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    Combination of Q-Switched Nd:YAG and Fractional Erbium:YAG Lasers in Treatment of Melasma: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
    J Lasers Med Sci 2017 8;8(1):1-6. Epub 2017 Jan 8.
    Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Introduction: Ablative and nonablative lasers have been used to treat melasma. We aimed to assess and compare the combining Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (QSNYL) and fractional erbium:YAG laser (FEYL) with QSNYL alone in treatment of melasma. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in our Research Center during 2013-2014. Read More

    Recent development of signaling pathways inhibitors of melanogenesis.
    Cell Signal 2017 Sep 12;40:99-115. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    College of Pharmacy and Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National, University, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea.
    Human skin, eye and hair color rely on the production of melanin, depending on its quantity, quality, and distribution, Melanin plays a monumental role in protecting the skin against the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation and oxidative stress from various environmental pollutants. However, an excessive production of melanin causes serious dermatological problems such as freckles, solar lentigo (age spots), melasma, as well as cancer. Hence, the regulation of melanin production is important for controlling the hyper-pigmentation. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of a novel picosecond laser using combination of 1 064 and 595 nm on patients with melasma: A prospective, randomized, multicenter, split-face, 2% hydroquinone cream-controlled clinical trial.
    Lasers Surg Med 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Dermatology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background And Objectives: Melasma is a common acquired, chronic hypermelanosis and still remains a therapeutic challenge. The low-fluence 1 064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is the most widely used for the treatment of moderate to severe melasma in Asia. Recently, the picosecond laser has been introduced for various pigmentary disorders such as melasma. Read More

    Outcome Analyses of 15,189 Screenings Via Colonoscopy.
    Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Departments of *Gastroenterology †Trauma and Orthopaedics, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China.
    Purpose: This study investigated the detection rates of common colorectal diseases during colonoscopy procedures to provide reference for clinical diagnoses in China.

    Methods: A total of 15,189 participants, who underwent total colonoscopy, were studied. We analyzed the detection rates of common colorectal diseases in different sex, age, and decade groups. Read More

    Chemical Peels: Indications and Special Considerations for the Male Patient.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    *Division of Dermatology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois; †Division of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California.
    Background: Chemical peels are a mainstay of aesthetic medicine and an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure performed in men.

    Objective: To review the indications for chemical peels with an emphasis on performing this procedure in male patients.

    Materials And Methods: Review of the English PubMed/MEDLINE literature and specialty texts in cosmetic dermatology, oculoplastic, and facial aesthetic surgery regarding sex-specific use of chemical peels in men. Read More

    [Current Therapies in Superficial Malignant Tumors].
    Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Zentrum für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Essen.
    This article is a review of diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in common epibulbar malignant tumors, such as basal cell carcinoma, conjunctival lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma and conjunctival melanoma. Most importantly, for every tumor patient there is a detailed anamnesis, split lamp examination and photo documentation. Further regular controls after therapy are required due to the risk of recurrences. Read More

    Hypothyroidism in the "Arnolfini Portrait" (1434) by Jan Van Eyck (1390-1441).
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    The Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, 10th Floor Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (QEQM) Building, St Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK.
    Background: The Arnolfini portrait painted by Jan van Eyck in 1434 remains one of the most puzzling yet alluring paintings of prerenaissance western art.

    Purpose: The painting is renowned for its exactitude in brush strokes, textures and the distinctive morphology of the main character Arnolfini. The nature of these requires pathological consideration. Read More

    Systemic BRAF/MEK Inhibitors as a Potential Treatment Option in Metastatic Conjunctival Melanoma.
    Ocul Oncol Pathol 2017 Jul 8;3(2):133-141. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Aim: In this review, we outline similarities between conjunctival and skin melanoma as well as the effectiveness of combined BRAF/MEK inhibition in melanoma, and discuss the applicability of these agents in conjunctival melanoma.

    Methods: The study provides a PubMed literature review.

    Results: Conjunctival melanoma and skin melanoma are genetically and phenotypically related. Read More

    Oral melanoma and other pigmentations: when to biopsy?
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Dermatology, Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Oral pigmentations (OPs) are often neglected, although a meticulous examination of the oral cavity is important not only in the diagnosis of oral melanoma, but also for the detection of important clinical findings that may indicate the presence of a systemic disease. OPs may be classified into two major groups on the basis of their clinical appearance: focal and diffuse pigmentations, even though this distinction may not appear so limpid in some cases. The former include amalgam tattoo, melanocytic nevi, melanoacanthoma and melanosis, while the latter include physiological/racial pigmentations, smoker's melanosis, drug-induced hyperpigmentations, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations and OPs associated with systemic diseases. Read More

    Review of applications of microneedling in dermatology.
    Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2017 8;10:289-298. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
    Microneedling (MN) is a novel therapeutic modality in dermatology. Through physical trauma from needle penetration, MN induces a wound healing cascade with minimal damage to the epidermis. This allows for enhancement in the absorption of mainstay topical therapies across the thick stratum corneum. Read More

    Black peel in facial dermatoses.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2017 Aug 22. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Dermatology department, Academia title for health professional (QU affiliation), Libya, Tripoli.
    Background: Melasma (facial dermatoses) is an acquired chronic disorder of hyperpigmentation over sun exposed parts and continues to be a therapeutic challenge due to the presence of melanin at varying depths in the epidermis and dermis, and many researchers are working hard to find a solution. The main culprit to remain is direct sun exposure, with other factors like drugs, genetic predisposition, thyroid abnormalities, pregnancy, phototoxic and photoallergic cosmetics. Melasma continues to have a remarkable impact on the well-being of affected patients causing deep psychological and social anguish, and with the expansion of cosmetic dermatology globally, treatments that are successful against skin diseases and boost beauty without prolonged recovery periods, or exposing patients to the risks of surgery, are increasingly recognised and acknowledged. Read More

    Laser treatment of medical skin disease in women.
    Int J Womens Dermatol 2017 Sep 21;3(3):131-139. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT.
    Laser treatment is a relatively new and increasingly popular modality for the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. A number of conditions that predominantly occur in women and that have a paucity of effective treatments include rosacea, connective tissue disease, melasma, nevus of Ota, lichen sclerosus (LS), notalgia paresthetica and macular amyloidosis, and syringomas. Laser therapy is an important option for the treatment of patients with these conditions. Read More

    Protocatechuic Acid from Pear Inhibits Melanogenesis in Melanoma Cells.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Aug 21;18(8). Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Animal Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.
    Despite the critical role of melanin in the protection of skin against UV radiation, excess production of melanin can lead to hyperpigmentation and skin cancer. Pear fruits are often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of melasma; therefore, we investigated the effects of pear extract (PE) and its component, protocatechuic acid (PCA), on melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells. We found that PE and PCA significantly suppressed melanin content and cellular tyrosinase activity through a decrease in the expression of melanogenic enzymes and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated mouse melanoma cells. Read More

    Peppered and rare - Gastric and Duodenal Pseudomelanosis: A case series.
    Pak J Med Sci 2017 May-Jun;33(3):757-760
    Michael Demyen, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) pseudomelanosis is an uncommon entity characterized by endoscopic visualization of speckled dark mucosal pigmentation. While described in the rectum and colon, 'melanosis' or more aptly 'pseudomelanosis' is rare in the duodenum and exceedingly rare in the stomach. Five cases of pseudomelanosis were encountered at our department. Read More

    Microneedling: A Review and Practical Guide.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    *Washington Institute of Dermatologic Laser Surgery, Washington, District of Columbia; †Department of Dermatology, St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Background: Microneedling is a relatively new treatment option in dermatology and has been touted for a broad range of applications including skin rejuvenation, acne scarring, rhytides, surgical scars, dyschromia, melasma, enlarged pores, and transdermal drug delivery. The significant increase in minimally invasive procedures that has been reported over the past several years suggest that microneedling may occupy a specific niche for patients who desire measurable clinical results from treatments with little to no recovery.

    Objective: To review the published medical literature relating to microneedling in dermatology and provide a practical guide for its use in clinical practice. Read More

    Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Member A1 activation in the irritation and pain response elicited by skin-lightening reagent hydroquinone.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 8;7(1):7532. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research, The Third Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 310053, China.
    Hydroquinone (HQ) is one of the most frequently used and effective skin-lightening products to treat skin hyperpigmentation disorders, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma and solar lentigines. HQ is also widely used in cosmetic products for skin whitening. However, HQ treatment can evoke substantial skin irritation, a side effect that remains poorly understood. Read More

    A Retrospective Study, an Initial Lesion of Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Esophagus Revealed by Endoscopy.
    Intern Med 2017 Aug 1;56(16):2133-2137. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
    A 66-year-old man presented to his previous physician with epigastric discomfort in 2014. He was then referred to our hospital due to suspected primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME). A biopsy showed atypical cells containing melanin granules. Read More

    Occupational Argyria of the Nasal Mucosa.
    Head Neck Pathol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Otorhyniloaryngology Unit, Civitanova Marche General Hospital, Civitanova Marche, Italy.
    A biopsy specimen from the nasal mucosa of a 37-year-old man disclosed a subepithelial accumulation of black granules mainly running parallel to the surface in the absence of any inflammatory infiltrate. Since the mucosal pigment was negative with Perls' stain and resisted to melanin bleach, an exogenous pigmentation was suspected. The biopsy specimen had been taken because of a diffuse steel-blue pigmentation of the nasal mucosa, incidentally discovered during routine clinical examination. Read More

    Vulvar Neoplasms, Benign and Malignant.
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2017 Sep;44(3):339-352
    Bethesda Dermpath Laboratory, 1730 Elton Road, Suite 11, Silver Spring, MD 20903, USA; Anne Arundel Dermatology, Towson, MD 21204, USA; Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, 4940 Bayview Medical Center, Eastern Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Electronic address:
    Cutaneous vulvar neoplasms are commonly encountered at gynecology visits, with 2% of women having a benign vulvar melanocytic nevus and 10% to 12% of nevi being vulvar. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3) occurs in 5 per 100,000 women, with increasing incidence in the past 30 years. The recognition of these lesions and differentiation between benign, premalignant, and malignant stages are crucial for adequate diagnosis, clinical monitoring, and treatment. Read More

    Effect of chitosan-carvacrol coating on the quality of Pacific white shrimp during iced storage as affected by caprylic acid.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    College of Food and Medicine, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China; Key Laboratory of Health Risk Factors for Seafood of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China. Electronic address:
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan-carvacrol coating with or without caprylic acid (CAP) on the quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during 10days of iced storage. The result showed that chitosan-carvacrol coating significantly inhibited the increase in total aerobic plate count (TPC), pH and total volatile basic nitrogen content (TVB-N) of shrimp in comparison with the control. Chitosan-carvacrol coating also delayed the melanosis formation and changes of ΔE values, and improved the texture and sensory properties of shrimp. Read More

    Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Aug 4;14(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Section of Geriatric Dentistry, Department of General Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan.
    The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin's classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Read More

    Influence of Repeated Senna Laxative Use on Skin Barrier Function in Mice.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Aug 21;29(4):414-421. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Mie, Japan.
    Background: Senna, one of the major stimulant laxatives, is widely used for treating constipation. Chronic senna use has been reported to be associated with colonic disorders such as melanosis coli and/or epithelial hyperplasia. However, there is no obvious information on the influence of chronic senna use on organs except for the intestine. Read More

    Therapeutic Effects of Topical Tranexamic Acid in Comparison with Hydroquinone in Treatment of Women with Melasma.
    Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Dermatology Department, Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
    Introduction: Few studies have focused on therapeutic as well as side effects of tranexamic acid (TXA) as a topical drug compared to other topical drugs in treating melasma. The present study aimed to assess and compare the beneficial therapeutic effects and also side effects of local TXA in comparison with hydroquinone in treating women with melasma.

    Methods: This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was performed on 60 women who suffered from melasma and were referred to the skin disorders clinic at the Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in Tehran in 2015. Read More

    Bioconcentration and Metabolism of Emodin in Zebrafish Eleutheroembryos.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 11;8:453. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhou, China.
    Emodin is a major active anthraquinone of various herbal laxatives, which can exert many pharmacological effects. However, chronic use of anthranoid laxatives, even at low dosages, may cause melanosis coli (MC). It has been suggested that the accumulation of anthraquinones is a risk factor in the MC process. Read More

    [Vitiligo occurring on dermal melanocytosis (nevus of Ota) in a dark-skinned patient].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Service de dermatologie, CHU, Treichville, Côte d'Ivoire.
    Background: Nevus of Ota is a rare disease most frequently found in Asians. It presents clinically as a bluish gray hyperpigmentation of one side of the face. Transformation into melanoma and glaucoma are the main risks. Read More

    Melasma: an Up-to-Date Comprehensive Review.
    Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.
    Melasma is a common acquired condition of symmetric hyperpigmentation, typically occurring on the face, with higher prevalence in females and darker skin types. Multiple etiologies, including light exposure, hormonal influences, and family history, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Overall prevalence ranges widely at 1-50%, since values are typically calculated within a specific ethnic population within a geographic region. Read More

    Iris Freckles a Potential Biomarker for Chronic Sun Damage.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 May;58(6):BIO174-BIO179
    Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Purpose: To investigate the role of sunlight exposure in iris freckles formation.

    Methods: We prospectively examined volunteers attending a skin cancer screening program conducted by ophthalmologists and dermatologists. Frequency and topographical variability of iris freckles were noted and associated with behavioral and dermatologic characteristics indicating high sun exposure. Read More

    Anti-melanogenic effect of gomisin N from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baillon (Schisandraceae) in melanoma cells.
    Arch Pharm Res 2017 Jul 10;40(7):807-817. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae, Seowon, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 28644, South Korea.
    Overproduction and accumulation of melanin in the skin can lead to pigmentation disorders, such as freckles and melasma. Many researchers are studying the regulation of melanogenesis in the skin with the aim of developing whitening cosmetics. In this study, bioactivity-guided separation of the hexane fraction of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Read More

    Microneedling: Where do we stand now? A systematic review of the literature.
    J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Burn Center, University Hospital of Ghent, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Background: Patients who suffer from scars or wrinkles have several therapeutic options to improve the appearance of their skin. The available treatment modalities that provide desirable results are often overtly invasive and entail a risk of undesirable adverse effects. Microneedling has recently emerged as a non-ablative alternative for treating patients who are concerned with the aesthetic changes that result from injury, disease or ageing. Read More

    Role of oxidative stress in melasma: a prospective study on serum and blood markers of oxidative stress in melasma patients.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Sep 5;56(9):939-943. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Skin Department, Skinnocence Skin Clinic, Gurgaon, India.
    Background: Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder presenting in the dermatological clinic. Many factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis, however, the cause still remains elusive. Recently the effect of oxidative damage has been proposed in the etiopathogenesis of melasma. Read More

    Efficacy of cysteamine cream in the treatment of epidermal melasma, evaluating by Dermacatch as a new measurement method: a randomized double blind placebo controlled study.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Jul 26:1-8. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    b Scientis Pharma SA , Geneva , Switzerland.
    Background: Melasma is a difficult-to-treat hyperpigmentary disorder. Very few studies have been performed regarding the efficacy of cysteamine in the treatment of melasma.

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of cysteamine cream in the treatment of patients with epidermal melasma using Dermacatch(®) as a more accurate skin colorimetric measurement tool. Read More

    Late Solitary Extraocular Recurrence From Previously Resected Iris Melanoma.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2017 Sep 1;181:97-105. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Ocular Oncology Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom.
    Purpose: To report on cases of late extraocular relapse of previously resected iris melanoma, without concurrent intraocular recurrence.

    Design: Retrospective case series.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review of 4 patients diagnosed with late subconjunctival relapse of previously resected iris melanoma. Read More

    The role of oligomenorrhea in melasma.
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Jul 8;104:1-3. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Persian Medicine, School of Persian and Complementary Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Melasma is a facial hyperpigmentation in the upper lips, cheeks, forehead and chin. It is mostly seen in women. Melasma treatments include topical methods that are not only costly, but also temporary. Read More

    Tranexamic acid inhibits melanogenesis by activating the autophagy system in cultured melanoma cells.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Biomedical Science, BK21-plus Research Team for Bioactive Control Technology, National Research Center for Dementia, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: As interest in skin beauty increases, the development of new skin whitening agents has attracted substantial attention; however, the action mechanism of the agents developed so far remains largely unknown. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is commonly being used to reduce melanin synthesis in patients with melasma and also used as a raw material for functional whitening cosmetics, although its action mechanism is poorly understood. Autophagy has been well known to be essential for tissue homeostasis, adaptation to starvation, and removal of dysfunctional organelles or pathogens. Read More

    A split-face, investigator-blinded comparative study on the efficacy and safety of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser plus microneedling with vitamin C versus Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of recalcitrant melasma.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Jun 28:1-8. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    a Medical Faculty, Dermatology Department , Istanbul Medipol University , İstanbul , Turkey.
    Background: High recurrence has previously been reported in the treatment of melasma with low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (QS-Nd:YAG) laser. On the other hand, the efficacy and safety of the QS-Nd:YAG laser plus microneedling with vitamin C have not been evaluated in patients with mixed-type melasma.

    Material And Methods: Sixteen patients with recalcitrant dermal- or mixed-type melasma were included in the study. Read More

    Cancer risk in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: A retrospective cohort study of 336 cases.
    Tumour Biol 2017 Jun;39(6):1010428317705131
    1 Department of Gastroenterology, Clinical College of Air Force General Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Beijing, China.
    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyposis. A growing body of evidence has shown that Peutz-Jeghers syndrome could cause an increased risk of various cancers, yet the range of cancer risk estimates was wide among different studies. In this retrospective cohort study, 336 patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in China were enrolled. Read More

    Retrospective Analysis of Endemic Melasma Patients.
    Dermatol Reports 2017 Mar 16;9(1):7027. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetric, Kirkkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.
    Melasma is an acquired diffuse hypermelanosis characterized by localized, symmetrical, irregular, light-to-dark brown maculae occurring in sun-exposed areas of skin. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine demographics of patients, analysis of etiologic factors, clinical features, efficacy and side effects of available topical treatments due to high incidence of melasma patients. In this study melasma patients in Birecik State Hospital were investigated retrospectively. Read More

    Therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral tranexamic acid and that of tranexamic acid local infiltration with microinjections in patients with melasma: a comparative study.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Oct 25;42(7):728-734. Epub 2017 Jun 25.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Dr RP Govt Medical College, Kangra (Tanda), India.
    Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been used orally, intravenously, topically and intradermally (microinjection, microneedling) for treating melasma. However, the comparative efficacy of these different routes of administration remains underevaluated.

    Aim: To ascertain the comparative efficacy of different routes of administration of TXA. Read More

    Biocompatible polymer microneedle for topical/dermal delivery of tranexamic acid.
    J Control Release 2017 Sep 20;261:87-92. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Recently-introduced biocompatible polymeric microneedles offer an efficient method for drug delivery. Tranexamic acid is a novel drug for treating melasma that is administered both locally and orally and inhibits excessive melanin via melanocyte. The tranexamic acid biocompatible polymer microneedle used in this study was fabricated from PVP and methacrylic acid, using the lithography method. Read More

    Efficacy of surgical laser therapy in the management of oral pigmented lesions: A systematic review.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2017 Aug 15;173:353-359. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Division of General Dentistry, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States.
    Background: Oral pigmentation, especially in the gingiva poses esthetic problems. Laser therapy has been widely used for cosmetic therapy in dentistry. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the efficacy of surgical laser therapy (SLT) in the management of oral pigmented lesions (OPL). Read More

    Arginase-2, a miR-1299 target, enhances pigmentation in melasma by reducing melanosome degradation via senescence-induced autophagy inhibition.
    Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.
    Expression profiles revealed miR-1299 downregulation concomitant with arginase-2 (ARG2) upregulation in hyperpigmented skin of melasma patients. Opposite regulation of tyrosinase and PMEL17 by miR-1299 and inverse relationship between miR-1299 and ARG2 expression denoted a role of miR-1299 in pigmentation with ARG2 as a miR-1299 target. ARG2 overexpression or knock-down in keratinocytes, the main source of ARG2 in epidermis, positively regulated tyrosinase and PMEL17 protein levels, but not mRNA levels or melanosome transfer. Read More

    Isolation and Characterization of Isofraxidin 7-O-(6'-O-p-Coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside from Artemisia capillaris Thunberg: A Novel, Nontoxic Hyperpigmentation Agent That Is Effective In Vivo.
    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 24;2017:1401279. Epub 2017 May 24.
    New Drug Targets Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712, Republic of Korea.
    Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can produce disorders such as albinism or melasma. There is a research need to discover novel compounds that safely and effectively regulate pigmentation. To identify novel modulators of pigmentation, we attempted to purify compounds from a bioactive fraction of the Korean medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg. Read More

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