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    Natural options for management of melasma, a review.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2018 Feb 20:1-12. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    a Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Johannesburg , Doornfontein , South Africa.
    A blemish free, even-toned skin is universally associated with healthy skin. This reasoning makes people desire to have a flawless skin. Melanin is a naturally occurring pigment in humans. Read More

    Topical 3% tranexamic acid enhances the efficacy of 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser in the treatment of melasma.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2018 Feb 20:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    a Division of Dermatology, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine , Thammasat University , Pathumthani , Thailand.
    Background: A QS-NdYAG laser (QSNYL) and topical tranexamic acid (TA) have been widely used. However, no study has yet reported the efficacy of using both QSNYL and TA as a combined treatment for melasma.

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of topical 3% TA combined with 1064-nm QSNYL as a treatment for melasma. Read More

    Pulsed Dye Laser versus Intense Pulsed Light in Melasma: A Split- Face Comparative Study.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2018 Feb 19:1-25. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    a Dermatology & Venereology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Tanta University , Tanta - Egypt.
    Background: Recent reports suggest that melasma may have a vascular component. Vascular targeting lasers and light treatment can be a therapeutic option that will provide benefits to the patients.

    Objectives: To compare between the efficacy and tolerability of pulsed dye laser and intense pulsed light in treatment of melasma. Read More

    Picosecond Laser Treatment for Tattoos and Benign Cutaneous Pigmented Lesions (Secondary publication).
    Laser Ther 2017 Dec;26(4):274-281
    Kasai Clinic for Plastic Surgery.
    Background And Aims: The selective removal of tattoos and benign cutaneous pigmented lesions with laser energy evolved rapidly with the development of the nanosecond-domain Q-switched laser (ns-laser). Recently, however, a series of picosecond-domain lasers (ps-lasers) with pulsewidths less than 1 ns has become commercially available, enabling more efficient and faster removal of pigmented lesions in the field of dermatologic laser surgery.

    Rationale Behind The Ps-laser: The efficacy of the ns-laser depended on the theory of selective photothermolysis, whereby an extremely short pulse width was delivered less than the thermal relaxation time (TRT) of a target. Read More

    Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management.
    Am Fam Physician 2017 Dec;96(12):797-804
    Norton Audobon Hospital, Louisville, KY, USA.
    Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally benign but can be distressing to patients. Read More

    Treatment of Melasma with Pulsed-Dye Laser and 1,064-nm Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser: A Split-Face Study.
    Ann Dermatol 2018 Feb 26;30(1):1-7. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Dermatology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.
    Background: Melasma is an acquired pigmentary disorder that is often therapeutically challenging. Recent evidence suggests that vascular abnormalities are involved in melasma pathogenesis. Pulsed-dye laser (PDL) is considered as standard therapy for vascular lesions. Read More

    Fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-assisted drug delivery of hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma.
    Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2018 3;11:13-20. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Dermatology Unit, Department of Medical Applications of Lasers (MAL), National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (N.I.L.E.S.), Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
    Background: Melasma is a difficult-to-treat hyperpigmentary disorder. Ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted delivery of topically applied drugs to varied targets in the skin has been an area of ongoing study and research.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser as an assisted drug delivery for enhancing topical hydroquinone (HQ) permeation into the skin of melasma patients. Read More

    Clinical profile of 300 men with facial hypermelanosis.
    J Dermatol Case Rep 2017 Dec 1;11(2):20-24. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy, Dr. R. P. Govt. Medical College, Kangra (Tanda)-176001 (Himachal Pradesh), India.
    Background: Facial hypermelanosis is a significant cause of cosmetic disfigurement, social embarrassment and psychological morbidity affecting quality of life.

    Objective: To study clinicoepidemlogic patterns of facial hypermelanoses among men.

    Material And Methods: Medical records of all adult males presenting with facial hypermelanoses were analyzed for this retrospective cross sectional study for demographic details, duration, cosmetic usage, sun exposure, drug intake, infections, systemic or cutaneous diseases, and family history of hypermelanotic dermatosis. Read More

    Histopathological findings in pregnancy associated cutaneous hyperpigmentation.
    J Cutan Pathol 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Department of Dermatology, Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain.
    Hyperpigmentation in pregnancy is a common phenomenon, experienced to some degree by up to 90% of pregnant women. It mainly involves sun-exposed areas, but it can extend to non-exposed zones. Cases with extensive hyperpigmentation are rarely reported. Read More

    [Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis cesioflammea: a case report].
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Feb;116(1):e121-e124
    Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Nacional de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. J. P. Garrahan", Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.
    Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a syndrome characterized by the association of a vascular nevus with a congenital pigmented lesion (epidermal nevus, nevus spilus, and dermal melanocytosis). There are different types of PPV according to the pigmentary nevus associated with the vascular malformation. Patients may present only the cutaneous condition or have systemic manifestations, among them, trauma, neurological and ophthalmological disorders. Read More

    Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Evaluation of a Novel Skin Lightening Agent.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2018 Jan;17(1):113-115
    Melasma remains a troubling problem for physicans and patients alike. It is a chronic irregular, symmetric hyperpigmentation seen most often in women. In this study, a unique combination of ingredients with non-irritating properties was tested for treatment of melasma. Read More

    Mosaic NRASopathy n a child with giant melanocytic congenital naevus, epidermal hamartoma and bilateral nephroblastomatosis: clinical implication for follow-up.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Department of Dermatology and Pediatric Dermatology, National Reference Centre for Rare Disorders, Hôpital des enfants Pellegrin, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Various nevoid proliferations result from postzygotic mutation in genes within the RAF/RAS/MAPK pathway, supporting the term "mosaic RASopathy"(1). Giant congenital melanocytic naevus (GCMN) and neurocutaneous melanosis are rare mosaic RASopathies mainly known to be at risk for the development of melanoma and skeletal anomalies are variably recorded (2,3). This article is protected by copyright. Read More

    [A woman with hyperpigmentation and dark urine].
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2017 ;161(0):D1944
    Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis, afd. Medische Oncologie, Amsterdam.
    A 54-year-old patient was evaluated because of fever shortly after she had started treatment of a BRAF-mutated melanoma with BRAF- and MEK-inhibitors. Diffuse hyperpigmentation of the skin was noted as an incidental finding. She also had darkly coloured urine. Read More

    Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma with nodal melanosis: A rare cause of cystic cervical lymphadenopathy.
    Head Neck 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of General Surgery, Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore.
    Background: Head and neck malignancies often present as firm, solid nodal masses. However, malignancies arising from Waldeyer's Ring may give rise to cystic lymph nodes.

    Methods: A 57-year-old man was referred for left-sided neck swelling of 2 weeks' duration. Read More

    Efficacy of Intense Pulse Light Therapy and Tripple Combination Cream Versus Intense Pulse Light Therapy and Tripple Combination Cream Alone in Epidermal Melasma Treatment.
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Jan;28(1):13-16
    Department of Dermatology, PGMI, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar.
    Objective: To compare the efficacy of intense pulse light therapy (IPL) and triple combination cream (TCC) versus intense pulse light therapy and triple combination cream alone in epidermal melasma treatment, downgrading MASI score to more than 10.

    Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.

    Place And Duration Of Study: Dermatology Department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from August 2014 to January 2015. Read More

    Patients' self-esteem before and after chemical peeling procedure.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Dec 29:1-3. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    a Department of Dermatology and Venereology , Andreas Sygros Hospital , Athens , Greece.
    Introduction: Chemical peeling is a safe method, widely used to treat a variety of skin conditions and reduce the aging effects. This study aims to evaluate self-esteem among adolescents who undergo chemical peelings.

    Material And Methods: One hundred and twenty six patients constituted the study group. Read More

    Skin autofluorescence reflects individual seasonal UV exposure, skin photodamage and skin cancer development in organ transplant recipients.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Jan 6;178:577-583. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Dermato-venerology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 2400 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Importance: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin cancers varies among organ transplant recipients (OTRs). To improve individual risk assessment of skin cancer, objectively quantified skin photodamage is needed.

    Objectives: We measured personal UVR-exposure dose in OTRs and assessed the relation between individual UVR exposure, skin cancer and objectively measured photodamage in terms of skin autofluorescence, pigmentation, and black light-evaluated solar lentigines. Read More

    Diffuse cutaneous melanosis: rare complication of metastatic melanoma.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 ;92(5 Suppl 1):62-64
    Private practice - Brasília (DF), Brazil.
    Diffuse cutaneous melanosis is a rare complication of metastatic melanoma related to a worse prognosis. There are few cases reported in the literature. Its pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, although studies have suggested certain mechanisms for its occurrence. Read More

    Long-term mucocutaneous adverse effects of imatinib in Indian chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
    Int J Dermatol 2018 Mar 20;57(3):332-338. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Hematology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Background: Short-term mucocutaneous adverse effects are well documented with imatinib. However, studies on long-term adverse effects and in the ethnic population are lacking.

    Objective: To study the long-term mucocutaneous adverse effects of imatinib and factors predicting these adverse effects. Read More

    Lasers in Melasma: A Review with Consensus Recommendations by Indian Pigmentary Expert Group.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;62(6):585-590
    Consultant Dermatologist, Skintrendz, Himayat Nagar, Hyderabad, India.
    Lasers have come up as the newest therapeutic modality in dermatological conditions including melasma. In this article, as a group of experts from Pigmentary Disorders Society in collaboration with South Asian Pigmentary Disorders Forum (SPF), we have tried to discuss the lasers which have been used in melasma and formulate simple consensus guidelines. Following thorough literature search, we have summarised the rationale of using the lasers and the supporting evidences have also been provided. Read More

    Chemical Peels in Melasma: A Review with Consensus Recommendations by Indian Pigmentary Expert Group.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;62(6):578-584
    Dermatologist Specialist, Dr RML Hospital and PGIMS, New Delhi, India.
    Melasma is a notorious dermatosis, often resistant to treatment. Chemical peeling constitutes an acceptable option of management of melasma (of any type and duration). In this article, as a group of experts from Pigmentary Disorders Society (PDS) in collaboration with South Asian Pigmentary Forum (SPF), we have tried to elaborate the various chemical peeling agents for the treatment of melasma. Read More

    Medical Management of Melasma: A Review with Consensus Recommendations by Indian Pigmentary Expert Group.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;62(6):558-577
    Consultant Dermatologist, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.
    Melasma is one of the most common hyperpigmentary disorders found mainly in women and dark-skinned patients. Sunlight, hormones, pregnancy, and genetics remain the most implicated in the causation of melasma. Although rather recalcitrant to treatment, topical agents such as hydroquinone, modified Kligman's Regime, azelaic acid, kojic acid, Vitamin C, and arbutin still remain the mainstay of therapy with sun protection being a cornerstone of therapy. Read More

    A novel germline mutation (c.A527G) in STK11 gene causes Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in a Chinese girl: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8591
    aDepartment of Medical Genetics, Naval Medical University, Shanghai 200433, ChinabHebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province, ChinacDepartment of Gastroenterology, Airforce General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China.
    Rationale: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a Mendelian autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11). The features of this syndrome include gastrointestinal (GI) hamartomas, melanin spots on the lips and the extremities, and an increased risk of developing cancer. Early onset of disease is often characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and intussusception due to GI polyps in childhood. Read More

    A giant and extensive solitary Peutz-Jeghers-type polyp in the antrum of stomach: Case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(49):e8466
    aDepartment of Gastroenterology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, ChinabDepartment of Gastroenterology, Xi'an Children's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
    Rationale: A solitary Peutz-Jeghers-type polyp is a hamartomatous polyp which without either mucocutaneous pigmentation or a family history of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). It can occur in all of the gastrointestinal tract, but it is extremely rare in the stomach.

    Patient Concerns: A 53-year-old man was admitted to the local hospital with left upper abdominal pain lasting 2 weeks. Read More

    Physiologic changes of pregnancy: A review of the literature.
    Int J Womens Dermatol 2017 Dec 21;3(4):219-224. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, CA.
    Throughout pregnancy, the body undergoes a variety of physiologic changes. The cutaneous findings can be most noticeable and often worrisome to both physicians and patients. Obstetricians and dermatologists must be able to differentiate between changes that are benign and those that may be pathologic. Read More

    Hyperpigmentation of the hard palate mucosa in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia taking imatinib.
    Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Dec 5;39(1):37. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Maxillo-Facial and Dental Unit, Fondazione Ca' Granda IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Via Commenda 10, 20122 Milan, Italy.
    Background: Imatinib mesylate is an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl and a first-line treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Dermatological side effects include superficial oedema, pustular eruption, lichenoid reactions, erythroderma, and skin rash. Depigmentation of the skin and/or mucosa is uncommon, and hyperpigmentation is rare. Read More

    Clinical Efficacy and Safety on Combining 20% Trichloroacetic Acid Peel with Topical 5% Ascorbic Acid for Melasma.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Sep 1;11(9):WC08-WC11. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Senior Professor and Head, Department of Dermatology, Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
    Introduction: Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) is a versatile peeling agent for treatment of melasma. However, Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH) is reported to be the most common side-effect associated with TCA peel. Topical Ascorbic Acid (AA) due to its effect as antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor helps to prevent PIH and maintains the response. Read More

    Pattern of Skin Diseases and Occupational Dermatoses in Veterinarians and Veterinary Workers of Kashmir.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Nov-Dec;8(6):449-453
    Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Leprosy, Government Medical College Srinagar, University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Background: Across the globe, skin disorders represent a frequent occupational concern for many health professionals including veterinarians and there is a serious impact of skin diseases on their lives and careers. But little is known about the prevalence and distribution of skin diseases (especially occupational) within this important professional group across Asia, especially India.

    Materials And Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study carried out over a period of one year in which veterinarians and veterinary workers of Kashmir valley were screened for various skin diseases and occupational dermatoses. Read More

    Identification of Genotypes and Allelic Frequencies of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism (TaqI) in Egyptian Melasma Patients.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Nov-Dec;8(6):443-448
    Department of Dermatology, Andrology and STDs, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt.
    Background: Melasma is a characteristic pattern of facial hyperpigmentation, occurring primarily on the forehead, cheeks, and chin, in a mask-like distribution. The pathogenesis of melasma is not fully understood. Vitamin D plays a role in skin pigmentation. Read More

    Evidence-based Review, Grade of Recommendation, and Suggested Treatment Recommendations for Melasma.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Nov-Dec;8(6):406-442
    Department of Dermatology, Dr. Somervell Memorial CSI Medical College, Karakonam, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
    Treatment of melasma is known to be less satisfactory, often incomplete, and relapse is frequent. Although many treatment options are available, they are either known to be unsafe on long-term use or their long-term safety profile is unknown. Patients often use various drugs, even topical steroid-based preparation without any medical supervision for long period of time, making the skin unsuitable for many of the drugs available. Read More

    Treatment of Melasma and Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation by a Picosecond 755-nm Alexandrite Laser in Asian Patients.
    Ann Dermatol 2017 Dec 30;29(6):779-781. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Dermatology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    The picosecond lasers have shown to effectively treat tattoo pigments that are intractable to previous multiple Q-switched (QS) laser treatments. Therefore we hypothesized that a picosecond laser would show better efficacy with minimal adverse events in the treatment of melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) that are difficult to treat with conventional QS lasers. Two patients with melasma and one patient with PIH were treated with a Picosecond 755-nm Alexandrite Laser (Cyanosure, USA). Read More

    Incidence of skin diseases diagnosed in a public institution: comparison between 2003 and 2014.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 May-Jun;92(3):423-425
    Department of Dermatology at the Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (FMB-Unesp), Botucatu, SP, Brasil."
    Epidemiology of diseases is influenced by population socio-demographic circumstances. Therefore it can be modified along the time. There are no studies exploring epidemiological transition in dermatology. Read More

    Tretinoin peel: a critical view.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 May-Jun;92(3):363-366
    Dermatology Department of the Paulista Medical School - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM - UNIFESP) - São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
    The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Read More

    Assessment of the effects of skin microneedling as adjuvant therapy for facial melasma: a pilot study.
    BMC Dermatol 2017 Nov 28;17(1):14. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Unesp Medical School, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Melasma is a common chronic and relapsing acquired dyschromia. Skin microneedling was reported resulting sustained long-term improvement of recalcitrant melasma, however, the exact mechanism that promotes this skin lightening is not known. This study aimed to investigate clinical and histologic alterations promoted by skin microneedling in facial melasma. Read More

    Non-invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound for UV-induced hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV: a prospective, randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial.
    Lasers Med Sci 2018 Feb 27;33(2):361-367. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 270 Rama VI road, Rajthevi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.
    Skin hyperpigmentation is a frequently encountered problem, particularly in darker skin types. Unfortunately, standard treatments for this condition have shown disappointing results. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is commonly indicated for skin laxity, but recently was used to treat UV-induced hyperpigmentation in animal models. Read More

    Sanger sequencing in exonic regions of STK11 gene uncovers a novel de-novo germline mutation (c.962_963delCC) associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and elevated cancer risk: case report of a Chinese patient.
    BMC Med Genet 2017 11 15;18(1):130. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Medical Genetics, Naval Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Rd, Shanghai, 200433, China.
    Background: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, STK11, and is characterized by gastrointestinal hamartomas, melanin spots on the lips and the extremities, and an increased risk of developing cancer.

    Case Presentation: We reported an isolated PJS patient who died of colon cancer, whose blood sample was collected together with all the available family members'. The entire coding region of the STK11 gene was amplified by PCR and analyzed by Sanger sequencing, through which, a novel mutation, c. Read More

    Keratinocyte Sonic Hedgehog Up-regulation Drives the Development of Giant Congenital Nevi via Paracrine Endothelin-1 Secretion.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Drug Discovery Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:
    Giant congenital nevi are associated with clinical complications such as neurocutaneous melanosis and melanoma. Virtually nothing is known about why some individuals develop these lesions. We previously identified the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway regulator Cdon as a candidate nevus modifier gene. Read More

    Evaluation of the serum zinc level in adult patients with melasma: Is there a relationship with serum zinc deficiency and melasma?
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2017 Nov 12. Epub 2017 Nov 12.
    Ardebil University of Medical Sciences, Ardebil, Iran.
    Background: Melasma is a common acquired hypermelanosis of sun-exposed skin, particularly on the face, which presents as symmetric, light- to gray-brown-colored macules and patches. There are several studies of serum zinc levels in cutaneous disorders. So far, no studies have been carried out to assess the serum zinc level in patients with melasma. Read More

    The Asian Problem of Frequent Laser Toning for Melasma.
    J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017 Jul 1;10(7):40-42. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Dr. Tian is with Singapore General Hospital in Singapore.
    In recent years, laser toning or laser facial to treat melasma has become increasingly popular in Asia. It is common to see patients undergoing lasers three times a week, or even daily. This is part of a growing trend and is sometimes recommended in the user manuals from laser manufacturers. Read More

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