9,742 results match your criteria Medulloblastoma

How we treat medulloblastoma in adults.

ESMO Open 2021 Jun 9;6(4):100173. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Wilhelm Sander NeuroOncology Unit & Department of Neurology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:

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Predictors of progression in radiation-induced versus nonradiation-induced pediatric meningiomas: a large single-institution surgical experience.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jun 11:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital.

Objective: The goal in this study was to outline unique differences between radiation-induced and nonradiation-induced pediatric meningiomas and to identify independent risk factors of tumor recurrence/progression.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric meningiomas diagnosed and surgically treated at the authors' institution between 1993 and 2017. Multivariable Cox regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for tumor recurrence/progression. Read More

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Exploring the role and clinical implications of proteasome inhibition in medulloblastoma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jun 11:e29168. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

Ubiquitin proteasome-mediated protein degradation has been implicated in posttranslational oncogenesis in medulloblastoma. Current research is evaluating the clinical implications of proteasome inhibition as a therapeutic target. In medulloblastoma cell lines, proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation via multiple pathways involving activation of caspase pathways, NFκB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) pathway inhibition, reduced AKT/mTOR pathway activity, and pro-apoptotic protein expression. Read More

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Sterol regulation of developmental and oncogenic Hedgehog signaling.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jun 7:114647. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The Hedgehog (Hh) family of lipid-modified signaling proteins directs embryonic tissue patterning and postembryonic tissue homeostasis, and dysregulated Hh signaling drives familial and sporadic cancers. Hh ligands bind to and inhibit the tumor suppressor Patched and allow the oncoprotein Smoothened (SMO) to accumulate in cilia, which in turn activates the GLI family of transcription factors. Recent work has demonstrated that endogenous cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol derivatives (oxysterols) bind and modulate SMO activity. Read More

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Children's Oncology Group Phase III Trial of Reduced-Dose and Reduced-Volume Radiotherapy With Chemotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Average-Risk Medulloblastoma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 10:JCO2002730. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Children with average-risk medulloblastoma (MB) experience survival rates of ≥ 80% at the expense of adverse consequences of treatment. Efforts to mitigate these effects include deintensification of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) dose and volume.

Methods: ACNS0331 (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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J Cell Biochem 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Retraction: "Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits proliferation and migration of medulloblastoma Daoy by down-regulation of microRNA-31," by Yan Chen, Hong Shang, Shunli Zhang, Xiaohong Zhang, J Cell Biochem. 2018; 6527-6534: The above article, published online on 29 January 2018 in Wiley Online Library (https://onlinelibrary.wiley. Read More

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J Cell Biochem 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Retraction: "Triptolide inhibits the proliferation and migration of medulloblastoma Daoy cells by upregulation of microRNA-138," by Haifang Zhang, Hui Li, Zhenguo Liu, Ang Ge, Enyu Guo, Shuxia Liu, Zhiping Chen, J Cell Biochem. 2018; 9866-9877: The above article, published online on 28 August 2018 in Wiley Online Library (https://onlinelibrary.wiley. Read More

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Proton therapy for adult medulloblastoma: Acute toxicity and disease control outcomes.

J Neurooncol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, 2015 North Jefferson Street, Jacksonville, FL, 32206, USA.

Purpose: We report disease control, survival outcomes, and treatment-related toxicity among adult medulloblastoma patients who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) as part of multimodality therapy.

Methods: We reviewed 20 adults with medulloblastoma (≥ 22 years old) who received postoperative proton CSI ± chemotherapy between 2008 and 2020. Patient, disease, and treatment details and prospectively obtained patient-reported acute CSI toxicities were collected. Read More

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Brain network hubs and cognitive performance of survivors of childhood infratentorial tumors.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Childhood infratentorial tumor patients frequently suffer from long-term cognitive deficits. As each constituent of their treatment can lead to neurotoxicity, cascade effects can lead to profound reorganization of the underlying brain network, the so-called 'connectome'. However, to date, few studies have assessed the relationship between brain network topology, the functional role of network hubs (i. Read More

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In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "F-DOPA PET in Medulloblastoma: Two Case Reports".

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun;150:255

Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Policlinico Le Scotte, Siena, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy.

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Letter to the Editor Regarding "F-DOPA Positron Emission Tomography in Medulloblastoma: 2 Case Reports".

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun;150:253-254

UOC Territorial Oncology AUSL Latina-CdS Aprilia-University of Rome "Sapienza", Rome, Italy.

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FUT8 and Protein Core Fucosylation in Tumours: From Diagnosis to Treatment.

J Cancer 2021 13;12(13):4109-4120. Epub 2021 May 13.

Special Key Laboratory of Oral Disease Research, Higher Education Institution in Guizhou Province, School of Stomatology, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563006, China.

Glycosylation changes are key molecular events in tumorigenesis, progression and glycosyltransferases play a vital role in the this process. FUT8 belongs to the fucosyltransferase family and is the key enzyme involved in N-glycan core fucosylation. FUT8 and/or core fucosylated proteins are frequently upregulated in liver, lung, colorectal, pancreas, prostate,breast, oral cavity, oesophagus, and thyroid tumours, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme and downregulated in gastric cancer. Read More

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Field-in-Field Technique With Intrafractionally Modulated Junction Shifts for Craniospinal Irradiation Planning With Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy.

Cureus 2021 Apr 28;13(4):e14744. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Oncology, Ziauddin University, Karachi, PAK.

Background: Planning craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with ''field-in-field'' (FIF) homogenization technique in combination with daily, intrafractional modulation of the field junctions is needed to avoid spinal cord overdose. Photon-based techniques for CSI may result in dose inhomogeneity within the treatment volume and usually require a weekly manual shift of the field junctions to minimize the possibility of spinal cord overdose. Nowadays, FIF technique is used to feather out the dose inhomogeneity caused by multiple fields. Read More

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Maximizing the potential of aggressive mouse tumor models in preclinical drug testing.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11580. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is an aggressive embryonal brain tumor among infants and young children. Two challenges exist for preclinical testing in ATRT. First, genetically quiet, ATRT is a difficult tumor to target molecularly. Read More

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Neoplastic and immune single cell transcriptomics define subgroup-specific intra-tumoral heterogeneity of childhood medulloblastoma.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Pediatrics Morgan Adams Foundation Pediatric Brain Tumor Research Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, 80045, USA.

Background: Medulloblastoma (MB) is a heterogeneous disease in which neoplastic cells and associated immune cells contribute to disease progression. We aimed to determine the influence of neoplastic and immune cell diversity on MB biology in patient samples and animal models.

Methods: To better characterize cellular heterogeneity in MB we used single-cell RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry and deconvolution of transcriptomic data to profile neoplastic and immune populations in patient samples and animal models across childhood MB subgroups. Read More

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Revision of Commonly Accepted Warburg Mechanism of Cancer Development: Redox-Sensitive Mitochondrial Cytochromes in Breast and Brain Cancers by Raman Imaging.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 26;13(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Laboratory of Laser Molecular Spectroscopy, Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz, Poland.

We used Raman imaging to monitor changes in the redox state of the mitochondrial cytochromes in ex vivo human brain and breast tissues, surgically resected specimens of human tissues and in vitro human brain cells of normal astrocytes (NHA), astrocytoma (CRL-1718), glioblastoma (U87-MG) and medulloblastoma (Daoy), and human breast cells of normal cells (MCF 10A), slightly malignant cells (MCF7) and highly aggressive cells (MDA-MB-231) by means of Raman microspectroscopy at 532 nm. We visualized localization of cytochromes by Raman imaging in the major organelles in cancer cells. We demonstrated that the "redox state Raman marker" of the ferric low-spin heme in cytochrome at 1584 cm can serve as a sensitive indicator of cancer aggressiveness. Read More

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Epigenetic-Based Therapy-A Prospective Chance for Medulloblastoma Patients' Recovery.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 6;22(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Intraoperative Imaging Unit, Chair and Clinic of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology, Karol Marcikowski University of Medical Sciences, Przybyszewskiego 49, 60-355 Poznan, Poland.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most frequent and malignant brain tumors in children. The prognosis depends on the advancement of the disease and the patient's age. Current therapies, which include surgery, chemotherapy, and irradiation, despite being quite effective, cause significant side effects that influence the central nervous system's function and cause neurocognitive deficits. Read More

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Unraveling the Etiology of Pediatric Vertigo and Dizziness: A Tertiary Pediatric Center Experience.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 May 11;57(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervicofacial Surgery, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloška Cesta 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

: Numerous authors have reported that the commonest type of vertigo in children is migraine-associated vertigo (vestibular migraine and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood-BPV). We aimed to provide the possible etiological background of vertigo and dizziness in Slovenian children. : A retrospective case series of pediatric vertigo and dizziness children referred to the tertiary pediatric otorhinolaryngology center from 2015 to 2020. Read More

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Marital status independently predicts glioma patient mortality: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) analysis.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Introduction: To examine the impact of marital status on the mortality of patients with primary malignant brain tumors excluding bias from basic characteristics and treatment.

Methods: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to identify 81,277 patients diagnosed in 2000 through 2016 with the most common primary malignant brain tumors, including glioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma. To avoid bias, we used propensity score matching method to match 44,854 patients with complete clinical and follow-up information. Read More

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GAB1 overexpression identifies Hedgehog-activated anterior skull base meningiomas.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

CRICM INSERM U1127 CNRS UMR 7225, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière, Paris, F-75013, France.

Aims: Mutations activating the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway have been described in anterior skull base meningiomas, raising hope for the use of targeted therapies. However, identification of Hh-activated tumours is hampered by the lack of a reliable immunohistochemical marker. We report the evaluation of GAB1, an immunohistochemical marker used to detect Hh pathway activation in medulloblastoma, as a potential marker of Hh-activated meningiomas. Read More

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Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Targeted Assays for the Validation of Protein Biomarkers in Brain Tumors.

Front Oncol 2021 14;11:548243. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India.

The emergence of omics technologies over the last decade has helped in advancement of research and our understanding of complex diseases like brain cancers. However, barring genomics, no other omics technology has been able to find utility in clinical settings. The recent advancements in mass spectrometry instrumentation have resulted in proteomics technologies becoming more sensitive and reliable. Read More

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Neuroophthalmic Manifestations of Intracranial Tumours in Children.

Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2021 15;2021:7793382. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: All children between 0 and 16 years presenting with brain tumours confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and treated surgically in our institute were included in this study.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuroophthalmic and clinical characteristics of intracranial space occupying lesions in children.

Methods: Neuroophthalmic manifestations along with location of the tumour by contrast-enhanced MRI, type of surgical intervention, and postoperative histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Read More

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The need for a central brain tumor registry in Africa: A review of central nervous system tumors in Africa from 1960 to 2017.

Neurooncol Pract 2021 Jun 27;8(3):337-344. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors pose a substantial health problem. Although data on specific time periods and regions of Africa have been previously reported, no study has yet to provide a systematic review of CNS tumors for the entire continent of Africa. This study aims to analyze the frequency of CNS tumors in Africa from 1960 to 2017. Read More

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Assessing the utility and attitudes toward molecular testing in neuro-oncology: a survey of the Society for Neuro-Oncology members.

Neurooncol Pract 2021 Jun 17;8(3):310-316. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Phoenix, Arizona.

Background: Molecular testing (MT) is utilized in neuro-oncology with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to determine clinical practice patterns to acquire this information, interpret and utilize MT for patient care, and identify unmet needs in the practical clinical application of MT.

Methods: We conducted a voluntary online survey of providers within the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO) membership database between March and April 2019. Read More

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Proton Beam Therapy for Cancer in Children and Adults: A Health Technology Assessment.


Ont Health Technol Assess Ser 2021 6;21(1):1-142. Epub 2021 May 6.

Background: Proton beam therapy has potential to reduce late toxicity in cancer treatment by reducing the risk of damage to surrounding healthy tissues. We conducted a health technology assessment of proton beam therapy, compared with photon therapy, for children and adults with cancer requiring radiotherapy. Our assessment included an evaluation of safety, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, the budget impact of publicly funding the construction and use of proton beam therapy in Ontario, and patient preferences and values. Read More

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Epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma pathogenesis revealed by genetically engineered mouse models.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, 187-8502, Japan.

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant cerebellar tumor in children. Recent technological advances in multi-layered omics data analysis have revealed four molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma (Wingless/int, Sonic hedgehog, Group3 and Group4). (Epi)genomic and transcriptomic profiling on human primary medulloblastomas show distinct oncogenic drivers and cellular origin(s) across the subgroups. Read More

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Carbon ion radiotherapy eradicates medulloblastomas with chromothripsis in an orthotopic Li-Fraumeni patient-derived mouse model.

Neuro Oncol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Group Genome Instability in Tumors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ).

Background: Medulloblastomas with chromothripsis developing in children with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (germline TP53 mutations) are highly aggressive brain tumors with dismal prognosis. Conventional photon radiotherapy and DNA-damaging chemotherapy are not successful for these patients and raise the risk of secondary malignancies. We hypothesized that the pronounced homologous recombination deficiency in these tumors might offer vulnerabilities that can be therapeutically utilized in combination with high linear energy transfer carbon ion radiotherapy. Read More

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Overview and recent advances in the targeting of medulloblastoma cancer stem cells.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2021 Jun 8:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA (M.R.P., P.E.Z.); Peckham Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Rady Children's Hospital-San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

: Medulloblastoma, an embryonal small round blue cell tumor primarily arising in the posterior fossa, is the most common malignancy of the central nervous system in children and requires intensive multi-modality therapy for cure. Overall 5-year survival is approximately 75% in children with primary disease, but outcomes for relapsed disease are very poor. Recent advances have identified molecular subgroups with excellent prognosis, with 5-year overall survival rates >90%, and those with very poor prognosis with overall survival rates <50%. Read More

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High Relative Biological Effectiveness of 2 MeV Fast Neutrons for Induction of Medulloblastoma in Ptch1+/- Mice with Radiation-specific Deletion on Chromosome 13.

Radiat Res 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Radiation Effects Research, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Neutron radiation, a high-linear energy transfer radiation, has a high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for various end points. The age at exposure is an important modifier of the effects of radiation, including carcinogenesis, with infants being generally more radiosensitive. Ptch1+/- mice offer a unique experimental system for assessing radiation carcinogenesis. Read More

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