5,193,221 results match your criteria Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise[Journal]

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T-cell immunology of the lung: maintaining the balance between host defence and immune pathology.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 Jan;156(1):1-2

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Respiratory immunology poses the dual questions of how to grapple with lung infection as one of the greatest unmet global health needs of our time, while also dealing with the growing challenge posed by chronic diseases of excessive or inappropriate lung inflammation and immunity, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma. These separate branches of pulmonary research are linked by the clear observation that, in a tissue as fragile as the lung, protection from microbial attack may come at the cost of chronic inflammatory damage. A number of recent studies have considered specific aspects of this double-edged sword, including the diversity of responses to fungal exposure, sources and consequences of interleukin-17 immunity, and the role of tertiary lymphoid follicles in the lung. Read More

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January 2019
9 Reads

[Augmented reality and virtual reality in the operating theatre status quo und quo vadis].

Aktuelle Urol 2018 Dec 6;49(6):500-508. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie der Universitätsmedizin Mainz, Mainz.

Introduction:  Virtual reality (VR) is an artificially simulated environment permitting interaction. On the other hand, augmented reality (AR) is an enhanced version of reality created by the use of technology to overlay digital information on an image of something being viewed through a device. Both technologies have partially been implemented in clinical daily routine. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

Horm Metab Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Vitamin D has received attention for its potential to disrupt cancer processes. However, its effect in the treatment of prostate cancer is controversial. This study aimed to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on patients with prostate cancer. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Hypercortisolism in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of 384 Newly Diagnosed Patients.

Horm Metab Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Cross-sectional studies in small and selected populations report a high prevalence of hypercortisolism in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), which could have therapeutic implications, if confirmed. We therefore estimated the prevalence of hypercortisolism in a large and unselected cohort of recently diagnosed T2D patients. Consecutive patients with recently diagnosed T2D first underwent an overnight dexamethasone (1 mg) suppression test (OD). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Effect of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the Aldosterone/Renin Ratio in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Horm Metab Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Saolta University Health Care Group (SUHCG), Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland.

The aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) is recommended for case detection of primary aldosteronism (PA). Several factors including medications can undermine its diagnostic accuracy. The objective was to explore the effect of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibition on the ARR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were prescribed a Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitor (SGLT-2i) as part of routine clinical care. Read More

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December 2018
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Pharmacokinetics of Prenylflavonoids following Oral Ingestion of Standardized Epimedium Extract in Humans.

Planta Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Leaves of the plant are traditionally consumed for bone health and other indications. The aim of this study was to establish the safety and pharmacokinetics of the metabolites of prenylflavonoids (icariin, icariside I, icariside II, icaritin, and desmethylicaritin) following single doses of a defined prenylflavonoid extract in humans. A single oral dose of 370, 740, or 1110 mg of a standardized prenylflavonoid extract was administered to 30 healthy male subjects in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
2.152 Impact Factor

Prescription Medication Misuse.

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):654-664. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA.

In the United States, there is a prescription medication misuse crisis including increases in unintentional drug overdose deaths, medications obtained on the illicit market (i.e., diversion), and in the number of individuals seeking treatment for addiction to prescription medications. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Myofascial Pain.

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):640-643. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Myofascial pain syndromes arise from acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain and often have a referred neuropathic component. It affects more than three quarters of the world's population and is one of the most important and overlooked causes of disability. The origins of pain are thought to reside anywhere between the motor end plate and the fibrous outer covering of the muscle, with involvement of microvasculature and neurotransmitters at the cellular level. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Radicular Pain Syndromes: Cervical, Lumbar, and Spinal Stenosis.

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):634-639. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Back pain is a top primary and urgent care complaint; radicular pain can be caused by herniation of the nucleus pulposus (intervertebral disc), spinal stenosis, or degenerative changes to the vertebrae. The focus of this clinical review will be the clinical approach and treatment of lumbar radicular pain, cervical radicular pain, and spinal stenosis. Usually localized through neurological history, exam, and imaging, specific signs and symptoms for lumbar radicular, spinal stenosis, and cervical radicular pain can help determine etiology. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Headache in Pregnancy, the Puerperium, and menopause.

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):627-633. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New York, Buffalo, New York.

Headache is a neurologic disorder that displays gender dichotomy. It is well established that there is a strong link between migraine headache and sex hormones, specifically estrogen, which influences the severity of migraines during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Furthermore, the epidemiology of headaches during pregnancy and the postpartum period is very distinct from that in males or nonpregnant females, in part due to the hemodynamic and hematologic changes that occur during pregnancy. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Posttraumatic Headache.

Authors:
Brigid Dwyer

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):619-626. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Posttraumatic headaches are among the most challenging complaints after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). They are a debilitating problem experienced by patients after TBI of all severities. Up to 90% of mild TBI patients experience headache, particularly if female and with a premorbid history of primary headache. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Cluster Headache and Other Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias.

Authors:
Brian E McGeeney

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):603-607. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias are a group of distinct primary headache disorders that share common characteristics of strict unilateral headache often accompanied by unilateral cranial autonomic features. Cluster headache is the most well-known example, but other than neurologists, practitioners often have limited familiarity with these disorders and treatment options. Delays in diagnosis are typical and treatment options remain suboptimal, associated with limited scientific research into these brain disorders. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Shuhan Zhu, MD and James Otis, MD, FAAN.

Authors:
David M Greer

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):599-600. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

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December 2018
2 Reads

Predicted short and long-term impact of deworming and water, hygiene, and sanitation on transmission of soil-transmitted helminths.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 6;12(12):e0006758. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Research School of Population Health, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Background: Regular preventive chemotherapy (PCT) targeting high-risk populations is an effective way to control STH in the short term, but sustainable long-term STH control is expected to require improved access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). However, experimental studies have not been able to conclusively demonstrate the benefit of WASH in preventing STH (re-)infections. We investigated the impact of WASH on STH infections during and after PCT using mathematical modelling. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Tracking Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation: A Novel Approach.

Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Renal Research Institute, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The time between the creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and its successful use is significantly longer in hemodialysis (HD) patients in the United States compared to those in other countries, and there is an urgent need to reduce the residence time of central-venous catheters (CVC).

Methods: Successful AVF creation and maturation results in typical hemodynamic changes, such as an increase in cardiac output and upper body blood flow (UBBF). In patients with CVC as vascular access, we measured once per minute intradialytic central-venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and hemoglobin levels simultaneously using the Crit-Line Monitor. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Neurofilament Light in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Hip Fracture Patients with Delirium.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2018 Dec 6;46(5-6):346-357. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Oslo Delirium Research Group, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Delirium is associated with new-onset dementia, suggesting that delirium pathophysiology involves neuronal injury. Neurofilament light (NFL) is a sensitive biomarker for neuroaxonal injury.

Methods: NFL was measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n = 130), preoperative serum (n = 192), and postoperative serum (n = 280) in hip fracture patients, and in CSF (n = 123) and preoperative serum (n = 134) in cognitively normal older adults undergoing elective surgery. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

miR-122 Targets X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein to Sensitize Oxaliplatin-Resistant Colorectal Cancer Cells to Oxaliplatin-Mediated Cytotoxicity.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2148-2159. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Minimally Invasive Treatment Center, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai,

Background/aims: Although oxaliplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat colorectal cancer (CRC), long-term administration usually induces acquired drug resistance during the course of treatment. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel strategies to improve the efficiency of cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of microRNA-122 (miR-122) on reversing oxaliplatin resistance in CRC. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Developing a Process for Returning Medically Actionable Genomic Variants to Latino Patients in a Federally Qualified Health Center.

Public Health Genomics 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Aim: To develop a process for returning medically actionable genomic variants to Latino patients receiving care in a Federally Qualified Health Center.

Methods: Prior to recruitment, researchers met with primary care providers to (1) orient clinicians to the project, (2) establish a process for returning actionable and nonactionable results to participants and providers through the electronic health record, and (3) develop a process for offering clinical decision support for follow-up education and care. A Community Advisory Board was engaged to provide input on recruitment strategies and materials for conveying results to participants. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Early-Stage Translational Research in Perinatal Medicine.

Neonatology 2018 Dec 6;115(2):182-188. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New

Background: Pre-clinical research, which encompasses studies in animals and in the laboratory, has made significant contributions to the improvement of neonatal outcomes.

Methods: Here, we describe examples of how pre-clinical research can be the starting point on the journey to the development of new interventions to improve neonatal care and outcomes and discuss recent progress in ensuring methodological and ethical rigour in pre-clinical research involving animal models.

Results: Studies in pregnant sheep led to the serendipitous discovery that preterm lambs born after exogenous corticosteroid exposure were able to aerate their lungs. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Association of Central Venous Oxygen Saturation Variability and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients.

Blood Purif 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Renal Research Institute, New York, New York,

Background: Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) is correlated with cardiac output. In most patients, ScvO2 declines during hemodialysis (HD) due to factors such as reduced preload, myocardial stunning, and intermittent arrhythmias. Previous research has shown that low ScvO2 is associated with higher mortality in chronic HD patients. Read More

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December 2018

Down-Regulation of Laminin (LN)- α5 is Associated with Preeclampsia and Impairs Trophoblast Cell Viability and Invasiveness Through PI3K Signaling Pathway.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2030-2040. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing,

Background/aims: Preeclampsia (PE) is a gestational disorder defined as hypertension and proteinuria, which is deemed a major cause of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of placental laminin (LN)-α5 expression in normal and PE pregnancies, as well as evaluating the effects of LN-α5 on trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion.

Methods: LN-α5 expression levels were examined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and further confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Cigarette Smoke Extract Promotes TIM4 Expression in Murine Dendritic Cells Leading to Th2 Polarization through ERK-Dependent Pathways.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 Dec 6:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan,

Smoking is considered to be the main source of indoor pollution, and it has been identified as an important environmental factor contributing to asthma onset. We know that T helper 2 (Th2) response plays a crucial role in the process of asthma disease. We have investigated the reaction of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on Th polarization which is controlled by dendritic cells (DCs). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
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