1,837 results match your criteria Medical Microbiology and Immunology [Journal]


Cellular reservoirs of latent cytomegaloviruses.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Institute for Virology and Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, Hochhaus am Augustusplatz, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), members of the β-subfamily of the herpesvirus family, have co-speciated with their respective mammalian hosts resulting in a mutual virus-host adaptation reflected by sets of 'private' viral genes that a particular CMV species does not share with other CMVs and that define the host-species specificity of CMVs. Nonetheless, based on "biological convergence" in evolution, fundamental rules in viral pathogenesis and immune control are functionally analogous between different virus-host pairs. Therefore, the mouse model of infection with murine CMV (mCMV) has revealed generally valid principles of CMV-host interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00592-yDOI Listing

Transcripts expressed in cytomegalovirus latency coding for an antigenic IE/E phase peptide that drives "memory inflation".

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institute for Virology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz and Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI), Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, Hochhaus am Augustusplatz, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Roizman's definition of herpesviral latency, which applies also to cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), demands maintenance of reactivation-competent viral genomes after clearance of productive infection. It is more recent understanding that failure to complete the productive viral cycle for virus assembly and release does not imply viral gene silencing at all genetic loci and all the time. It rather appears that CMV latency is transcriptionally "noisy" in that silenced viral genes get desilenced from time to time in a stochastic manner, leading to "transcripts expressed in latency" (TELs). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-019-00615-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00615-8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Function of the cargo sorting dileucine motif in a cytomegalovirus immune evasion protein.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institute for Virology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz and Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI), Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, Hochhaus am Augustusplatz, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

As an immune evasion mechanism, cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have evolved proteins that interfere with cell surface trafficking of MHC class-I (MHC-I) molecules to tone down recognition by antiviral CD8 T cells. This interference can affect the trafficking of recently peptide-loaded MHC-I from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface, thus modulating the presentation of viral peptides, as well as the recycling of pre-existing cell surface MHC-I, resulting in reduction of the level of overall MHC-I cell surface expression. Murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) was paradigmatic in that it led to the discovery of this immune evasion strategy of CMVs. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-019-00604-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00604-xDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Impact of CMV upon immune aging: facts and fiction.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Immunobiology and the University of Arizona Center on Aging, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson, Tucson, AZ, 85718, USA.

Aging is accompanied by significant defects in immunity and compromised responses to new, previously unencountered microbial pathogens. Most humans carry several persistent or latent viruses as they age, interacting with the host immune systems for years. In that context maybe the most studied persistent virus is Cytomegalovirus, infamous for its ability to recruit very large T cell responses which increase with age and to simultaneously evade elimination by the immune system. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-019-00605-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00605-wDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The hallmarks of CMV-specific CD8 T-cell differentiation.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Upon cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, large T-cell responses are elicited that remain high or even increase over time, a phenomenon named memory T-cell inflation. Besides, the maintained robust T-cell response, CMV-specific T cells seem to have a distinctive phenotype, characterized by an advanced differentiation state. Here, we will review this "special" differentiation status by discussing the cellular phenotype based on the expression of CD45 isoforms, costimulatory, inhibitory and natural killer receptors, adhesion and lymphocyte homing molecules, transcription factors, cytokines and cytotoxic molecules. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-019-00608-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00608-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Impact of cytomegalovirus load on host response to sepsis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 110 Francis St, Lowry 2G, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

There is a decades old association between cytomegalovirus reactivation and sepsis in immune-competent hosts. Much has been learned about this relationship, which has been described as bidirectional, meaning that the virus incites and is incited by the host's inflammatory response. More recent work has suggested that chronic viral infection leaves the host with exaggerated immunity to bacterial infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00603-yDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
3.038 Impact Factor

Serum cytokine and chemokine changes during Toscana virus meningitis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Str. 74, 20359, Hamburg, Germany.

Toscana virus is an important arbovirus causing meningitis and meningoencephalitis in countries around the Mediterranean Sea. While the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been well described, less is known about the immune response in Toscana virus meningitis and a possible use of cytokine and chemokine changes for the clinical follow-up of patients. We here characterized serum cytokine and chemokine profiles from 37 patients during the acute and convalescent phase of the infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00611-yDOI Listing

Cytomegalovirus memory inflation and immune protection.

Authors:
Luka Cicin-Sain

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Vaccinology and Applied Microbiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Braunschweig, Germany.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection induces powerful and sustained T-cell responses against a few selected immunodominant antigenic epitopes. This immune response was named memory inflation, because it does not contract in the long term, and may even expand over months and years of virus latency. It is by now understood that memory inflation does not occur at the expense of the naïve T-cell pool, but rather as a competitive selection process within the effector pool, where viral antigens with higher avidity of TCR binding and with earlier expression patterns outcompete those that are expressed later and bind TCRs less efficiently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00607-8DOI Listing

Effect of latent cytomegalovirus infection on the antibody response to influenza vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Immunology of Infectious Diseases and Vaccines, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is thought to accelerate aging of the immune system. With age, influenza vaccine responses are impaired. Although several studies investigated the effect of CMV infection on antibody responses to influenza vaccination, this led to contradicting conclusions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00602-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

CD4 T cells are required for maintenance of CD8 T cells and virus control in the brain of MCMV-infected newborn mice.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, B. Branchetta 20, 51000, Rijeka, Croatia.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a significant public health problem. Congenital CMV infection is a leading infectious cause of long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, including mental retardation and sensorineural hearing loss. Immune protection against mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is primarily mediated by NK cells and CD8 T cells, while CD4 T cells are not needed for control of MCMV in majority of organs in immunocompetent adult mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00601-0DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Role of antibodies in confining cytomegalovirus after reactivation from latency: three decades' résumé.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Histology and Embryology and Center for Proteomics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Braće Branchetta 20, 51000, Rijeka, Croatia.

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are highly prevalent herpesviruses, characterized by strict species specificity and the ability to establish non-productive latent infection from which reactivation can occur. Reactivation of latent human CMV (HCMV) represents one of the most important clinical challenges in transplant recipients secondary to the strong immunosuppression. In addition, HCMV is the major viral cause of congenital infection with severe sequelae including brain damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00600-1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Kinetics of inflammatory biomarkers in plasma predict the occurrence and features of cytomegalovirus DNAemia episodes in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Microbiology Service, Hospital Clínico Universitario, INCLIVA Research Institute, Av. Blasco Ibáñez 17, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia occurs frequently in CMV-seropositive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients, and usually results from reactivation of latent infection established in the recipient. Predicting the occurrence of CMV DNAemia may be helpful in managing CMV infection in allo-HSCT recipients. Here, the kinetics of several inflammatory biomarkers in plasma were characterized and assessed for their potential value in anticipating the development and features of active CMV infection in allo-HSCT recipients, as documented using real-time PCR assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00594-wDOI Listing
March 2019
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a general adult population in Northern Norway: the Tromsø study.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in many parts of the world but only a few cases have been diagnosed in Norway. To investigate the HEV exposure rate in a presumed low-risk area, we have conducted a population-based study of anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in Northern Norway. A total of 1800 serum samples from 900 women and 900 men, age 40-79 years, were randomly selected from the 21,083 participants in the 7th Tromsø Study, representing the 32,591 inhabitants of the Tromsø municipality that were ≥ 40 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00599-5DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

T-cell aging in end-stage renal disease: an evolving story with CMV.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Graduate Program in Biomedical Informatics, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Established evidence from the last decade has suggested that chronic cytomegalovirus infection has strong impact on the human immune system, resulting in aggravated aging-associated T-cell changes that are associated with poorer vaccination responses, cardiovascular disease and shortened survival. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the most severe form of chronic kidney disease, exhibit premature aging phenotypes in almost all organ systems, including the immune system. Longitudinal studies of T-cell aging in healthy humans have been scanty because it requires a large number of study subjects and a study duration for decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00596-8DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Emerging roles of cytomegalovirus-encoded G protein-coupled receptors during lytic and latent infection.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Institute for Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have developed multiple diverse strategies to ensure their replicative success and to evade immune recognition. Given the fact that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of numerous cellular processes and modify a variety of signaling pathways, it is not surprising that CMVs and other herpesviruses have hijacked mammalian GPCRs during their coevolution. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes for four viral GPCR homologues (vGPCRs), termed US27, US28, UL33, and UL78. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00595-9DOI Listing

T-cell immunity against cytomegalovirus in HIV infection and aging: relationships with inflammation, immune activation, and frailty.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle-Room 1A.38A, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Both aging and treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are characterized by low-level chronic inflammation and immune activation which contribute to the development of age-related diseases, frailty, and early mortality. Chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is highly prevalent in older adults and HIV-infected populations. A number of studies have shown that CMV induces broad and strong T-cell responses in CMV-seropositive older adults and HIV-infected individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00591-zDOI Listing

Vaccine vectors: the bright side of cytomegalovirus.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolás Cabrera 1, 28049, Madrid, Spain.

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) present singular features that are particularly advantageous for human vaccine development, a current medical need. Vaccines that induce neutralizing antibodies are among the most successful and efficacious available. However, chronic and persistent human infections, pathogens with high variability of exposed proteins, as well as tumors, highlight the need for developing novel vaccines inducing strong and long-lasting cellular immune responses mediated by effector or effector memory CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00597-7DOI Listing
March 2019
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Generation, maintenance and tissue distribution of T cell responses to human cytomegalovirus in lytic and latent infection.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Level 5, Hills Road, Box 157, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

Understanding how the T cell memory response directed towards human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) develops and changes over time while the virus persists is important. Whilst HCMV primary infection and periodic reactivation is well controlled by T cell responses in healthy people, when the immune system is compromised such as post-transplantation, during pregnancy, or underdeveloped such as in new-born infants and children, CMV disease can be a significant problem. In older people, HCMV infection is associated with increased risk of mortality and despite overt disease rarely being seen there are increases in HCMV-DNA in urine of older people suggesting that there is a change in the efficacy of the T cell response following lifelong infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00598-6DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Innate immune response in patients with acute Zika virus infection.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Graduate Program in Parasitary Biology, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande Do Norte, Brazil.

Innate immunity receptors (Toll-like receptors/TLRs and RIG-like receptors/RLRs) are important for the initial recognition of Zika virus (ZIKV), modulation of protective immune response, and IFN-α and IFN-β production. Immunological mechanisms involved in protection or pathology during ZIKV infection have not yet been determined. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression of innate immune receptors (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5/MDA-5, and retinoic acid inducible gene/RIG-1), its adapter molecules (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88/Myd88, Toll/IL-1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor-Inducing IFN-β/TRIF), and cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ) in the acute phase of patients infected by ZIKV using real-time PCR in peripheral blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00588-8DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Intertwined: SAMHD1 cellular functions, restriction, and viral evasion strategies.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Host-Pathogen Interactions, Paul-Ehrlich-Institute, 63225, Langen, Germany.

SAMHD1 was initially described for its ability to efficiently restrict HIV-1 replication in myeloid cells and resting CD4 T cells. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that SAMHD1-mediated restriction is by far not limited to lentiviruses, but seems to be a general concept that applies to most retroviruses and at least a number of DNA viruses. SAMHD1 anti-viral activity was long believed to be solely due to its ability to deplete cellular dNTPs by enzymatic degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00593-xDOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Discrimination between recent and non-recent HIV infections using routine diagnostic serological assays.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

National Virus Reference Laboratory, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

The suitability of routine diagnostic HIV assays to accurately discriminate between recent and non-recent HIV infections has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to compare an established HIV recency assay, the Sedia limiting antigen HIV avidity assay (LAg), with the diagnostic assays; Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo and INNO-LIA HIV line assays. Samples from all new HIV diagnoses in Ireland from January to December 2016 (n = 455) were tested. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-019-00590-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00590-0DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Kinetics of Alphatorquevirus plasma DNAemia at late times after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 9;208(2):253-258. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Microbiology Service, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Institute for Research INCLIVA, Valencia, Spain.

Torque teno virus (TTV) plasma DNA load has been consistently shown to be a surrogate biomarker of immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients. It is uncertain whether it may behave similarly in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (allo-HSCT). Here, we characterized the dynamics of TTV DNAemia in patients undergoing T-cell replete allo-SCT at late times after transplantation (> day + 100). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00586-wDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Fuel and brake of memory T cell inflation.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 9. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 4, 8093, Zurich, Switzerland.

Memory T cell inflation is a process in which a large number of effector memory T cells accumulates in peripheral tissues. This phenomenon is observed upon certain low level persistent virus infections, but it is most commonly described upon infection with the β-herpesvirus Cytomegalovirus. Due to the induction of this large pool of functional effector CD8 T cells in peripheral tissues, the interest in using CMV-based vaccine vectors for vaccination purposes is rising. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00587-9DOI Listing

High polymorphism rates in well-known T cell epitopes restricted by protective HLA alleles during HIV infection are associated with rapid disease progression in early-infected MSM in China.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 8;208(2):239-251. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

NHC Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology (China Medical University), Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No 155, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning Province, China.

T cell epitopes restricted by several protective HLA alleles, such as B*57, B*5801, B*27, B*51 and B*13, have been very well defined over the past two decades. We investigated 32 well-known T cell epitopes restricted by protective HLA molecules among 54 Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) at the early stage of HIV-1 infection. Subjects in our cohort carrying protective HLA types did not exhibit slow CD4 T cell count decline (P = 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00585-xDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Persistent viral replication and the development of T-cell responses after intranasal infection by MCMV.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 19107, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Natural transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been difficult to observe. However, recent work using the mouse model of murine (M)CMV demonstrated that MCMV initially infects the nasal mucosa after transmission from mothers to pups. We found that intranasal (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00589-7DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Genetic variation and function of the HIV-1 Tat protein.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 5;208(2):131-169. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N 15th St, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein, which has several functions that promote viral replication, pathogenesis, and disease. Amino acid variation within Tat has been observed to alter the functional properties of Tat and, depending on the HIV-1 subtype, may produce Tat phenotypes differing from viruses' representative of each subtype and commonly used in in vivo and in vitro experimentation. The molecular properties of Tat allow for distinctive functional activities to be determined such as the subcellular localization and other intracellular and extracellular functional aspects of this important viral protein influenced by variation within the Tat sequence. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-019-00583-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00583-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476422PMC
April 2019
4 Reads

Coevolution pays off: Herpesviruses have the license to escape the DNA sensing pathway.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Viral Immune Modulation Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Brunswick, Germany.

Early detection of viral invasion by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) is crucial for the induction of a rapid and efficient immune response. Cytosolic DNA sensors are the most recently described class of PRR, and induce transcription of type I interferons (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines via the key adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Herpesviruses are a family of large DNA viruses widely known for their immense arsenal of proteins dedicated to manipulating and evading host immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00582-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Conserved peptide vaccine candidates containing multiple Ebola nucleoprotein epitopes display interactions with diverse HLA molecules.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 21;208(2):227-238. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab, 147004, India.

Immunoinformatics has come by leaps and bounds to finding potent vaccine candidates against various pathogens. In the current study, a combination of different T (CD4 and CD8) and B cell epitope prediction tools was applied to find peptides containing multiple epitopes against Ebola nucleoprotein (NP) and the presentation of peptides to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules was analyzed by prediction, docking and population coverage tools. Further, potential peptides were analyzed by ELISA for peptide induced IFN-γ secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from healthy volunteers. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-019-00584-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00584-yDOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads
3.038 Impact Factor

HCMV latency: what regulates the regulators?

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Box 157 Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency and reactivation is regulated by the chromatin structure at the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) within myeloid cells. Both cellular and viral factors are known to control this promoter during latency, here we will review the known mechanisms for MIEP regulation during latency. We will then focus on the virally encoded G-protein coupled receptor, US28, which suppresses the MIEP in early myeloid lineage cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00581-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of four adjuvants revealed the strongest protection against lethal pneumococcal challenge following immunization with PsaA-PspA fusion protein and AS02 as adjuvant.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 1;208(2):215-226. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Streptococcuspneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a major respiratory-tract pathogen that causes high levels of mortality and morbidity in infants and elderly individuals. Despite the development of various capsular polysaccharide vaccines to prevent pneumococcal disease, it remains epidemic. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a highly immunogenic surface protein existing in all strains of S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00579-9DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Secretory IgA-mediated immune response in saliva and early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lower airways of pediatric cystic fibrosis patients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 31;208(2):205-213. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Rua Vital Brasil 251, 2nd floor, Cidade Universitária, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP, 13083-888, Brazil.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) detection in the paranasal sinuses may help to prevent or postpone bacterial aspiration to the lower airways (LAW) and chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the ability of an ELISA test for measurement of specific Pa secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva (a potential marker of sinus colonization) to early detect changes in the Pa LAW status (indicated by microbiological sputum or cough swab culture and specific serum IgG levels) of 65 patients for three years, in different investigation scenarios. Increased sIgA levels were detected in saliva up to 22 months before changes in culture/serology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00578-wDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Quadruplex real-time PCR for rapid detection of human alphaherpesviruses.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 24;208(2):197-204. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Sektion Experimentelle Virologie, Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Hans-Knöll-Strasse 2, 07745, Jena, Germany.

Infections with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) as well as with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may take a serious course. Thus, rapid and reliable detection of these alphaherpesviruses is urgently needed. For this, we established a qualitative quadruplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) covering HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and endogenous human glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00580-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Development of a novel multiepitope chimeric vaccine against anthrax.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 22;208(2):185-195. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Bacillus anthracis (BA), the etiological agent of anthrax, secretes protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF) as major virulence mediators. Amongst these, PA-based vaccines are most effective for providing immunity against BA, but their low shelf life limits their usage. Previous studies showed that B-cell epitopes, ID II and ID III present in PA domain IV possess higher toxin neutralization activity and elicit higher antibody titer than ID I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00577-xDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Diagnostic performance in active TB of QFT-Plus assay and co-expression of CD25/CD134 in response to new antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Apr 8;208(2):171-183. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, 'Sapienza' University, Piazzale Aldo Moro 1, 00185, Rome, Italy.

The new QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus employs modified peptides optimized to elicit an IFNγ response from CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes in addition to CD4 T cells. With a view to improve the difficult identification of TB cases, we assessed the combination of two specific immunological markers comprising IFNγ secretion and T cells co-expression of CD25 and CD134 in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. A total of 34 subjects with suspected TB and 10 age-matched HD were prospectively enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-00576-4DOI Listing

Increased SAMHD1 transcript expression correlates with interferon-related genes in HIV-1-infected patients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Laboratory of Virology, Department of Molecular Medicine, Affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia, Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the contribution of SAMHD1 to HIV-1 infection in vivo and its relationship with IFN response, the expression of SAMHD1 and IFN-related pathways was evaluated in HIV-1-infected patients.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 388 HIV-1-infected patients, both therapy naïve (n = 92) and long-term HAART treated (n = 296), and from 100 gender and age-matched healthy individuals were examined. CD4+ T cells, CD14+ monocytes and gut biopsies were also analyzed in HIV-1-infected subjects on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0574-xDOI Listing
December 2018

The monocytosis during human leptospirosis is associated with modest immune cell activation states.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Université de La Réunion, CNRS 9192, INSERM U1187, IRD 249, UMR PIMIT, CHU de La Réunion, Unité Mixte Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical (PIMIT), Plateforme Technologique CYROI, Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

Leptospirosis is a life-threatening zoonotic disease and it has been hypothesized that the innate immune system fails to control the infection through ill-characterized mechanisms. The aim of this observational study was to better evaluate the activation processes of monocytes at the early stage of the disease. Blood samples were taken from healthy donors (n = 37) and patients hospitalized for either non-severe (n = 25) or severe (n = 32) leptospirosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0575-9DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Interaction of host and Staphylococcus aureus protease-system regulates virulence and pathogenicity.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Life Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Staphylococcus aureus causes various health care- and community-associated infections as well as certain chronic TH2 driven inflammatory diseases. It is a potent pathogen with serious virulence and associated high morbidity. Severe pathogenicity is accredited to the S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0573-yDOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Immune response triggered by Trypanosoma cruzi infection strikes adipose tissue homeostasis altering lipid storage, enzyme profile and adipokine expression.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Instituto de Inmunología Clínica y Experimental de Rosario (IDICER-CONICET-UNR), Suipacha 590, 2000, Rosario, Argentina.

Adipose tissue is a target of Trypanosoma cruzi infection being a parasite reservoir during the chronic phase in mice and humans. Previously, we reported that acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice is linked to a severe adipose tissue loss, probably triggered by inflammation, as well as by the parasite itself. Here, we evaluated how infection affects adipose tissue homeostasis, considering adipocyte anabolic and catabolic pathways, the immune-endocrine pattern and the possible repercussion upon adipogenesis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0572-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0572-zDOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Legionella feeleii: pneumonia or Pontiac fever? Bacterial virulence traits and host immune response.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 1;208(1):25-32. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

School of Basic Medical Science, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050017, People's Republic of China.

Gram-negative bacterium Legionella is able to proliferate intracellularly in mammalian host cells and amoeba, which became known in 1976 since they caused a large outbreak of pneumonia. It had been reported that different strains of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei, Legionella longbeachae, and Legionella feeleii caused human respiratory diseases, which were known as Pontiac fever or Legionnaires' disease. However, the differences of the virulence traits among the strains of the single species and the pathogenesis of the two diseases that were due to the bacterial virulence factors had not been well elucidated. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0571-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0571-0DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Molecular mechanisms of EBV-driven cell cycle progression and oncogenesis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Medical School, Cancer Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Tumor Cellular and Molecular Pathology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Chang Sheng Xi Avenue 28, Hengyang, 421001, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

The early stage of oncogenesis is linked to the disorder of the cell cycle. Abnormal gene expression often leads to cell cycle disorders, resulting in malignant transformation of human cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a diverse range of human neoplasms, such as malignant lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric cancer. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0570-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0570-1DOI Listing
November 2018
13 Reads

Different roles of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in HTLV-1 carriers and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Immunology Research Center, Division of Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

One of the prominent features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is the excessive recruitment of leukocytes to the central nervous system (CNS), which leads to an inflammatory response-with chemokines and their receptors playing the main role in this recruitment. The aim of the study was to examine the relation of CXCR1 and CXCR2, both of which are involved in the trafficking of lymphocytes into the CNS, with the outcome of HTLV-1 infection. The mRNA levels of CXCR1 and CXCR2 were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0568-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0568-8DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

From basic molecular biology to curative antiviral therapy: the success story of Hepatitis C virology.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb;208(1):1-2

Institute for Virology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and Research Center for Immunotherapy, Mainz, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0569-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of complement-related host genetic risk factors associated with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 outcome: challenges ahead.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Laboratory of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Influenza remains an important threat for human health, despite the extensive study of influenza viruses and the production of effective vaccines. In contrast to virus genetics determinants, host genetic factors with clinical impact remained unexplored until recently. The association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and influenza outcome in a European population was investigated in the present study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0567-9DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Hepatitis C virus cell culture models: an encomium on basic research paving the road to therapy development.

Authors:
Volker Lohmann

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 8;208(1):3-24. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Centre for Integrative Infectious Disease Research (CIID), University of Heidelberg, INF 344, 1st Floor, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect 71 million people worldwide, often resulting in severe liver damage. Since 2014 highly efficient therapies based on directly acting antivirals (DAAs) are available, offering cure rates of almost 100%, if the infection is diagnosed in time. It took more than a decade to discover HCV in 1989 and another decade to establish a cell culture model. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0566-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0566-xDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Biogenic Au@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites kill Staphylococcus aureus without provoking nuclear damage and cytotoxicity in mouse fibroblasts cells under hyperglycemic condition with enhanced wound healing proficiency.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Oct 5. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

School of Biotechnology, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751024, India.

The aim of the present study is focused on the synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites, where zinc oxide is overlaid on biogenic gold nanoparticles obtained from Hibiscus Sabdariffa plant extract. Optical property of nanocomposites is investigated using UV-visible spectroscopy and crystal structure has been determined using X-ray crystallography (XRD) technique. The presence of functional groups on the surface of Au@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites has been observed by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0564-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0564-zDOI Listing
October 2018
11 Reads

Macaca arctoides gammaherpesvirus 1 (strain herpesvirus Macaca arctoides): virus sequence, phylogeny and characterisation of virus-transformed macaque and rabbit cell lines.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 5;208(1):109-129. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Division of Experimental Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.

Herpesvirus Macaca arctoides (HVMA) has the propensity to transform macaque lymphocytes to lymphoblastoid cells (MAL-1). Inoculation of rabbits with cell-free virus-containing supernatant resulted in the development of malignant lymphomas and allowed isolation of immortalised HVMA-transformed rabbit lymphocytes (HTRL). In this study, the HVMA genome sequence (approx. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0565-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0565-yDOI Listing
February 2019
36 Reads

Bartonella quintana and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii bloodstream co-infection in a girl from North Carolina, USA.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 24;208(1):101-107. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Dr., Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA.

The genus Bartonella consists of globally distributed and highly diverse alpha-proteobacteria that infect a wide-range of mammals. Medically, Bartonella spp. constitute emerging, vector-borne, zoonotic, intravascular organisms that induce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (passive carrier of a microorganism) hosts. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0563-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0563-0DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Correction to: Blocking of opioid receptors in experimental formaline-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) immunopathogenesis: from beneficial to harmful impacts.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov;207(5-6):345

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the original publication, seventh author's name was incorrectly published as 'Maryam Golaram'. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0562-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0562-1DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads
3.040 Impact Factor

Intranasal co-administration of recombinant active fragment of Zonula occludens toxin and truncated recombinant EspB triggers potent systemic, mucosal immune responses and reduces span of E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding in BALB/c mice.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 12;208(1):89-100. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Microbiology, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddartha Nagar, Mysuru, Karnataka State, 570011, India.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 with its traits such as intestinal colonization and fecal-oral route of transmission demands mucosal vaccine development. E. coli secreted protein B (EspB) is one of the key type III secretory system (TTSS) targets for mucosal candidate vaccine due to its indispensable role in the pathogenesis of E. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0559-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0559-9DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

The sequence analysis of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 gene: could viral screening markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma be identified?

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 10;208(1):81-88. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Virology Department, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been identified as a group 1 carcinogenic agent, particularly for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The sequence diversity of EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) reflects region-restricted polymorphisms, which may be associated with the development of certain malignancies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate EBV EBNA1 gene polymorphisms circulating in NPC, infectious mononucleosis, and isolates from patients with transplanted organs to determine if EBNA1 sequence specificities are useful as viral biomarkers for NPC. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0561-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0561-2DOI Listing
February 2019
35 Reads