxidative stress can be attenuated via an antioxidant (astaxanthin) to rescue scopolamine-induced spatial memory. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal and offspring MTHFR genotypes interact in a mouse model to induce ASD-like behavior.

Genes Brain Behav 2018 Dec 15:e12547. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Individuals with autism constitute a variable population whose members are spread along the autism spectrum. Sub-populations within that spectrum exhibit other conditions, such as anxiety, intellectual disabilities, hyperactivity and epilepsy, with different severities and co-occurrences. Among the genes associated with the increased risk for autism is the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, which impairs one-carbon metabolic pathway efficiency. Read More

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December 2018

Fastigial nucleus stimulation ameliorates cognitive impairment via modulating autophagy and inflammasomes activation in a rat model of vascular dementia.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital to Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

Background: It has been reported that the fastigial nucleus (FSN) plays an important role in the development of vascular dementia (VD). Both autophagy and inflammation are functionally involved in the pathogenesis of VD. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of electrical cerebellar fastigial nucleus stimulation (FNS) in VD treatment, as well as the effect of FNS on autophagy and inflammation. Read More

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December 2018
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In Schizophrenia, Increased Plasma IgM/IgA Responses to Gut Commensal Bacteria Are Associated with Negative Symptoms, Neurocognitive Impairments, and the Deficit Phenotype.

Neurotox Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Increased gut permeability (leaky gut) with increased translocation of Gram-negative bacteria plays a role in the gut-brain axis through effects on systemic immune-inflammatory processes. Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by an immune-inflammatory response combined with a deficit in natural IgM antibodies to oxidative-specific epitopes (OSEs), which are a first-line defense against bacterial infections. This study measured plasma IgA/IgM responses to 5 Gram-negative bacteria in association with IgM responses to malondialdehyde (MDA) and azelaic acid in 80 schizophrenia patients (40 with the deficit syndrome and 40 without) and in 38 healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018

Time-course study of high fat diet induced alterations in spatial memory, hippocampal JNK, P38, ERK and Akt activity.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Consumption of high fat diet (HFD) is a health concern in modern societies, which participate in wide range of diseases. One underlying mechanism in the HFD mediated pathologies is disruption of insulin signaling activity. It is believed that HFD activates several stress signaling molecules such as MAPKs signaling pathway and these molecules participate in harmful effects in different cell populations including hippocampal cells. Read More

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December 2018

From deep learning to transfer learning for the prediction of skeletal muscle forces.

Authors:
Tien Tuan Dao

Med Biol Eng Comput 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Sorbonne University, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS, UMR 7338 Biomechanics and Bioengineering, Centre de recherche Royallieu, Compiègne Cedex, France.

Skeletal muscle forces may be estimated using rigid musculoskeletal models and neural networks. Neural network (NN) approach has the advantages of real-time estimation ability and promising prediction accuracy. However, most of the developed NN models are based on conventional feedforward NNs, which do not take dynamic temporal relationships of the muscle force profiles into consideration. Read More

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December 2018

Does gesture strengthen sensorimotor knowledge of objects? The case of the size-weight illusion.

Psychol Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Co-speech gestures have been proposed to strengthen sensorimotor knowledge related to objects' weight and manipulability. This pre-registered study ( https://www.osf. Read More

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December 2018

Sleep selectively stabilizes contextual aspects of negative memories.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17861. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Sleep and emotion are both powerful modulators of the long-term stability of episodic memories, but precisely how these factors interact remains unresolved. We assessed changes in item recognition, contextual memory, and affective tone for negative and neutral memories across a 12 h interval containing sleep or wakefulness in 71 human volunteers. Our data indicate a sleep-dependent stabilization of negative contextual memories, in a way not seen for neutral memories, item recognition, or across wakefulness. Read More

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December 2018
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Neuroinspired unsupervised learning and pruning with subquantum CBRAM arrays.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5312. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

Resistive RAM crossbar arrays offer an attractive solution to minimize off-chip data transfer and parallelize on-chip computations for neural networks. Here, we report a hardware/software co-design approach based on low energy subquantum conductive bridging RAM (CBRAM®) devices and a network pruning technique to reduce network level energy consumption. First, we demonstrate low energy subquantum CBRAM devices exhibiting gradual switching characteristics important for implementing weight updates in hardware during unsupervised learning. Read More

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December 2018

Prolonged allocentric navigation deficits indicate hippocampal damage in TGA.

Neurology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

From the Department of Neurology (F.S., C.T., M.D., A.Z.), German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (F.S., S.I., C.P., S.B., C.T., E.S., G.K., P.B., M.D., T.B., A.Z.), Graduate School of Systemic Neuroscience (S.I., M.D., T.B.), Department of Nuclear Medicine (P.B.), and Clinical Neurosciences (T.B.), Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich; and Munich Cluster of Systems Neurology (P.B., M.D.), SyNergy, Munich, Germany.

Objective: To investigate long-term recovery of allocentric and egocentric spatial orientation as a sensitive marker for hippocampal and extrahippocampal network function in transient global amnesia (TGA).

Methods: A group of 18 patients with TGA performed an established real-space navigation paradigm, requiring allo- and egocentric spatial orientation abilities, 3 days (postacute stage) and 3 months (follow-up) after symptom onset. Visual exploration behavior and navigation strategy were documented by a gaze-controlled, head-fixed camera. Read More

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December 2018
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Rationale and design of a single-blind, randomised controlled trial of exercise training for managing learning and memory impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e023231. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Kessler Foundation, Neuropsychology and Neuroscience Research, West Orange, New Jersey, USA.

Introduction: This randomised controlled trial (RCT) examines treadmill walking exercise training effects on learning and memory performance, hippocampal volume, and hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have objective impairments in learning new information.

Methods And Analysis: Forty fully ambulatory persons with MS who demonstrate objective learning and memory impairments will be randomly assigned into either the intervention or active control study conditions. The intervention condition involves supervised, progressive treadmill walking exercise training three times per week for a 3-month period. Read More

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December 2018

Cultural validation of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Version III Urdu for the British Urdu-speaking population: a qualitative assessment using cognitive interviewing.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e021057. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Primary Care, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Objectives: Our research determined whether the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Version III (ACE-III) Urdu eliminated cultural bias through a qualitative assessment of its understanding and acceptability within the British Urdu-speaking population, employing cognitive interviews.

Method: We aimed to recruit 25 participants fluent in speaking and writing Urdu, over the age of 60 years, able to give informed consent and who did not have a history of cognitive impairment. Participants were administered the ACE-III Urdu, and cognitive interviews were conducted, which involve obtaining verbal data on the individual's perception of the assessment overall, their understanding of the mental processes behind how they interpreted questions within the assessment and how they produced appropriate responses. Read More

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December 2018

Aging of Antiviral CD8 Memory T Cells Fosters Increased Survival, Metabolic Adaptations, and Lymphoid Tissue Homing.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045;

Aging of established antiviral T cell memory can foster a series of progressive adaptations that paradoxically improve rather than compromise protective CD8 T cell immunity. We now provide evidence that this gradual evolution, the pace of which is contingent on the precise context of the primary response, also impinges on the molecular mechanisms that regulate CD8 memory T cell (T) homeostasis. Over time, CD8 T generated in the wake of an acute infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus become more resistant to apoptosis and acquire enhanced cytokine responsiveness without adjusting their homeostatic proliferation rates; concurrent metabolic adaptations promote increased CD8 T quiescence and fitness but also impart the reacquisition of a partial effector-like metabolic profile; and a gradual redistribution of aging CD8 T from blood and nonlymphoid tissues to lymphatic organs results in CD8 T accumulations in bone marrow, splenic white pulp, and, particularly, lymph nodes. Read More

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December 2018

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Sci Immunol 2018 Dec;3(30)

Department of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Tissue-resident memory T cells (T) are noncirculating immune cells that contribute to the first line of local defense against reinfections. Their location at hotspots of pathogen encounter frequently exposes T to tissue damage. This history of danger-signal exposure is an important aspect of T-mediated immunity that has been overlooked so far. Read More

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December 2018

Electroacupuncture Regulates Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity via Inhibiting Janus-Activated Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Signaling in Cerebral Ischemic Rats.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

College of Rehabilitation Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China; Rehabilitation Medical Technology Joint National Local Engineering Research Center, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China.

Objective: To determine the mechanism(s) involved in electroacupuncture (EA)-mediated improvements in synaptic plasticity in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R)-induced cognitive deficits.

Methods: Focal cerebral ischemic stroke was induced by (MCAO/R) surgery. Rats were randomly split into 4 groups: control group (sham operation control), MCAO group, Baihui (GV 20) and Shenting (GV 24) acupoint EA group (verum acupuncture, MCAO + VA), and nonacupoint EA group (control acupuncture, MCAO + CA). Read More

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December 2018

Engram Cell Excitability State Determines the Efficacy of Memory Retrieval.

Neuron 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

Animals need to optimize the efficacy of memory retrieval to adapt to environmental circumstances for survival. The recent development of memory engram labeling technology allows a precise investigation of the processes associated with the recall of a specific memory. Here, we show that engram cell excitability is transiently increased following memory reactivation. Read More

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December 2018

HCMV jogs the 'memory' of NK cells in HBV.

J Hepatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, Research Center for Liver Diseases, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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December 2018

Βeta-sitosterol enhances motor coordination, attenuates memory loss and demyelination in a vanadium-induced model of experimental neurotoxicity.

Pathophysiology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

Environmental discharge of vanadium causes cognitive and behavioral impairments in humans and animals via production of reactive oxygen species leading to lipid peroxidation and alteration in antioxidant defence system. The current study was carried out to investigate the cognitive-enhancing ability of β-sitosterol in vanadium-induced neurotoxicity. Forty eight mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups (A-D) with the following treatments: group A; distilled water, B; α-tocopherol + sodium metavanadate (NaOV), C; β-sitosterol + NaOV and D; only NaOV. Read More

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December 2018

Malnutrition according to ESPEN definition predicts long-term mortality in general older population: Findings from the EPIDOS study-Toulouse cohort.

Clin Nutr 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Neurosciences and Aging, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Angers University Hospital, Angers University Memory Clinic, Research Center on Autonomy and Longevity, UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, UNAM, Angers, France; Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) has developed a consensus definition of malnutrition. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition according to the ESPEN definition in otherwise healthy community-dwelling older women and to explore its value for predicting long-term mortality in this population.

Methods: This prospective population-based cohort study included 181 women (age ≥75 years) from a subsample of the EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose (EPIDOS) study participants from Toulouse. Read More

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December 2018

Driving Cessation and Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

J Clin Med 2018 Dec 13;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si 13620, Korea.

Although driving by adults with cognitive impairment is an important public health concern, little is known about the indicators of driving cessation in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of driving cessation in patients with MCI and the predictive value of cognitive performances for driving cessation. Patients with MCI were recruited in the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital; they met following inclusion criteria. Read More

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December 2018