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    Loss of Pigment in Becker's Melanosis.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1979 Mar-Apr;45(2):116-118
    Two male patients with Becker's melanosis are described. The observation of depigmentation and leucotrichia in the lesion in one of them is regarded extremely unusual. The histopathological features comprised of marked acanthosis, papillomatosis, increased basal pigmentation and hyalinization of dermal connective tissue. Read More

    Soft palatal melanosis, a simple predictor for neoplasia in the upper aerodigestive tract in Japanese alcoholic men.
    Cancer Sci 2017 Feb 20. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Health Promotion, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6 Minami, Wako, Saitama, 351-0104, Japan.
    Soft palatal melanosis can be detected by visual inspection during routine physical examination or even personally in a mirror. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between squamous cell neoplasia in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) and the soft palatal melanosis. We reviewed digitalized records of high-quality endoscopic images of the soft palate of 1786 Japanese alcoholic men who underwent endoscopic screening. Read More

    Sun-protective behaviors in patients with cutaneous hyperpigmentation: A cross-sectional study.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Background: Disorders of hyperpigmentation are seen commonly in clinical practice. Despite numerous studies investigating sun-protective habits among healthy persons, little is known about these behaviors within patient populations with hyperpigmentation disorders.

    Objective: We sought to examine photo-protective behaviors and their associations in individuals with disorders of hyperpigmentation. Read More

    African ancestry is associated with facial melasma in women: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Med Genet 2017 Feb 17;18(1):17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Dermatology, FMB-Unesp, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis affecting photoexposed areas, especially for women during fertile age. Several factors contribute to its development: sun exposure, sex steroids, medicines, and family history. Melanic pigmentation pathway discloses several SNPs in different populations. Read More

    [Primary malignant melanoma in the brain of a 7-month-old sheep (Ovis aries f. domestica)].
    Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2017 Feb 15. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Dr. Dr. habil. Wolfram Breuer, Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit, Oberschleißheim, Veterinärstraße 2, 85764 Oberschleißheim, E-Mail:
    A case of malignant melanoma in a sheep's brain is described for the first time. In a 7-month-old sheep that had been euthanized due to ataxia, post-mortem and histopathologic examinations were performed. Both the brain and the calvarium were heavily infiltrated with neoplastic tissue. Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Neonatal Skin Lesions.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:11-17
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin findings during the initial month of life are ubiquitous. One study estimated that more than 95% of newborns have cutaneous findings, which often are distressing to parents but frequently are benign and self-limited. Among them are milia, cutis marmorata, congenital dermal melanocytosis, and the benign neonatal pustular eruptions (eg, benign cephalic pustulosis, erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis). Read More

    Combined Jessner Solution and Trichloroacetic Acid Versus Trichloroacetic Acid Alone in the Treatment of Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.
    Background: Melasma is a common challenging pigmentary skin disorder especially in dark-skinned females urging them to seek medical help. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory.

    Objective: To compare safety and efficacy of combined trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (20%-25%) and Jessner's solution versus TCA (20%-25%) alone in dark patients with melasma. Read More

    Anti-melasma codrug of retinoic acid assists cutaneous absorption with attenuated skin irritation.
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Research Center for Food and Cosmetic Safety and Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Pharmaceutics Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Melasma treatment with combined retinoic acid (RA) and hydroquinone (HQ) usually causes unsatisfactory outcomes and safety concerns. This study attempted to evaluate the cutaneous absorption and skin tolerance of the codrug conjugated with RA and HQ via ester linkage. The codrug's permeation of the pig skin was estimated using Franz diffusion cell. Read More

    Immunohistochemical profiling including beta-catenin in conjunctival melanocytic lesions.
    Exp Mol Pathol 2017 Feb 1;102(2):198-202. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, University of Washington School of Medicine and Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, United States. Electronic address:
    Conjunctival melanocytic lesions encompass a group of clinically diverse, benign to malignant, neoplasms that may contain overlapping histopathological features, making definitive diagnosis challenging in some cases. In this series, we compared multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers in 11 conjunctival nevi, 10 primary acquired melanosis (PAM) lesions, and 11 conjunctival melanomas. Immunostains included the melanocytic markers HMB-45 and Melan-A, as well as the proliferative marker Ki-67. Read More

    Pulsed Alexandrite laser for treatment of melasma in Asian patients.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    a Department of Dermatology , Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine , Taoyuan , Taiwan.
    Background Melasma is a common acquired facial hypermelanosis with irregular brownish macules and patches. The clinical course is often fluctuated and refractory to treatment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed Alexandrite laser for the treatment of melasma. Read More

    Clinical efficacy of Liposome Encapsulated Aloe vera on Melasma Treatment during Pregnancy.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Jan 31. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    b Department of Medical Biotechnology , School of advance Science in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical sciences , Tehran , Iran .
    Background: Melasma is a challenging dermatological condition during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of a topical liposome encapsulated Aloe vera preparation, on melasma in pregnant women. In order to enhance the bioavailability of Aloe vera leaf gel extract (AGE), liposomes encapsulating Aloe vera were prepared and examined for their biochemical properties. Read More

    Retrospective analysis of the treatment of melasma lesions exhibiting increased vascularity with the 595-nm pulsed dye laser combined with the 1927-nm fractional low-powered diode laser.
    Lasers Surg Med 2017 Jan 13;49(1):20-26. Epub 2016 Apr 13.
    Dermatology and Laser Surgery Center, 6400 Fannin St. Suite 2720, Houston, Texas.
    Background: Melasma presents a significant challenge to laser surgeons. Aggressive treatments often result in rebound melasma or post-inflammatory pigmentary alteration. Recent reports suggest melasma pathogenesis may have a vascular component. Read More

    Tranexamic acid in treatment of melasma: A comprehensive review of clinical studies.
    Dermatol Ther 2017 Jan 30. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Dermatology, Razi Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Melasma is a human melanogenesis dysfunction that results in localized, chronic acquired hyperpigmentation of the skin. It has a significant impact on appearance, causing psychosocial and emotional distress, and reducing the quality of life of the affected patients. Tranexamic acid (TA) is a plasmin inhibitor used to prevent abnormal fibrinolysis to reduce blood loss and exerts its effect by reversibly blocking lysine binding sites on plasminogen molecules, thus inhibiting plasminogen activator (PA) from converting plasminogen to plasmin. Read More

    The effects of hydroporation on melasma with anti-aging cocktail.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2017 Jan 29. Epub 2017 Jan 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Jet-M is a device for epidermal peeling and is used to deliver substances by spraying air and microdroplets. Previously, a case was treated with a mixed solution of copper-GHK, oligo-hyaluronic acid, Rhodiola extract, tranexamic acid, and β-glucan. The results showed significant improvement of aged skin. Read More

    [Melanocytoma and meningeal melanocytosis, similar but different lesions].
    Cir Cir 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Servicio de Patología, Hospital Juárez de México, Ciudad de México, México.
    Background: Meningeal melanomatosis is an extra-axial well-encapsulated malignant tumour with diffuse meningeal growth and dark coloration (due to high melanin contents), while meningeal melanocytoma is the focalized benign variant. Melanocytic lesions may be secondary to melanoma or be histologically benign, however, their diffuse nature makes them impossible to cure. Melanocytosis is a diffuse tumour that can form solitary extra-axial tumours, which invades the parenchyma and presents signs of malignancy with increased mitosis and Ki67, observed in 1 to 6% of immunopathological exams. Read More

    Clinical Features Differentiating Benign From Malignant Conjunctival Tumors in Children.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 Jan 26. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Importance: Conjunctival tumors in children are usually benign and rarely malignant.

    Objective: To evaluate clinical features of conjunctival tumors in children by comparing benign tumors with their malignant counterparts.

    Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective case series reviewed 806 cases of conjunctival tumor in children (aged <21 years) who were evaluated at a tertiary referral center between November 1, 1975, and July 1, 2015. Read More

    Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2017 Jan 25:1-14. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    a Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine , Nanjing , China.
    BACKGROUD Acquired, bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (ABNOM) is one of the most common dermal melanocytoses. Although there are some literatures on ABNOM, its clinical features and etiopathogenetic factors have not been fully understood. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and characteristics of ABNOM among the Chinese patients. Read More

    Primary cerebral malignant melanoma: A case report with literature review.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(4):e5805
    aDepartment of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University bDepartment of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Dongcheng District, Beijing, P. R. China cDepartment of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA dDepartment of Neurovascular Surgery, Chinese Armed Police General Hospital, Haidian District eDepartment of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Xuanwu District, Beijing, P. R. China.
    Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs. Read More

    Congenital Melanocytic Nevus Syndrome: A Case Series.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Jan 19. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Servicio de Anatomía Patológica, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Toledo, España.
    Congenital melanocytic nevus syndrome (CMNS) is the result of an abnormal proliferation of melanocytes in the skin and central nervous system caused by progenitor-cell mutations during embryonic development. Mutations in the NRAS gene have been detected in many of these cells. We present 5 cases of giant congenital melanocytic nevus, 3 of them associated with CMNS; NRAS gene mutation was studied in these 3 patients. Read More

    Nasal mucosal melanosis may act as a harbinger of melanoma: A case report.
    Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2016 Jan;7(3):164-167
    Background: The progression from a benign pigmented lesion on the skin to cutaneous melanoma is better understood, and it could be presumed that a similar progression occurs with mucosal lesions. However, to our knowledge, there has never been documentation of melanosis transforming into melanoma over time.

    Objective: To describe a transformation of a mucosal melanosis into melanoma. Read More

    Clinical Evaluation of a 4% Hydroquinone + 1% Retinol Treatment Regimen for Improving Melasma and Photodamage in Fitzpatrick Skin Types III-VI.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2016 Nov;15(11):1435-1441
    The bene ts of monotherapy with hydroquinone for melasma and retinoids for photodamaged skin is well established. Here we report results of a hydroquinone skincare regimen designed for melasma treatment combined with a cosmetic retinol cream on subjects presenting with both melasma and facial photodamage in a 24-week study. Improvement in melasma and photodamage ef cacy pa- rameters of melasma pigmentation intensity and melasma area and severity index (MASI), as well as overall photodamage and mottled hyperpigmentation were found by week 4, the rst post-baseline time point. Read More

    [Melasma : An update on the clinical picture, treatment, and prevention].
    Hautarzt 2017 Feb;68(2):120-126
    Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, 66421, Homburg, Deutschland.
    Melasma, also known as chloasma or mask of pregnancy, presents clinically as hyperpigmented skin areas, which develop mostly in the face as a consequence of increased synthesis of melanin. The established treatment options, including topically applied agents and the use of various laser systems, mostly result in improvement but not in complete remission of the lesions. Because of its significant impact on quality of life and the limited effectivity of available treatment options, the management of melasma is challenging for the treating physician. Read More

    Clinical management of Candida albicans keratomycosis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).
    Vet Ophthalmol 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific, San Diego, CA, 92152, USA.
    Objective: Corneal ulceration secondary to trauma commonly affects marine mammals, often with opportunistic secondary bacterial or fungal infections. This report characterizes the combined use of auriculopalpebral and ophthalmic nerve blocks, adipose-derived stem cells, and subconjunctival injections for successful treatment of corneal trauma and infection in dolphins.

    Animal Studied: An 11-year-old, female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with bilateral diffuse corneal opacities, which progressed to keratomycosis caused by Candida albicans. Read More

    Golden Needle Mushroom: A Culinary Medicine with Evidenced-Based Biological Activities and Health Promoting Properties.
    Front Pharmacol 2016 7;7:474. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. Read More

    A clinical, histologic, and follow-up study of genital melanosis in men and women.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Dec 13. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Department of Dermatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; Robert H. Lurie Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:
    Background: Genital melanosis may clinically mimic melanoma. Little is known about the potential risk for genital and nongenital melanoma in these patients.

    Objective: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed clinical and histologic data from patients with genital melanosis to better characterize these lesions and the risk they confer for genital and nongenital melanoma. Read More

    Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change Overtime of the Modified Melasma Area and Severity Index Score.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Feb;43(2):210-217
    Departments of *Dermatology, Venereology, and Andrology, and †Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.
    Background: The new modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score, the recently used outcome measure for melasma, has not been tested to determine its sensitivity to change in melasma.

    Objective: To determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change overtime of the mMASI score in assessment of the severity of melasma.

    Methods: Pearson correlation, Cronbach alpha, and intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated to assess the reliability of the mMASI score. Read More

    Pigmentation and Pregnancy: Knowing What Is Normal.
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan;129(1):168-173
    Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; the Department of Dermatology, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut; and the Department of Dermatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Changes in melanocytic nevi during pregnancy are frequently attributed to the new hormonal milieu and are dismissed without concern for malignancy. Recent studies suggest that pregnancy itself does not induce significant change in nevi, and delays in the assessment of changing moles may contribute to the often more advanced nature of melanomas diagnosed during or soon after pregnancy. Nevi on the breasts and abdomen can grow as a result of skin expansion, but studies have found no significant changes in nevi located in more stable areas such as the back or lower extremities. Read More

    A review of melasma treatment focusing on laser and light devices.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2016 Dec;35(4):223-232
    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas, McGovern School of Medicine and MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Melasma is a pigmentary disorder of unclear etiology with numerous treatment options and high recurrence rates. Laser and light therapies may be utilized cautiously as second- or third-line options for recalcitrant melasma, but low-energy settings are preferred due to the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and melasma stimulation. Commonly used lasers include the low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, nonablative fractionated lasers, and intense pulsed light. Read More

    Combination therapy in skin of color including injectables, laser, and light devices.
    Semin Cutan Med Surg 2016 Dec;35(4):211-217
    Goldman, Butterwick, Groff, Fabi & Wu, Cosmetic Laser Dermatology, San Diego, California, USA.
    With the rapid increase in patients seeking cosmetic treatments, the variation in responses of lightly pigmented skin versus darkly pigmented skin has become increasingly apparent. Despite extensive treatment options in patients with skin of color, there is a paucity of well-designed studies performed on this patient population. The lack of research is concerning, as it is well documented that patients with darker skin types are at an increased risk of adverse events when treated with many of the available modalities used in cosmetic procedures. Read More

    Laser toning for melasma: A single-centre experience with 38 970 cases.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Feb 1:1-3. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    a Singapore General Hospital , Surgery, Outram Road, Singapore , Singapore.
    Melasma is a common pigmentation in Asian women. Lasers have been used to lighten melasma, although with variable outcomes and complications. In Asia, laser toning is a common technique used to safely lighten melasma. Read More

    Comparative study of dual-pulsed 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and single-pulsed 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser by using zebrafish model and prospective split-face analysis of facial melasma.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Feb 2:1-10. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    b Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine , Korea University Ansan Hospital , Ansan , Korea.
    Background: Recently dual-pulsed low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG (QSNY) laser has been developed for reducing complication during melasma treatment.

    Objective: Comparison of the efficacy and safety between dual-pulsed mode and single-pulsed mode for the treatment of melasma.

    Materials And Methods: In preclinical study, adult zebrafish were irradiated with dual-pulsed and single-pulsed mode. Read More

    Morphologic Changes of Zebrafish Melanophore after Intense Pulsed Light and Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation.
    Ann Dermatol 2016 Dec 23;28(6):711-717. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Recently, the pulse-in-pulse mode of intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used increasingly for the treatment of melasma.

    Objective: To observe the morphologic changes in the melanophore in adult zebrafish after irradiation with conventional and pulse-in-pulse IPL and Q-switched Nd:YAG (QSNY) laser.

    Methods: Adult zebrafish were irradiated with conventional and pulse-in-pulse mode of IPL. Read More

    The Effect of Topical Use of Petroselinum Crispum (Parsley) Versus That of Hydroquinone Cream on Reduction of Epidermal Melasma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    Holist Nurs Pract 2017 Jan/Feb;31(1):16-20
    Department of Community and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Social Determinants of Health Research Centre (Dr Khosravan), Department of Health School of Public Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Center (Dr Alami), Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine (Dr Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam), Student Research Committeen (Mr Ramezani); and Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.
    Melasma disfigures the skin and thus influences people's self-image and self-concept. Therefore, melasma influences emotional and psychosocial health in addition to physical health. This clinical trial was performed to assess the effect of the topical use of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) on reduction of the severity of epidermal melasma. Read More

    Mosaic NRAS Q61R mutation in a child with giant congenital melanocytic naevus, epidermal naevus syndrome and hypophosphataemic rickets.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Jan 30;42(1):75-79. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    Department of Paediatric Dermatology, Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.
    The association of hypophosphataemic rickets with verrucous epidermal naevus (EN) and elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels is known as cutaneous-skeletal hypophosphataemia syndrome (CSHS), and can be caused by somatic activating mutations in RAS genes. We report a unique patient with CSHS associated with giant congenital melanocytic naevus (CMN), neurocutaneous melanosis and EN syndrome, manifesting as facial linear sebaceous naevus, developmental delay and ocular dermoids. An activating mutation Q61R in the NRAS gene was found in affected skin and ocular tissue but not blood, implying that the disparate manifestations are due to a multilineage activating mutation (mosaic RASopathy). Read More

    Early diagnosis of genital mucosal melanoma: how good are our dermoscopic criteria?
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2016 Oct 31;6(4):43-46. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    Dermatology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: There are limited studies on the dermoscopic features of mucosal melanoma, particularly early-stage lesions. Described criteria include the presence of blue, gray, or white colors, with a reported sensitivity of 100%. It is unclear if these features will aid in the detection of early mucosal melanoma or improve diagnostic accuracy compared to naked-eye examination alone. Read More

    Giant melanocytic nevi with neurocutaneous melanosis masquerading as neurofibromas.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):258-260
    Department of Neuroradiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Neurocutaneous melanosis is congenital melanocytic nevus with neurological manifestations. We report a 4-year-old female child presenting with hyperpigmented and nodular skin lesion associated with developmental delay and convulsions. The child had multiple brownish-black nevi on the face and chest and giant melanocytic nevi on thoraco-abdomen, back, and gluteal region. Read More

    Fractional CO₂ Laser Pretreatment Facilitates Transdermal Delivery of Two Vitamin C Derivatives.
    Molecules 2016 Nov 16;21(11). Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology and Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 33301, Taiwan.
    Background: Topical vitamin C derivatives have been used to treat melasma and used as a skin whitener. The aim of this study was to compare skin histology and permeation of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium salt (MAP-1) and magnesium l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (MAP-2) after fractional CO₂ laser pretreatment.

    Methods: The effect of fractional laser treatment on porcine skin was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. Read More

    Theoretical review of the treatment of pigmented lesions in Asian skin.
    Laser Ther 2016 Oct;25(3):179-184
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Tokai University.
    Asian skin has a higher epidermal melanin content, making it more likely to develop adverse pigmentary reactions following laser surgery. The nanosecond lasers are the gold standard for the treatment of pigmented lesions, but the risk of complications, such as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, is increased in dark-skinned patients. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) or long-pulsed lasers are available for treating superficial pigmented lesions, and fewer complications are seen when using these devices compared to the nanosecond lasers. Read More

    Melanoma-Associated Spongiform Scleropathy in Oculodermal Melanocytosis with Primary Orbital Melanoma.
    Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016 Oct 16;2(4):276-279. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla., USA; Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fla., USA.
    Purpose: To describe spongiform scleropathy in a patient with oculodermal melanosis and without evidence of uveal melanoma.

    Methods: Clinical-pathological correlation conducted in compliance with HIPPA (Health Insurance Privacy and Portability Act) regulations.

    Results: Melanoma-associated spongiform scleropathy was an incidental finding in an 87-year-old woman with oculodermal melanocytosis treated for primary orbital melanoma. Read More

    Adenoma Detection is Increased in the Setting of Melanosis Coli.
    J Clin Gastroenterol 2016 Nov 4. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    *Department of Medicine, Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons †Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY.
    Goals: To compare the adenoma detection rate (ADR) during colonoscopy in patients with melanosis coli against matched controls without melanosis.

    Background: Melanosis coli is a colonoscopic finding in which the colon wall appears darkly pigmented, most often due to extended laxative use, and is considered benign. The pigmentation spares adenomas, which should therefore be more readily detectable in melanosis coli. Read More

    Inhibitory effect of 660-nm LED on melanin synthesis in in vitro and in vivo.
    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2017 Jan 3;33(1):49-57. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Skin hyperpigmentary disorders including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, and conditions like freckles are common. The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the latest category of nonthermal and noninvasive phototherapy to be considered in skin pigmentation disorder treatment.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 660-nm LED on inhibition of melanogenesis. Read More

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