1,821 results match your criteria Medulloblastoma Imaging

Dural-Based Posterior Fossa Medulloblastoma Mimicking a Petrous Meningioma in Late Adulthood.

Ochsner J 2022 ;22(2):176-181

Division of Neurosurgery, SBH Health System, Bronx, NY.

Medulloblastoma of the posterior fossa is commonly encountered in pediatric populations but rarely reported in adults. Adult cases of medulloblastoma typically occur in younger patients, tend to arise intra-axially within the cerebellar hemisphere, and usually exhibit classic histopathologic features. A 54-year-old male presented with headaches, dizziness, gait instability, and frequent falls that had worsened during the prior 3 months. Read More

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January 2022

Three dimensional reconstruction of the mouse cerebellum in Hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma models to identify Norrin-dependent effects on preneoplasia.

Commun Biol 2022 Jun 9;5(1):569. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Donald K. Johnson Eye Institute, Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5T 2S8, Canada.

Spontaneous mouse models of medulloblastoma (MB) offer a tractable system to study malignant progression in the brain. Mouse Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-MB tumours first appear at postnatal stages as preneoplastic changes on the surface of the cerebellum, the external granule layer (EGL). Here we compared traditional histology and 3DISCO tissue clearing in combination with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to identify and quantify preneoplastic changes induced by disrupting stromal Norrin/Frizzled 4 (Fzd4) signalling, a potent tumour inhibitory signal in two mouse models of spontaneous Shh-MB. Read More

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Application of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histogram Metrics for Differentiation of Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumors : A Large Retrospective Study and Brief Review of Literature.

Clin Neuroradiol 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the application of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to differentiate posterior fossa tumors (PFTs) in children.

Methods: A total of 175 pediatric patients with PFT, including 75 pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), 59 medulloblastomas, 16 ependymomas, and 13 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), were analyzed. Tumors were visually assessed using DWI trace and conventional MRI images and manually segmented and post-processed using parametric software (pMRI). Read More

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MRI-based whole-tumor radiomics to classify the types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumor.

Neurochirurgie 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Institute of Cancer & Genomic Science, University of Birmingham, B152TT, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Differential diagnosis between medulloblastoma (MB), ependymoma (EP) and astrocytoma (PA) is important due to differing medical treatment strategies and predicted survival. The aim of this study was to investigate non-invasive MRI-based radiomic analysis of whole tumors to classify the histologic tumor types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumor and improve the accuracy of discrimination, using a random forest classifier.

Methods: MRI images of 99 patients, with 59 MBs, 13 EPs and 27 PAs histologically confirmed by surgery and pathology before treatment, were included in this retrospective study. Read More

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Omission of upfront craniospinal irradiation in patients with low-risk WNT-pathway medulloblastoma is associated with unacceptably high risk of neuraxial failure.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Apollo Proton Cancer Centre, Chennai, India.

Background: Medulloblastoma is a heterogenous disease comprising four molecular subgroups - wingless (WNT), sonic hedgehog (SHH), Group 3, and Group 4 respectively. Excellent long term outcomes have prompted de-intensification of therapy in WNT-pathway medulloblastoma. We assessed safety of avoiding upfront craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in children with low-risk WNT-pathway medulloblastoma. Read More

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Life-threatening altered mental status secondary to memantine in an adolescent undergoing cranial radiotherapy for medulloblastoma.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2022 May 23:10781552221102883. Epub 2022 May 23.

Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, 6567Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Introduction: Memantine is used for neurocognitive protection in patients undergoing cranial radiotherapy for central nervous system tumors and is reported to be well-tolerated.

Case Report: Presented is a case of memantine-induced altered mental status requiring an intensive care unit admission. An 18-year-old male with relapsed, progressive medulloblastoma presented with severe altered mental status shortly after the first fraction of palliative whole brain radiotherapy. Read More

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New Developments in the Pathogenesis, Therapeutic Targeting, and Treatment of Pediatric Medulloblastoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 May 3;14(9). Epub 2022 May 3.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric brain tumor with varying prognoses depending on the distinct molecular subtype. The four consensus subgroups are WNT, Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Group 3, and Group 4, which underpin the current 2021 WHO classification of MB. While the field of knowledge for treating this disease has significantly advanced over the past decade, a deeper understanding is still required to improve the clinical outcomes for pediatric patients, who are often vulnerable in ways that adult patients are not. Read More

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A case of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome dominated by facial basal cell carcinoma.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2022 Mar;47(3):384-389

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008.

Nevus-like basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by the occurrence of multiple maxillofacial keratocysts, basal cell carcinoma, child medulloblastoma, and various skeletal and soft tissue dysplasia. In 2020, a patient with NBCCS dominated by facial basal cell carcinoma was admitted to Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. The patient was an elderly woman. Read More

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Glioblastoma Following Treated Medulloblastoma After 29 Years in the Posterior Fossa: Case Report and Review of Literature.

Front Oncol 2022 13;12:760011. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Neurosurgery Department of the IBN ROCHD University Hospital Center, Casablanca, Morocco.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a high-grade glioma that may be a rare complication of radiotherapy. We report a case of a patient who was treated for medulloblastoma (MB) of the posterior fossa at the age of 27 years. Twenty-nine years later, at the age of 56 years, he presented with a double-location tumor: supratentorial and in the posterior fossa. Read More

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MR Imaging of Pediatric Brain Tumors.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Apr 12;12(4). Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Imaging, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Primary brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in children and a leading cause of mortality in this population. MRI plays a central role in the diagnosis, characterization, treatment planning, and disease surveillance of intracranial tumors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of imaging methodology, including conventional and advanced MRI techniques, and illustrate the MRI appearances of common pediatric brain tumors. Read More

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Human Cerebellar Development and Transcriptomics: Implications for Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA; email:

Developmental abnormalities of the cerebellum are among the most recognized structural brain malformations in human prenatal imaging. Yet reliable information regarding their cause in humans is sparse, and few outcome studies are available to inform prognosis. We know very little about human cerebellar development, in stark contrast to the wealth of knowledge from decades of research on cerebellar developmental biology of model organisms, especially mice. Read More

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MRI Radiogenomics of Pediatric Medulloblastoma: A Multicenter Study.

Radiology 2022 Apr 19:212137. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

From the Departments of Neurosurgery (M.Z., Q.Z.), Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (Q.Z.), and Pathology (S.S.A., H.V.), Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, Calif; Departments of Radiology (M.Z., K.W.Y.), Neurology (P.G.F.), and Neurosurgery (G.A.G.), Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University, 725 Welch Rd, G516, Palo Alto, CA 94304; Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif (S.W.W.); Department of Radiology (J.N.W.) and Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics (N.A.V.), Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Wash; Department of Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Wash (J.N.W.); Departments of Diagnostic Imaging (M.W.W., S. Laughlin, B.E.W.) and Surgery (M.T.) and Division of Haematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics (V.R.), The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Departments of Neurosurgery (S.T., K.A.), Radiology (K.M.), and Developmental Biology & Cancer (T.S.J.), Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK; Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa (M.H.); Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif (L.T.T.); Departments of Radiology (K.S., M.M.) and Neurosurgery (S.H.), Duke Children's Hospital & Health Center, Durham, NC; Department of Physiology and Nutrition, University of Colorado-Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colo (S. Lummus); Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, Calif (H.L., A.E.); Department of Radiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY (A.R.); Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Intermountain Healthcare Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (J.N., S.H.C., E.T.); Division of Child Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada (S. Perreault); Department of Clinical Radiology & Imaging Sciences, Riley Children's Hospital, Indianapolis, Ind (K.R.M.B., C.Y.H.); Division of Neurosurgery, Dayton Children's Hospital, Dayton, Ohio (R.M.L.); Department of Pediatrics, Doernbecher Children's Hospital, Portland, Ore (Y.J.C.); Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass (T.P.); Department of Pediatrics, Hopp Children's Cancer Center, Heidelberg, Germany (S. Pfister); and Department of Medical Imaging, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Ill (A.J.).

Background Radiogenomics of pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) offers an opportunity for MB risk stratification, which may aid therapeutic decision making, family counseling, and selection of patient groups suitable for targeted genetic analysis. Purpose To develop machine learning strategies that identify the four clinically significant MB molecular subgroups. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, consecutive pediatric patients with newly diagnosed MB at MRI at 12 international pediatric sites between July 1997 and May 2020 were identified. Read More

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Imaging diagnosis and treatment selection for brain tumors in the era of molecular therapeutics.

Cancer Imaging 2022 Apr 18;22(1):19. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Division of Neuroradiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Currently, most CNS tumors require tissue sampling to discern their molecular/genomic landscape. However, growing research has shown the powerful role imaging can play in non-invasively and accurately detecting the molecular signature of these tumors. The overarching theme of this review article is to provide neuroradiologists and neurooncologists with a framework of several important molecular markers, their associated imaging features and the accuracy of those features. Read More

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A synergistic interaction between HDAC- and PARP inhibitors in childhood tumors with chromothripsis.

Int J Cancer 2022 Aug 28;151(4):590-606. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Group Genome Instability in Tumors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Chromothripsis is a form of genomic instability characterized by the occurrence of tens to hundreds of clustered DNA double-strand breaks in a one-off catastrophic event. Rearrangements associated with chromothripsis are detectable in numerous tumor entities and linked with poor prognosis in some of these, such as Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. Hence, there is a need for therapeutic strategies eliminating tumor cells with chromothripsis. Read More

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Enhanced Survival of High-Risk Medulloblastoma-Bearing Mice after Multimodal Treatment with Radiotherapy, Decitabine, and Abacavir.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 30;23(7). Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstraße 9a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Children with high-risk SHH/-mut and Group 3 medulloblastoma (MB) have a 5-year overall survival of only 40%. Innovative approaches to enhance survival while preventing adverse effects are urgently needed. We investigated an innovative therapy approach combining irradiation (RT), decitabine (DEC), and abacavir (ABC) in a patient-derived orthotopic SHH/-mut and Group 3 MB mouse model. Read More

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Acute Hematological Toxicity during Cranio-Spinal Proton Therapy in Pediatric Brain Embryonal Tumors.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Mar 24;14(7). Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, and Cell and Gene Therapy, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy.

Background: Embryonal tumors represent a heterogeneous entity of brain tumors that need a multidisciplinary treatment including cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI), with a known impact on the acute toxicity. Proton therapy (PT) boasts a reduction in acute hematological toxicity.

Methods: We retrospectively examined 20 pediatric patients affected by high-risk medulloblastoma and other rare embryonal brain tumors subjected to CSI with PT from September 2016 to April 2020. Read More

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Quantifying intraventricular drug delivery utilizing programmable ventriculoperitoneal shunts as the intraventricular access device.

J Neurooncol 2022 May 11;157(3):457-463. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Programmable ventriculoperitoneal shunts (pVP shunts) are increasingly utilized for intraventricular chemotherapy, radioimmunotherapy, and/or cellular therapy. Shunt adjustments allow optimization of drug concentrations in the thecal space with minimization in the peritoneum. This report assesses the success of the pVP shunt as an access device for intraventricular therapies. Read More

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Radiomics signature for the prediction of progression-free survival and radiotherapeutic benefits in pediatric medulloblastoma.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 Jun 8;38(6):1085-1094. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China.

Purpose: To develop and validate a radiomics signature for progression-free survival (PFS) and radiotherapeutic benefits in pediatric medulloblastoma.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 253 consecutive children with medulloblastoma from two hospitals. A total of 1294 radiomic features were extracted from the region of tumor on the T1-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CE-T1w) MRI. Read More

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Spatiotemporal changes in along-tract profilometry of cerebellar peduncles in cerebellar mutism syndrome.

Neuroimage Clin 2022 Mar 30:103000. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Radiology, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Cerebellar mutism syndrome, characterised by mutism, emotional lability and cerebellar motor signs, occurs in up to 39% of children following resection of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant posterior fossa tumour of childhood. Its pathophysiology remains unclear, but prior studies have implicated damage to the superior cerebellar peduncles. In this study, the objective was to conduct high-resolution spatial profilometry of the cerebellar peduncles and identify anatomic biomarkers of cerebellar mutism syndrome. Read More

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VCAM-1-targeted MRI Improves Detection of the Tumor-brain Interface.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 Jun;28(11):2385-2396

Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Despite optimal local therapy, tumor cell invasion into normal brain parenchyma frequently results in recurrence in patients with solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine whether microvascular inflammation can be targeted to better delineate the tumor-brain interface through vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-targeted MRI.

Experimental Design: Intracerebral xenograft rat models of MDA231Br-GFP (breast cancer) brain metastasis and U87MG (glioblastoma) were used to histologically examine the tumor-brain interface and to test the efficacy of VCAM-1-targeted MRI in detecting this region. Read More

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Machine-learning approach to predict molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma using multiparametric MRI-based tumor radiomics.

Br J Radiol 2022 Jun 23;95(1134):20211359. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Center, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Objective: Image-based prediction of molecular subgroups of Medulloblastoma (MB) has the potential to optimize and personalize therapy. The objective of the study is to distinguish between broad molecular subgroups of MB using MR-Texture analysis.

Methods: Thirty-eight MB patients treated between 2007 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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A case of adult cerebellar liponeurocytoma with atypical radiological features and long survival with literature review.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Apr 8;17(4):1061-1067. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, UHC Habib Bourguiba, Sfax (Tunisia).

Cerebellar liponeurocytoma or lipomatous medulloblastoma is a rare oncological entity. Knowledge regarding the management and outcomes of these rare tumors are still evolving. Very few cases have been described previously in the literature. Read More

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Basilar Artery Vasospasm as a Cause of Post-Operative Cerebellar Mutism Syndrome.

Case Rep Pediatr 2022 10;2022:9148100. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Department of Radiology, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool L12 2AP, UK.

Post-operative cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS), also known as posterior fossa syndrome (PFS), is a well-recognized and frequent complication of surgery for posterior fossa tumours in children and young people. Its incidence varies between 8 and 31%, and the pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed onset and resolution of cerebellar mutism are not clear, but axonal damage, oedema, and perfusion defects may be involved. Magnetic resonance imaging has failed to reveal a universal anatomical substrate or a single definite mechanism of injury. Read More

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February 2022

Integration of immunohistochemistry, RNA sequencing, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for molecular classification of pediatric medulloblastoma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 04 4;69(4):e29569. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Medulloblastoma (MB) is commonly classified into four molecular groups, that is, WNT, SHH, group 3, and group 4, for prognostic and therapeutic purposes.

Methods: Here we applied immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for the molecular classification of MB, and utilized multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to determine chromosomal alterations and specific gene amplifications.

Results: We retrospectively enrolled 37 pediatric MB patients. Read More

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Metabolite selection for machine learning in childhood brain tumour classification.

NMR Biomed 2022 06 27;35(6):e4673. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

MRS can provide high accuracy in the diagnosis of childhood brain tumours when combined with machine learning. A feature selection method such as principal component analysis is commonly used to reduce the dimensionality of metabolite profiles prior to classification. However, an alternative approach of identifying the optimal set of metabolites has not been fully evaluated, possibly due to the challenges of defining this for a multi-class problem. Read More

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Primary leptomeningeal medulloblastoma: a case-based review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 03 21;38(3):527-536. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Neurosciences, Division of Neurosurgery, Santobono-Pausilipon Children's Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Background: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, accounting for 40% of childhood tumors in posterior fossa. Metastatic disease, occurring in 20-30% of all medulloblastoma cases at diagnosis, is largely exclusive to the leptomeninges. On the contrary, primary leptomeningeal medulloblastoma or so-called chameleon medulloblastoma, defined by the absence of a detectable intraparenchymal lesion with a widespread diffusion along leptomeninges, is a rare entity of difficult diagnosis with only a few cases reported in literature. Read More

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Prognostic impact of semantic MRI features on survival outcomes in molecularly subtyped medulloblastoma.

Strahlenther Onkol 2022 Mar 21;198(3):291-303. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, ACTREC/TMH Tata Memorial Centre, Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), Kharghar, 410210, Navi Mumbai, India.

Purpose: Imaging features are known to reflect inherent disease biology in various cancers including brain tumors. We report on the prognostic impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features on survival in patients with medulloblastoma treated between 2007 and 2018 at our institute.

Methods: Sixteen semantic imaging features (with predefined categories) were extracted from pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI by consensus. Read More

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Pretreatment Normal WM Magnetization Transfer Ratio Predicts Risk of Radiation Necrosis in Patients with Medulloblastoma.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 02 20;43(2):299-303. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Radiation Oncology (T.E.M.), St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background And Purpose: Radiation necrosis, for which abnormal WM enhancement is a hallmark, is an uncommon complication of craniospinal irradiation in children with medulloblastoma. The magnetization transfer ratio measures macromolecular content, dominated by myelin in the WM. We investigated whether the pretreatment supratentorial (nonsurgical) WM magnetization transfer ratio could predict patients at risk for radiation necrosis after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma. Read More

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February 2022

Medulloblastoma Presenting as Severe Headache during Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jan 14;58(1). Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Neurosurgical Department, Bagdasar-Arseni Clinical Emergency Hospital, 041915 Bucharest, Romania.

Headache is a common complaint during pregnancy and the puerperium. The differentiation between a benign headache and a headache that has an underlying more endangering cause, such as an intracranial tumor, can be difficult and often requires diagnostic procedures and brain imaging techniques. We report the case of an 18-year-old female patient who developed clinical symptoms-persistent headache followed by neurological deficit-in the last part of her pregnancy. Read More

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January 2022

Case of Adult Metastatic Medulloblastoma Demonstrated on 18F-DOPA PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2022 Mar;47(3):e318-e320

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Jaber Al-Ahmad Molecular Imaging Center.

Abstract: 18F-DOPA is a promising radiotracer used for both staging and restaging of primary brain tumors based on increased transport via the L-type large neutral amino acid transport system in tumor cells. Adult medulloblastoma is extremely rare. We present a case of 25-year-old man with posterior fossa medulloblastoma treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy 5 years back, which later developed metastasis to left cerebral lobe treated with gamma knife followed by surgical debulking. Read More

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