9,296 results match your criteria Medulloblastoma


Medulloblastoma during pregnancy: hormone-mediated association? Report of 2 cases.

Neurochirurgie 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

General surgeon, Deparment of Neurosurgery, National Oncologic Institute "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo" ION-SOLCA, Guayaquil, 090505, Ecuador.

Objective: To report two rare cases of medulloblastoma in pregnant patients and a review of the literature.

Material And Methods: Report of patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma during their pregnancies, who were treated with surgery and adjuvant therapy. We also reviewed other cases reported in the literature and the association made with hormonal receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuchi.2020.04.135DOI Listing

Autophagy inhibition impairs the invasion potential of medulloblastoma cells.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research & Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, 410210, India.

Medulloblastoma, a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor, consists of four distinct molecular subgroups called WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 that differ in their clinical characteristics with the WNT subgroup having excellent survival rate. About 1/3rd medulloblastomas have metastasis at the time of diagnosis suggesting, high invasion potential of these tumors. We have earlier reported that the tumor-suppressive role of miR-204 and miR-30a is accompanied by inhibition of autophagy in medulloblastoma cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05603-3DOI Listing

Intraoperative Imprint-squash Methods in Central Nervous System Tumors.

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul 2020 27;54(2):245-251. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pathology, Health Sciences University, Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute 1.3% of all cancers in adults and are the seventh leading cause of death in developed countries. CNS tumors are very soft and have a gelatin-like texture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/SEMB.2020.08466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326685PMC

A boy with a congenital cerebellar mass.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma is believed to be associated with granule cell progenitor neurogenesis of the cerebellum. Nevertheless, congenital medulloblastomas are rarely found. Here, we report a case of congenital medulloblastoma that showed spontaneous albeit transient regression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04767-4DOI Listing

The Expression of Carbonic Anhydrases II, IX and XII in Brain Tumors.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing metalloenzymes that participate in the regulation of pH homeostasis in addition to many other important physiological functions. Importantly, CAs have been associated with neoplastic processes and cancer. Brain tumors represent a heterogeneous group of diseases with a frequently dismal prognosis, and new treatment options are urgently needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071723DOI Listing

RBM5 Acts as Tumor Suppressor in Medulloblastoma through Regulating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

Eur Neurol 2020 Jul 1:1-9. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Dalian Children's Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Introduction: RBM5 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in lung and breast cancers; however, its role in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB) remains unclear. We previously identified 4 RBM5 mutations in whole exome sequencing analysis of 40 MB patients. This study examined the role of RBM5 in MB progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507759DOI Listing

Targeting the medulloblastoma: a molecular-based approach.

Acta Biomed 2020 Jun 30;91(7-S):79-100. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Uni-versity of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: The lack of success of standard therapies for medulloblastoma has highlighted the need to plan a new therapeutic approach. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the novel treatment strategies based on the molecular characterization and risk categories of the medulloblastoma, also focusing on up-to-date relevant clinical trials and the challenges in translating tailored approaches into clinical practice.

Methods: An online search of the literature was carried out on the PubMed/MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9958DOI Listing

Promising survival rate but high incidence of treatment-related mortality after reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy and tandem high-dose chemotherapy in patients with high-risk medulloblastoma.

Cancer Med 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: In this study, we report the follow-up results of reduced dose of craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) in patients with high-risk medulloblastoma (MB).

Methods: Newly diagnosed high-risk MB patients (metastatic disease, postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm , or large cell/anaplastic histology) over 3 years of age were enrolled in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3199DOI Listing

Allergic contact dermatitis to immobilization mask used in radiation therapy.

Pediatr Dermatol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Thermoplastic masks made of polyester resin are used to immobilize patients receiving radiation therapy. We describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to a thermoplastic mask worn by a child receiving proton beam therapy for treatment of medulloblastoma. ACD to a thermoplastic mask in an adult was first reported in 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.14260DOI Listing

Neuroprotection of Radiosensitive Juvenile Mice by Ultra-High Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Major advances in high precision treatment delivery and imaging have greatly improved the tolerance of radiotherapy (RT); however, the selective sparing of normal tissue and the reduction of neurocognitive side effects from radiation-induced toxicities remain significant problems for pediatric patients with brain tumors. While the overall survival of pediatric patients afflicted with medulloblastoma (MB), the most common type primary brain cancer in children, remains high (≥80%), lifelong neurotoxic side-effects are commonplace and adversely impact patients' quality of life. To circumvent these clinical complications, we have investigated the capability of ultra-high dose rate FLASH-radiotherapy (FLASH-RT) to protect the radiosensitive juvenile mouse brain from normal tissue toxicities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061671DOI Listing

Radiation-induced spinal cord cavernous malformations associated with medulloblastoma: a case report and literature review.

World Neurosurg 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization Kanazawa Medical Center, 1-1, Shimo-ishibiki-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 9208650, Japan.

Background: Radiation-induced spinal cord cavernous malformations (CMs) are rare pathologies compared to radiation-induced cerebral CMs. We present a case of a radiation-induced spinal cord CM developed 31 years after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma.

Case Description: A 37-year-old man developed a symptomatic spinal hemorrhagic lesion 31 years after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.125DOI Listing

Abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated (ASPM) gene expression in posterior fossa brain tumors of childhood and adolescence.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Oncology Institute-GRAACC, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: In neurogenesis, ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated) gene is expressed mainly in the ventricular zone of posterior fossa and is the major determinant in the cerebral cortex. Besides its role in embryonic development, ASPM overexpression promotes tumor growth, including central nervous system (CNS) tumors. This study aims to investigate ASPM expression levels in most frequent posterior fossa brain tumors of childhood and adolescence: medulloblastoma (MB), ependymoma (EPN), and astrocytoma (AS), correlating them with clinicopathological characteristics and tumor solid portion size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04740-1DOI Listing

Long non-coding RNA profiling of pediatric Medulloblastoma.

BMC Med Genomics 2020 Jun 26;13(1):87. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology Division, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 986395, USA.

Background: Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most common malignant cancers in children. MB is primarily classified into four subgroups based on molecular and clinical characteristics as (1) WNT (2) Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) (3) Group 3 (4) Group 4. Molecular characteristics used for MB classification are based on genomic and mRNAs profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-020-00744-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318516PMC

The role of diffusion tensor imaging metrics in the discrimination between cerebellar medulloblastoma and brainstem glioma.

Authors:
Nguyen Minh Duc

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 Jun 26:e28468. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Doctoral Program, Department of Radiology, Hanoi Medical University, Ha Noi, Vietnam.

Background: Differentiation between cerebellar medulloblastoma and brainstem glioma is necessary for certain clinical circumstances. We aimed to evaluate the function of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics in the differentiation between cerebellar medulloblastomas and brainstem gliomas in children.

Procedure: The institutional review board approved this prospective study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28468DOI Listing

YBX1 Indirectly Targets Heterochromatin-Repressed Inflammatory Response-Related Apoptosis Genes through Regulating CBX5 mRNA.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 23;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Medulloblastomas arise from undifferentiated precursor cells in the cerebellum and account for about 20% of all solid brain tumors during childhood; standard therapies include radiation and chemotherapy, which oftentimes come with severe impairment of the cognitive development of the young patients. Here, we show that the posttranscriptional regulator Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1), a DNA- and RNA-binding protein, acts as an oncogene in medulloblastomas by regulating cellular survival and apoptosis. We observed different cellular responses upon YBX1 knockdown in several medulloblastoma cell lines, with significantly altered transcription and subsequent apoptosis rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124453DOI Listing

Proteomic profiling of medulloblastoma reveals novel proteins differentially expressed within each molecular subgroup.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 Jun 17;196:106028. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences [NIMHANS], Bangalore, India. Electronic address:

Objectives: The objective of the study was to identify novel medulloblastoma (MB) biomarkers through proteomic profiling, correlate it with the molecular subgroups of MB and assess the clinical significance.

Methods: Archived paraffin embedded tumor tissue blocks from 118 MB patients, operated at our institute were retrieved. Clinical information was documented from the hospital database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106028DOI Listing

NeuroD1 Dictates Tumor Cell Differentiation in Medulloblastoma.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(12):107782

Cancer Biology Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University Health System, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Tumor cells are characterized by unlimited proliferation and perturbed differentiation. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that tumor cells in medulloblastoma (MB) retain their capacity to differentiate in a similar way as their normal originating cells, cerebellar granule neuron precursors. Once they differentiate, MB cells permanently lose their proliferative capacity and tumorigenic potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107782DOI Listing

Phosphoproteomics of short-term hedgehog signaling in human medulloblastoma cells.

Cell Commun Signal 2020 Jun 23;18(1):99. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Biosciences, Bioanalytical Research Laboratories and Molecular Cancer Research and Tumor Immunology, Cancer Cluster Salzburg, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Straße 34, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Aberrant hedgehog (HH) signaling is implicated in the development of various cancer entities such as medulloblastoma. Activation of GLI transcription factors was revealed as the driving force upon pathway activation. Increased phosphorylation of essential effectors such as Smoothened (SMO) and GLI proteins by kinases including Protein Kinase A, Casein Kinase 1, and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 β controls effector activity, stability and processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-020-00591-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310537PMC

Using Pharmacology to Squeeze the Life Out of Childhood Leukemia, and Potential Strategies to Achieve Breakthroughs in Medulloblastoma Treatment.

Pharmacol Rev 2020 Jul;72(3):668-691

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee

Eliminating cancer was once thought of as a war. This analogy is still apt today; however, we now realize that cancer is a much more formidable enemy than scientists originally perceived, and in some cases, it harbors a profound ability to thwart our best efforts to defeat it. However, before we were aware of the complexity of cancer, chemotherapy against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was successful because it applied the principles of pharmacology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/pr.118.016824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312347PMC

Reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation is feasible for standard-risk adult medulloblastoma patients.

J Neurooncol 2020 Jun 21. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Neuro-Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Introduction: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, but accounts for only 1% of brain cancers in adults. For standard-risk pediatric medulloblastoma, current therapy includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI) at reduced doses (23.4 Gy) associated with chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03564-yDOI Listing

Real-world data for pediatric medulloblastoma: can we improve outcomes?

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Jun 21. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Avenida Menéndez Pelayo, 65, 28009, Madrid, Spain.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant embryonal tumor that develops especially in childhood, with overall survival (OS) at 5 years of up to 70%. The objective of this study is to analyze treatment delivery variables in a retrospective cohort and evaluate the impact of these treatment quality parameters on survival. From 2000 to 2018, 40 pediatric patients with medulloblastoma, treated according to current international protocols, were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03722-4DOI Listing

The Functional Role of Long Non-coding RNA UCA1 in Human Multiple Cancers: a Review Study.

Curr Mol Med 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan. Iran.

In various cancers, high-grade tumor and poor survival rate in patients with upregulated lncRNAs UCA1 have been confirmed. Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) is an oncogenic non-coding RNA with a length of more than 200 nucleotides. The UCA1 regulate critical biological processes that are involved in cancer progression, including cancer cell growth, invasion, migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566524020666200619124543DOI Listing

Central nervous system ganglioneuroblastoma harboring MYO5A-NTRK3 fusion.

Brain Tumor Pathol 2020 Jul 18;37(3):105-110. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Central nervous system (CNS) ganglioneuroblastoma is a rare neuroectodermal neoplasm and little is known about its clinical and biological features. Herein, we report a pediatric case of CNS ganglioneuroblastoma harboring MYO5A-NTRK3 fusion. The patient, a 4-year-old boy, underwent a partial resection of a supratentorial tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a CNS ganglioneuroblastoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10014-020-00371-1DOI Listing

A case of medulloblastoma in a patient with fetal ventricular enlargement.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shinmachi, Hirakata City, Osaka, 573-1010, Japan.

Medulloblastoma is the second-most common malignant tumor in children. Medulloblastoma has been categorized into four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, sonic hedgehog (SHH), group 3, and group 4. We report on a male child with medulloblastoma, in whom an enlarged ventricle was diagnosed in utero. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04725-0DOI Listing

The clinical treatment and outcome of cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma: a retrospective study of 15 cases.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 17;10(1):9769. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Neural Reconstruction, Beijing Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Injury, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor arising in the cerebellum or the 4 ventricle. Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) MBs are extremely rare tumors, with few cases previously described. In this study, we sought to describe the clinical characteristics, molecular features and outcomes of CPA MB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66585-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300107PMC

A Germline PALB2 Pathogenic Variant identified in a Pediatric High Grade Glioma.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

University of Pennsylvania, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia;

PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2) gene encodes a protein that co-localizes with BRCA2 in nuclear foci and likely permits the stable intra-nuclear localization and accumulation of BRCA2. PALB2 plays a critical role in maintaining genome integrity through its role in the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways. It has a known loss of function disease mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/mcs.a005397DOI Listing

The epigenetics of brain tumors and its modulation during radiation: A review.

Life Sci 2020 Jun 15;256:117974. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Radiation Biology Lab, 206, ASK-II, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu 613401, India. Electronic address:

The brain tumor is the abnormal growth of heterogeneous cells around the central nervous system and spinal cord. Most clinically prominent brain tumors affecting both adult and pediatric are glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, and ependymoma and they are classified according to their origin of tissue. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery are important treatments available to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117974DOI Listing

DDX3X Suppresses the Susceptibility of Hindbrain Lineages to Medulloblastoma.

Dev Cell 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

CRUK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK; Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. Electronic address:

DEAD-Box Helicase 3 X-Linked (DDX3X) is frequently mutated in the Wingless (WNT) and Sonic hedghog (SHH) subtypes of medulloblastoma-the commonest malignant childhood brain tumor, but whether DDX3X functions as a medulloblastoma oncogene or tumor suppressor gene is not known. Here, we show that Ddx3x regulates hindbrain patterning and development by controlling Hox gene expression and cell stress signaling. In mice predisposed to Wnt- or Shh medulloblastoma, Ddx3x sensed oncogenic stress and suppressed tumor formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.05.027DOI Listing

Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Associated with a Suprarenal Mass.

Prague Med Rep 2020 ;121(2):107-113

Neuroscience Department, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterised by severe thunderclap headaches (with or without the presence of acute neurological symptoms) and segmental vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries that resolves spontaneously in a period of three months. Cases have been described in the literature with producing and non-producing masses of metanephrines. Within these reports, associations with cavernous haemangioma, medulloblastoma, colon cancer, paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, uterine fibroids, among others were found. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14712/23362936.2020.9DOI Listing
January 2020

Temozolomide and oral etoposide in children with recurrent malignant brain tumors.

Drugs Context 2020 2;9. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Pediatric Oncology Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Despite advances in the treatment of brain tumors, the prognosis of children with recurrent malignant brain tumors remains poor. Etoposide (VP-16), an inhibitor of nuclear enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-topoisomerase II, has shown activity in brain tumors. Its efficacy appears schedule dependent but, to date, the most effective schedule of administration has not been well defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7573/dic.2020-3-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271709PMC

[Surgical approach to the posterior fossa in children, including anesthetic considerations and complications: the prone and the sitting position. Technical note.]

Neurochirurgie 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hôpital Necker Enfants-Malades, Paris, University Paris V, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuchi.2020.04.128DOI Listing

Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in metastatic group 3 and 4 medulloblastoma.

BMC Cancer 2020 Jun 15;20(1):554. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Neurosurgical Service, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore, 229899, Singapore.

Background: Metastatic medulloblastoma (MB) portends a poor prognosis. Amongst the 4 molecular subtypes, Group 3 and Group 4 patients have a higher incidence of metastatic disease, especially involving the neuroaxis. At present, mechanisms underlying MB metastasis remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07048-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296667PMC
June 2020
3.362 Impact Factor

Neuroimaging of pediatric infratentorial tumors and the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in determining tumor grade.

Acta Radiol 2020 Jun 15:284185120933219. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides information about the cellular density of tumors. This feature is useful in grading and identifying different tumor types.

Purpose: To assess the value of diffusion restriction and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in differentiating pediatric infratentorial tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185120933219DOI Listing

Genome Engineering Evolves Brain Tumor Modeling.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California San Diego.

Genome engineering using programmable nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein nine facilitated the introduction of genetic alterations at specific genomic sites in various cell types. These tools have been applied to cancer modeling to understand the pathogenic effects of the growing catalog of mutations found in human cancers. Pertaining to brain tumors, neural progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) engineered with different combinations of genetic driver mutations observed in distinct molecular subtypes of glioblastomas, the most common form of primary brain cancer in adults, give rise to brain tumors when engrafted orthotopically in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.ra.2020-0091DOI Listing

Identification of Core Genes and Pathways in Medulloblastoma by Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.

J Mol Neurosci 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most common intracranial malignancies in children. The present study applied integrated bioinformatics to identify potential core genes associated with the pathogenesis of MB and reveal potential molecular mechanisms. Through the integrated analysis of multiple data sets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), 414 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01556-1DOI Listing

Anesthesia Exposure during Therapy Predicts Neurocognitive Outcomes in Survivors of Childhood Medulloblastoma.

J Pediatr 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Objective: To examine the contribution of anesthesia exposure during treatment for childhood medulloblastoma to neurocognitive outcomes 3 years after tumor diagnosis.

Study Design: In this retrospective study, anesthesia data were abstracted from medical records for 111 patients treated with risk-adapted protocol therapy at St Jude Children's Research Hospital. Neurocognitive testing data were obtained for 90. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.04.039DOI Listing

Transient Primary Cilia Mediate Robust Hedgehog Pathway-Dependent Cell Cycle Control.

Curr Biol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Genetics, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

The regulation of proliferation is a primary function of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in development. Hh signal transduction requires the primary cilium for several steps in the pathway [1-5]. Many cells only build a primary cilium upon cell cycle exit, in G0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Pediatric Posterior Fossa Medulloblastoma: The Role of Diffusion Imaging in Identifying Molecular Groups.

J Neuroimaging 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Background And Purpose: The molecular groups WNT activated (WNT), Sonic hedgehog activated (SHH), group 3, and group 4 are biologically and clinically distinct forms of medulloblastoma. We evaluated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values' utility in differentiating/predicting medulloblastoma groups at the initial diagnostic imaging evaluation and prior to surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively measured the ADC values of the enhancing, solid portion of the tumor (EST) and of the whole tumor (WT) and performed Kruskal-Wallis testing to compare the absolute tumor ADC values and cerebellar and thalamic ratios of three medulloblastoma groups (WNT, SHH, and group 3/group 4 combined). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12704DOI Listing

The Non-coding Side of Medulloblastoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 27;8:275. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, National Research Council, Rome, Italy.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric brain tumor and a primary cause of cancer-related death in children. Until a few years ago, only clinical and histological features were exploited for MB pathological classification and outcome prognosis. In the past decade, the advancement of high-throughput molecular analyses that integrate genetic, epigenetic, and expression data, together with the availability of increasing wealth of patient samples, revealed the existence of four molecularly distinct MB subgroups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266940PMC

Long-term outcome of posterior fossa medulloblastoma in patients surviving more than 20 years following primary treatment in childhood.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 10;10(1):9371. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

The aim of the study was to analyze the long-term outcome (>20 years) after treatment of posterior fossa medulloblastoma (MB) in childhood. We analyzed data from patients treated for posterior fossa MB between 1974 (introduction of the first international treatment protocol in Norway) and 1987 (when use of radiotherapy was abandoned in children under 4 years of age). Out of 47 children, 24 survived >20 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66328-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286882PMC

Patient-derived orthotopic xenografts of pediatric brain tumors: a St. Jude resource.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) of childhood brain tumors have recently emerged as a biologically faithful vehicle for testing novel and more effective therapies. Herein, we provide the histopathological and molecular analysis of 37 novel PDOX models generated from pediatric brain tumor patients treated at St. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02171-5DOI Listing

Nuclear Receptor Binding Protein 2 Is Downregulated in Medulloblastoma, and Reduces Tumor Cell Survival upon Overexpression.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 6;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.

Pseudokinases, comprising 10% of the human kinome, are emerging as regulators of canonical kinases and their functions are starting to be defined. We previously identified the pseudokinase Nuclear Receptor Binding Protein 2 (NRBP2) in a screen for genes regulated during neural differentiation. During mouse brain development, is expressed in the cerebellum, and in the adult brain, mainly confined to specific neuronal populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061483DOI Listing

Comprehensive identification of a two-genesignature as a novel potential prognostic model for patients with medulloblastoma.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(5):1600-1613. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Dongcheng District, Beijing, P. R. China.

Medulloblastoma is one of the most common malignant pediatric brain tumors and has a poor prognosis and high mortality. We investigated the prognostic significance of specific gene signatures and established a novel prognostic model for medulloblastoma patients. Ninety-seven differentially expressed genes between 69 medulloblastoma samples and 4 normal cerebellum samples were identified using the GSE68956 dataset. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270006PMC
May 2020
3.226 Impact Factor

Construction and Validation of a 13-Gene Signature for Prognosis Prediction in Medulloblastoma.

Front Genet 2020 19;11:429. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Recent studies have identified several molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma associated with distinct clinical outcomes; however, no robust gene signature has been established for prognosis prediction. Our objective was to construct a robust gene signature-based model to predict the prognosis of patients with medulloblastoma. Expression data of medulloblastomas were acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE85217, = 763; GSE37418, = 76). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249855PMC

Effect of prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on acute hematological toxicity in medulloblastoma patients during craniospinal irradiation (CSI).

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 May 28;196:105975. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Objectives: Haematological toxicity and treatment breaks are common during cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI) due to irradiation of large volume of bone marrow. We conducted this study to see the effect of prophylactic granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) in reducing treatment breaks.

Patients And Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 15 months from August 2017 to November 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105975DOI Listing

Shaping Our Understanding of Medulloblastoma: A Bibliometric Analysis of the 100 Most Cited Articles.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 Jul 23;194:105895. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States. Electronic address:

The clinical management of medulloblastoma has undergone significant transformation since the recent dawn of the molecular era. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate citation and other bibliometric characteristics of the 100 most cited medulloblastoma articles in the literature to better understand the current state of our research efforts into this diagnosis. Elsevier's Scopus database was searched for the 100 most cited articles that focused on medulloblastoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105895DOI Listing

Is medulloblastoma associated with systemic immunomodulation? - A comparative analysis of preoperative inflammatory markers.

Surg Neurol Int 2020 2;11:86. Epub 2020 May 2.

Departments of Radio diagnosis, All India Institute of Medical sciences, CNC, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Background: We attempt to compare preoperative inflammatory markers among children with medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma and establish their diagnostic efficacy to distinguish these tumors.

Methods: Children (<18 years) with biopsy-proven medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma operated at our institute from January 2012 to January 2018 were enrolled in this study. The hematological parameters were compared between the two groups and with healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_336_2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265425PMC

Racial/ethnic Disparities and Survival in Pediatrics with Gliomas Based on the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database in the United States.

World Neurosurg 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical, Navy Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, P.R.China. Electronic address:

Background: Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system tumor for both children and adults. But the influence of racial/ethnic disparities on the survival of children with gliomas has not been fully evaluated yet.

Methods: Baseline characteristics of patients, including gender, year of diagnosis, surgery, grade, radiation, histology and races, were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.05.224DOI Listing

Exosomal miR-130b-3p targets SIK1 to inhibit medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2020 Jun 1;11(6):408. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Institute of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, and the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, International Co-laboratory of Medical Epigenetics and Metabolism, Ministry of Science and Technology, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 200032, Shanghai, China.

Exosomes are an important carrier for cell communication. miRNAs in exosomes are potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in different types of cancer. However, the role of exosomal miRNAs in medulloblastoma (MB) patients is largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2621-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264172PMC