1,809 results match your criteria Medical Microbiology and Immunology [Journal]


HCMV latency: what regulates the regulators?

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Box 157 Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency and reactivation is regulated by the chromatin structure at the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) within myeloid cells. Both cellular and viral factors are known to control this promoter during latency, here we will review the known mechanisms for MIEP regulation during latency. We will then focus on the virally encoded G-protein coupled receptor, US28, which suppresses the MIEP in early myeloid lineage cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00581-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of four adjuvants revealed the strongest protection against lethal pneumococcal challenge following immunization with PsaA-PspA fusion protein and AS02 as adjuvant.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Streptococcuspneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a major respiratory-tract pathogen that causes high levels of mortality and morbidity in infants and elderly individuals. Despite the development of various capsular polysaccharide vaccines to prevent pneumococcal disease, it remains epidemic. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a highly immunogenic surface protein existing in all strains of S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00579-9DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Secretory IgA-mediated immune response in saliva and early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lower airways of pediatric cystic fibrosis patients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Rua Vital Brasil 251, 2nd floor, Cidade Universitária, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP, 13083-888, Brazil.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) detection in the paranasal sinuses may help to prevent or postpone bacterial aspiration to the lower airways (LAW) and chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the ability of an ELISA test for measurement of specific Pa secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva (a potential marker of sinus colonization) to early detect changes in the Pa LAW status (indicated by microbiological sputum or cough swab culture and specific serum IgG levels) of 65 patients for three years, in different investigation scenarios. Increased sIgA levels were detected in saliva up to 22 months before changes in culture/serology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00578-wDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Quadruplex real-time PCR for rapid detection of human alphaherpesviruses.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Sektion Experimentelle Virologie, Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Hans-Knöll-Strasse 2, 07745, Jena, Germany.

Infections with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) as well as with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may take a serious course. Thus, rapid and reliable detection of these alphaherpesviruses is urgently needed. For this, we established a qualitative quadruplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) covering HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and endogenous human glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00580-2DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Development of a novel multiepitope chimeric vaccine against anthrax.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Bacillus anthracis (BA), the etiological agent of anthrax, secretes protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF) as major virulence mediators. Amongst these, PA-based vaccines are most effective for providing immunity against BA, but their low shelf life limits their usage. Previous studies showed that B-cell epitopes, ID II and ID III present in PA domain IV possess higher toxin neutralization activity and elicit higher antibody titer than ID I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00577-xDOI Listing
January 2019

Diagnostic performance in active TB of QFT-Plus assay and co-expression of CD25/CD134 in response to new antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, 'Sapienza' University, Piazzale Aldo Moro 1, 00185, Rome, Italy.

The new QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus employs modified peptides optimized to elicit an IFNγ response from CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes in addition to CD4 T cells. With a view to improve the difficult identification of TB cases, we assessed the combination of two specific immunological markers comprising IFNγ secretion and T cells co-expression of CD25 and CD134 in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. A total of 34 subjects with suspected TB and 10 age-matched HD were prospectively enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-00576-4DOI Listing
January 2019

Increased SAMHD1 transcript expression correlates with interferon-related genes in HIV-1-infected patients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Laboratory of Virology, Department of Molecular Medicine, Affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia, Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the contribution of SAMHD1 to HIV-1 infection in vivo and its relationship with IFN response, the expression of SAMHD1 and IFN-related pathways was evaluated in HIV-1-infected patients.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 388 HIV-1-infected patients, both therapy naïve (n = 92) and long-term HAART treated (n = 296), and from 100 gender and age-matched healthy individuals were examined. CD4+ T cells, CD14+ monocytes and gut biopsies were also analyzed in HIV-1-infected subjects on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0574-xDOI Listing
December 2018

The monocytosis during human leptospirosis is associated with modest immune cell activation states.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Université de La Réunion, CNRS 9192, INSERM U1187, IRD 249, UMR PIMIT, CHU de La Réunion, Unité Mixte Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical (PIMIT), Plateforme Technologique CYROI, Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

Leptospirosis is a life-threatening zoonotic disease and it has been hypothesized that the innate immune system fails to control the infection through ill-characterized mechanisms. The aim of this observational study was to better evaluate the activation processes of monocytes at the early stage of the disease. Blood samples were taken from healthy donors (n = 37) and patients hospitalized for either non-severe (n = 25) or severe (n = 32) leptospirosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0575-9DOI Listing
December 2018

Interaction of host and Staphylococcus aureus protease-system regulates virulence and pathogenicity.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Life Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Staphylococcus aureus causes various health care- and community-associated infections as well as certain chronic TH2 driven inflammatory diseases. It is a potent pathogen with serious virulence and associated high morbidity. Severe pathogenicity is accredited to the S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0573-yDOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Immune response triggered by Trypanosoma cruzi infection strikes adipose tissue homeostasis altering lipid storage, enzyme profile and adipokine expression.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Instituto de Inmunología Clínica y Experimental de Rosario (IDICER-CONICET-UNR), Suipacha 590, 2000, Rosario, Argentina.

Adipose tissue is a target of Trypanosoma cruzi infection being a parasite reservoir during the chronic phase in mice and humans. Previously, we reported that acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice is linked to a severe adipose tissue loss, probably triggered by inflammation, as well as by the parasite itself. Here, we evaluated how infection affects adipose tissue homeostasis, considering adipocyte anabolic and catabolic pathways, the immune-endocrine pattern and the possible repercussion upon adipogenesis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0572-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0572-zDOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Legionella feeleii: pneumonia or Pontiac fever? Bacterial virulence traits and host immune response.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 1;208(1):25-32. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

School of Basic Medical Science, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050017, People's Republic of China.

Gram-negative bacterium Legionella is able to proliferate intracellularly in mammalian host cells and amoeba, which became known in 1976 since they caused a large outbreak of pneumonia. It had been reported that different strains of Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei, Legionella longbeachae, and Legionella feeleii caused human respiratory diseases, which were known as Pontiac fever or Legionnaires' disease. However, the differences of the virulence traits among the strains of the single species and the pathogenesis of the two diseases that were due to the bacterial virulence factors had not been well elucidated. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0571-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0571-0DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Molecular mechanisms of EBV-driven cell cycle progression and oncogenesis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Medical School, Cancer Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Tumor Cellular and Molecular Pathology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Chang Sheng Xi Avenue 28, Hengyang, 421001, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

The early stage of oncogenesis is linked to the disorder of the cell cycle. Abnormal gene expression often leads to cell cycle disorders, resulting in malignant transformation of human cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a diverse range of human neoplasms, such as malignant lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric cancer. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0570-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0570-1DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Different roles of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in HTLV-1 carriers and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Immunology Research Center, Division of Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

One of the prominent features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is the excessive recruitment of leukocytes to the central nervous system (CNS), which leads to an inflammatory response-with chemokines and their receptors playing the main role in this recruitment. The aim of the study was to examine the relation of CXCR1 and CXCR2, both of which are involved in the trafficking of lymphocytes into the CNS, with the outcome of HTLV-1 infection. The mRNA levels of CXCR1 and CXCR2 were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0568-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0568-8DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

From basic molecular biology to curative antiviral therapy: the success story of Hepatitis C virology.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb;208(1):1-2

Institute for Virology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and Research Center for Immunotherapy, Mainz, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0569-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of complement-related host genetic risk factors associated with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 outcome: challenges ahead.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Laboratory of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Influenza remains an important threat for human health, despite the extensive study of influenza viruses and the production of effective vaccines. In contrast to virus genetics determinants, host genetic factors with clinical impact remained unexplored until recently. The association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and influenza outcome in a European population was investigated in the present study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0567-9DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Hepatitis C virus cell culture models: an encomium on basic research paving the road to therapy development.

Authors:
Volker Lohmann

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 8;208(1):3-24. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, Centre for Integrative Infectious Disease Research (CIID), University of Heidelberg, INF 344, 1st Floor, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect 71 million people worldwide, often resulting in severe liver damage. Since 2014 highly efficient therapies based on directly acting antivirals (DAAs) are available, offering cure rates of almost 100%, if the infection is diagnosed in time. It took more than a decade to discover HCV in 1989 and another decade to establish a cell culture model. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0566-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0566-xDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Biogenic Au@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites kill Staphylococcus aureus without provoking nuclear damage and cytotoxicity in mouse fibroblasts cells under hyperglycemic condition with enhanced wound healing proficiency.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Oct 5. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

School of Biotechnology, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751024, India.

The aim of the present study is focused on the synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites, where zinc oxide is overlaid on biogenic gold nanoparticles obtained from Hibiscus Sabdariffa plant extract. Optical property of nanocomposites is investigated using UV-visible spectroscopy and crystal structure has been determined using X-ray crystallography (XRD) technique. The presence of functional groups on the surface of Au@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites has been observed by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0564-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0564-zDOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Macaca arctoides gammaherpesvirus 1 (strain herpesvirus Macaca arctoides): virus sequence, phylogeny and characterisation of virus-transformed macaque and rabbit cell lines.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 5;208(1):109-129. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Division of Experimental Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.

Herpesvirus Macaca arctoides (HVMA) has the propensity to transform macaque lymphocytes to lymphoblastoid cells (MAL-1). Inoculation of rabbits with cell-free virus-containing supernatant resulted in the development of malignant lymphomas and allowed isolation of immortalised HVMA-transformed rabbit lymphocytes (HTRL). In this study, the HVMA genome sequence (approx. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0565-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0565-yDOI Listing
February 2019
20 Reads

Bartonella quintana and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii bloodstream co-infection in a girl from North Carolina, USA.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 24;208(1):101-107. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Intracellular Pathogens Research Laboratory, Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Dr., Raleigh, NC, 27607, USA.

The genus Bartonella consists of globally distributed and highly diverse alpha-proteobacteria that infect a wide-range of mammals. Medically, Bartonella spp. constitute emerging, vector-borne, zoonotic, intravascular organisms that induce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (passive carrier of a microorganism) hosts. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0563-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0563-0DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Correction to: Blocking of opioid receptors in experimental formaline-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) immunopathogenesis: from beneficial to harmful impacts.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov;207(5-6):345

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the original publication, seventh author's name was incorrectly published as 'Maryam Golaram'. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0562-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0562-1DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads
3.040 Impact Factor

Intranasal co-administration of recombinant active fragment of Zonula occludens toxin and truncated recombinant EspB triggers potent systemic, mucosal immune responses and reduces span of E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding in BALB/c mice.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 12;208(1):89-100. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Microbiology, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddartha Nagar, Mysuru, Karnataka State, 570011, India.

Escherichia coli O157:H7 with its traits such as intestinal colonization and fecal-oral route of transmission demands mucosal vaccine development. E. coli secreted protein B (EspB) is one of the key type III secretory system (TTSS) targets for mucosal candidate vaccine due to its indispensable role in the pathogenesis of E. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0559-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0559-9DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads

The sequence analysis of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 gene: could viral screening markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma be identified?

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 10;208(1):81-88. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Virology Department, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been identified as a group 1 carcinogenic agent, particularly for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The sequence diversity of EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) reflects region-restricted polymorphisms, which may be associated with the development of certain malignancies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate EBV EBNA1 gene polymorphisms circulating in NPC, infectious mononucleosis, and isolates from patients with transplanted organs to determine if EBNA1 sequence specificities are useful as viral biomarkers for NPC. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0561-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0561-2DOI Listing
February 2019
28 Reads

Role of pentamer complex-specific and IgG subclass 3 antibodies in HCMV hyperimmunoglobulin and standard intravenous IgG preparations.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 10;208(1):69-80. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Elfriede-Aulhorn-Str. 6, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: HCMV hyperimmunoglobulin-preparations (HIG) contain high concentrations of HCMV-specific IgG. The reduced maternofetal-HCMV-transmission rate of IgG may be due to HCMV-specific neutralizing antibodies against the HCMV pentameric complex (PC). In contrast to HIG, standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may have more neutralization (NT) capacity than HIG due to higher IgG subclass 3 levels (Planitzer et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0558-xDOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Activation of brain endothelium by Escherichia coli K1 virulence factor cglD promotes polymorphonuclear leukocyte transendothelial migration.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 31;208(1):59-68. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Developmental Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, No. 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, 110122, China.

Escherichia coli K1 is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the hallmark of bacterial meningitis. Reportedly, the deletion of virulence factor cglD (E44:ΔcglD) from E44 is responsible for a less efficient PMN transendothelial migration ability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0560-3DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Polymorphisms in the TGFB1 signal peptide influence human papillomavirus infection and development of cervical lesions.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 30;208(1):49-58. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Pathological Science, Biological Science Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

The main purpose was to assess the effect of c.29C>T and c.74G>C polymorphisms in the TGFB1 signal peptide on HPV infection and development of cervical lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0557-yDOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

β-Glucan induces autophagy in dendritic cells and influences T-cell differentiation.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 7;208(1):39-48. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Medical Research Center, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 People's Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, 213003, China.

β-Glucan has been reported to activate dendritic cells (DCs), and activated DCs, subsequently, promote Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro. However, the mechanism that regulates the immune response of β-glucan-induced DCs has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Recent studies have drawn attention to a strong relationship between pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) recognition and autophagy for the activation of DC function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0556-zDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Chylous ascites, anti-interferon-gamma autoantibody, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a rare but intriguing connection over Mycobacterium avium.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Feb 6;208(1):33-37. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Hematology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.

We report a case of non-AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), non-CAPD (Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis), non-cirrhotic, Mycobacterium avium peritonitis, which is a rare form of mycobacterial infection. A 66-year-old Japanese man who had been treated previously for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), had developed disseminated M. avium infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0555-0DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Phosphorylcholine is located in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans fimbrial protein Flp 1.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 28;207(5-6):329-338. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

Oral Microbiology, Institute of Dentistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) is covalently incorporated into bacterial surface structures, contributing to host mimicry and promoting adhesion to surfaces. Our aims were to determine the frequency of ChoP display among Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains, to clarify which surface structures bear ChoP, and whether ChoP-positivity relates to serum killing. The tested oral (N = 67) and blood isolates (N = 27) represented 6 serotypes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0554-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182317PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

The interplay between local immune response and Epstein-Barr virus-infected tonsillar cells could lead to viral infection control.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 25;207(5-6):319-327. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Molecular Biology Laboratory, Pathology Division, Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) gains access to the host through tonsillar crypts. Our aim was to characterize microenvironment composition around EBV+ cells in tonsils from pediatric carriers, to disclose its role on viral pathogenesis. LMP1 expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), was used to discriminate EBV + and - zones in 41 tonsil biopsies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0553-2DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Cellular distribution of CD200 receptor in rats and its interaction with cytomegalovirus e127 protein.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 21;207(5-6):307-318. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

CD200 is a membrane protein that interacts with CD200R on the surface of immune cells and delivers an inhibitory signal. In this study, we characterized the distribution of inhibitory CD200R in rats. In addition, we investigated if e127, a homologue of rat CD200 expressed by rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV), can suppress immune functions in vitro. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00430-018-0552-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0552-3DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Contribution of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 to systemic inflammation investigated by a mouse model of cervicovaginal infection with Staphylococcus aureus.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 6;207(5-6):297-306. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8562, Japan.

Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), a superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus is a causative agent of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) that is frequently associated with tampon use. It has long been suggested that TSS is induced when TSST-1 circulates through the body. However, the systemic distribution of TSST-1 from vagina or uterus has never been demonstrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0551-4DOI Listing
November 2018

Lopinavir serum concentrations of critically ill infants: a pharmacokinetic investigation in South Africa.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 4;207(5-6):339-343. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, Schwerpunkt Infektiologie, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, ZIM Haus A3/A4, Oberdürrbacher Str. 6, 97080, Würzburg, Germany.

The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric antiretroviral therapy is unclear. A little pharmacokinetic datum from clinical practice exists beyond controlled approval studies including clinically stable children. The aim of this study is to quantify LPV exposure of critically ill infants in an ICU and-by identifying risk factors for inadequate exposure-to define sensible indications for TDM in pediatric HIV care; in addition, assume total drug adherence in ICU to compare LPV exposure with a setting of unknown adherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0550-5DOI Listing
November 2018
16 Reads

PA-X: a key regulator of influenza A virus pathogenicity and host immune responses.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 4;207(5-6):255-269. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, 48 East Wenhui Road, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu Province, China.

PA-X, a fusion protein belonging to influenza A viruses (IAVs), integrating the N-terminal 191 amino acids of PA gene and the ribosomal frame-shifting product that lengthens out to 41 or 61 amino acids. Since its discovery in 2012, multiple functions have been attributed to this small protein, including a process, where wide-spread protein synthesis in infected host cells is shut down (called host shutoff), and viral replication, polymerase activity, viral-induced cell apoptosis, PA nuclear localization, and virulence are modulated. However, many of its proposed functions may be specific to strain, subtype, host, or cell line. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0548-zDOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Preventing vertical virus infections: the role of serologic screening of pregnant women.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 3;207(5-6):249-253. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Institut für Medizinische Virologie, Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt, Goethe Universität, Paul Ehrlich Str. 40, 60596, Frankfurt, Germany.

Several virus infections affect the pregnancy itself as well as the foetal development (rubella, PVB19, VZV, HSV, HCMV, HBV, HIV). Prevention can be established by vaccination or an assessment of the immunity status as well as by chemotherapy. The following review provides an update to current aspects focusing on the role of serologic screening. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0549-yDOI Listing
November 2018

Vaccine adjuvants CpG (oligodeoxynucleotides ODNs), MPL (3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A) and naloxone-enhanced Th1 immune response to the Plasmodium vivax recombinant thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) in mice.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Nov 9;207(5-6):271-286. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Mae Sot, Thailand.

Despite considerable efforts toward vaccine development over decades, there is no available effective vaccine against Plasmodium vivax. Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of P. vivax (PvTRAP) is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquito's salivary gland and vertebrate's hepatocyte; hence, it is a promising target for pre-erythrocytic vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0545-2DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Recent advances on T-cell exhaustion in malaria infection.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jun 23. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Central University of Tamil Nadu (CUTN), Thiruvarur, Tamilnadu, 610 005, India.

T-cell exhaustion reportedly leads to dysfunctional immune responses of antigen-specific T cells. Investigations have revealed that T cells expand into functionally defective phenotypes with poor recall/memory abilities to parasitic antigens. The exploitation of co-inhibitory pathways represent a highly viable area of translational research that has very well been utilized against certain cancerous conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0547-0DOI Listing

A clone of the emergent Streptococcus pyogenes emm89 clade responsible for a large outbreak in a post-surgery oncology unit in France.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jun 23. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, 75014, Paris, France.

An outbreak of nosocomial infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS) occurred in a post-surgery oncology unit and concerned more than 60 patients and lasted 20 months despite enhanced infection control and prophylaxis measures. All GAS strains were characterized (emm genotype, toxin gene profile and pulse-field gel electrophoresis subtype). Selected strains were sequenced and phylogenetic relationship established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0546-1DOI Listing
June 2018
12 Reads

Serum cytokine responses in Rickettsia felis infected febrile children, Ghana.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Str. 74, 20359, Hamburg, Germany.

The intracellular pathogen Rickettsia felis causes flea-borne spotted fever and is increasingly recognized as an emerging cause of febrile illness in Africa, where co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum is common. Rickettsiae invade endothelial cells. Little is known, however, about the early immune responses to infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0544-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096778PMC
May 2018
3 Reads

Influence of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling on HCMV replication in human embryonal lung fibroblasts.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Aug 26;207(3-4):227-242. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Section Experimental Virology, Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Jena, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Hans-Knöll-Str. 2, 07745, Jena, Germany.

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common pathogen, which causes severe or even deadly diseases in immunocompromised patients. In addition, congenital HCMV infection represents a major health concern affecting especially the lung tissue of the susceptible individuals. Antivirals are a useful strategy to treat HCMV-caused diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0543-4DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

Gut microbiome of Moroccan colorectal cancer patients.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Aug 23;207(3-4):211-225. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Physiology, Genetics and Ethnopharmacology, Faculty of Sciences of Oujda, University Mohammed Premier, Oujda, Morocco.

Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death in Morocco, there are no studies of the microbiome changes associated with the disease in the Moroccan population. The aim of our study was to compare the stool microbiome of Moroccan cancer patients with healthy individuals. We analyzed the microbiome composition of samples from 11 CRC patients and 12 healthy individuals by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0542-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096775PMC
August 2018
11 Reads

Prevalence and genetic diversity of norovirus genogroup II in children less than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Aug 4;207(3-4):201-210. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Virology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Iran, very limited studies have been performed with regard to the epidemiology of noroviruses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of GII noroviruses in hospitalized children less than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0541-6DOI Listing
August 2018
9 Reads
3.040 Impact Factor

Anti-Candida activity of antidepressants sertraline and fluoxetine: effect upon pre-formed biofilms.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Aug 19;207(3-4):195-200. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Health Sciences Research Center (CICS-UBI), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Av. Infante D. Henrique, 6200-506, Covilhã, Portugal.

As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0539-0DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Soluble CD163 and soluble CD14 plasma levels but not cellular HIV-DNA decrease during successful interferon-free anti-HCV therapy in HIV-1-HCV co-infected patients on effective combined anti-HIV treatment.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Aug 9;207(3-4):183-194. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Padova Hospital, Via Giustiniani, 2, 35128, Padova, Italy.

Soluble CD163, soluble CD14 and cellular HIV-1-DNA levels reflect two different aspects of HIV infection: immune activation and the reservoir of infected cells. The aim of this study was to describe their relationships in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients successfully treated for both HCV and HIV infections. Fifty-five patients were recruited and studied prior to the start of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) (T0), at week 12 of DAA treatment (T1) and 24 weeks after T0 (T2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0538-1DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Deficit of IgG2 in HIV-positive pregnant women is responsible of inadequate IgG2 levels in their HIV-uninfected children in Malawi.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Aug 27;207(3-4):175-182. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

National Center for Global Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Background: Transplacental passage of IgGs is impaired in HIV + pregnant women, possibly determining an inadequate immunological protection in their children. We aimed to determine the impact of maternal immunological IgG profile and immunoactivation status on the efficiency of transplacental passage of IgG subclasses in HIV + mothers.

Methods: 16 mother/infants pairs were studied in Malawi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0537-2DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Poly(I:C) adjuvant strongly enhances parasite-inhibitory antibodies and Th1 response against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (42-kDa fragment) in BALB/c mice.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Apr 3;207(2):151-166. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Department of Biology, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Tehran, Iran.

Malaria vaccine development has been confronted with various challenges such as poor immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidate antigens, which is considered as the main challenge. However, this problem can be managed using appropriate formulations of antigens and adjuvants. Poly(I:C) is a potent Th1 inducer and a human compatible adjuvant capable of stimulating both B- and T-cell immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0535-4DOI Listing
April 2018
11 Reads

Rab27a facilitates human parainfluenza virus type 2 growth by promoting cell surface transport of envelope proteins.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Apr 27;207(2):141-150. Epub 2018 Jan 27.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1, Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan.

Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) proteins and genomes newly synthesized in the cytoplasm need to be transported to the plasma membrane where budding occurs. This mechanism, where Rab proteins regulate intracellular traffic by switching between GTP-bound active form and GDP-bound inactive form, is not fully understood. mRNA and protein expression levels of Rab8a, Rab11a, and Rab27a are not altered by hPIV-2 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0536-3DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

The microbiology and treatment of human mastitis.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Apr 19;207(2):83-94. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Mastitis, which is generally described as an inflammation of breast tissue, is a common and debilitating disease which frequently results in the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and affects up to 33% of lactating women. The condition is a primary cause of decreased milk production and results in organoleptic and nutritional alterations in milk quality. Recent studies employing culture-independent techniques, including metagenomic sequencing, have revealed a loss of bacterial diversity in the microbiome of mastitic milk samples compared to healthy milk samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-017-0532-zDOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Changes in the lipopolysaccharide of Proteus mirabilis 9B-m (O11a) clinical strain in response to planktonic or biofilm type of growth.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Apr 12;207(2):129-139. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Biology of Bacteria, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, University of Łódź, Banacha 12/16, 90-237, Łódź, Poland.

The impact of planktonic and biofilm lifestyles of the clinical isolate Proteus mirabilis 9B-m on its lipopolysaccharide (O-polysaccharide, core region, and lipid A) was evaluated. Proteus mirabilis bacteria are able to form biofilm and lipopolysaccharide is one of the factors involved in the biofilm formation. Lipopolysaccharide was isolated from planktonic and biofilm cells of the investigated strain and analyzed by SDS-PAGE with silver staining, Western blotting and ELISA, as well as NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0534-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5878192PMC
April 2018
6 Reads

Editorship for Medical Microbiology and Immunology: the baton has been passed on.

Authors:
H W Doerr

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Feb;207(1):1-2

Institute of Medical Virology, Goethe University Hospital, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 40, 60596, Frankfurt, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-017-0533-yDOI Listing
February 2018
2 Reads

Trypanosoma cruzi serinecarboxipeptidase is a sulfated glycoprotein and a minor antigen in human Chagas disease infection.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 Apr 22;207(2):117-128. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Area de Bioquímica de Proteínas y Glicobiología de Parásitos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Departamento de Investigación, Instituto Nacional de Parasitología "Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben", ANLIS-Malbrán, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, CONICET, Av. Paseo Colon 568 (1063), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

In this work, the presence of sulfated N-glycans was studied in a high-mannose-type glycoprotein of Trypanosoma cruzi with serinecarboxipeptidase (TcSCP) activity. The immune cross-reactivity between purified SCP and Cruzipain (Cz) was evidenced using rabbit sera specific for both glycoproteins. Taking advantage that SCP co-purifies with Cz from Concanavalin-A affinity columns, the Cz-SCP mixture was desulfated, ascribing the cross-reactivity to the presence of sulfate groups in both molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-017-0529-7DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads
3.040 Impact Factor