10,384 results match your criteria Medical Informatics in Neurology


Whole exome sequencing analyses reveal gene-microbiota interactions in the context of IBD.

Gut 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

Objective: Both the gut microbiome and host genetics are known to play significant roles in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the interaction between these two factors and its implications in the aetiology of IBD remain underexplored. Here, we report on the influence of host genetics on the gut microbiome in IBD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319706DOI Listing

The Impact of Strategic White Matter Hyperintensity Lesion Location on Language.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Memory Aging and Cognition Center, National University Health System (SH, EC, CC), Singapore; Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (SH, CC), Singapore.

Objective: The impact of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on language possibly depends on lesion location through disturbance of strategic white matter tracts. We examined the impact of WMH location on language in elderly Asians.

Design: Cross-sectional. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.06.009DOI Listing

The Economic Impact of Glioma Survivorship: the cost of care from a patient perspective.

Neurology 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Departments of Neurosurgery and

Objective: We aimed to characterize the socioeconomic impact of glioma for patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of disease stability, using the standardized Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component (MEPS-HC).

Methods: The MEPS-HC questionnaire was used to investigate the degree of economic hardship referable to the patient's brain tumor and treatment. The questionnaire included demographic variables such as age at diagnosis, ethnicity, highest level of education, and annual household income. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010263DOI Listing

Effects of short-term warm water immersion on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in healthy men.

J Physiol Sci 2020 Jul 9;70(1):34. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA.

Warm water immersion (WWI) causes dizziness presumably due to a substantial drop of blood pressure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of short-term WWI on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the contribution of arterial stiffness to the cardiac BRS. Twelve apparent healthy men (44 ± 12 years) performed the single stand-up test after 5-min sitting in the bathtub without (Control) and with 41 °C warm water at the heart level (WWI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12576-020-00762-1DOI Listing

Comorbid disease drives short-term hospitalization outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Neurol Clin Pract 2020 Jun;10(3):255-264

Department of Neurology (AM, DPT, JAC, AP, AWW), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Department of Neurology Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology (DPT, JAC, AWW), Neurological Outcomes and Disparities Research, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Department of Biostatistics (AWW), Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (AWW), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; and Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics (AWW), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: Readmission is used as a quality indicator and is the primary target outcome for disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, data on readmissions for patients with MS are limited.

Methods: Using the US Nationwide Readmissions Database, we performed a retrospective cohort study of adults hospitalized for MS in 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292556PMC

Structural disconnectivity and the risk of dementia in the general population.

Neurology 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Objective: The 'disconnectivity hypothesis' postulates that partial loss of connecting white matter fibers between brain regions contributes to the development of dementia. Using diffusion-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify global and tract-specific white matter microstructural integrity, we tested this hypothesis in a longitudinal population-based study.

Methods: Global and tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained in 4,415 non-demented persons (mean age: 63. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010231DOI Listing

Longitudinal ComBat:A Method for Harmonizing Longitudinal Multi-scanner Imaging Data.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 5:117129. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Penn Statistics in Imaging and Visualization Endeavor (PennSIVE) Center, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, United States. Electronic address:

While aggregation of neuroimaging datasets from multiple sites and scanners can yield increased statistical power, it also presents challenges due to systematic scanner effects. This unwanted technical variability can introduce noise and bias into estimation of biological variability of interest. We propose a method for harmonizing longitudinal multi-scanner imaging data based on ComBat, a method originally developed for genomics and later adapted to cross-sectional neuroimaging data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117129DOI Listing

Fatigue in adults with spinal muscular atrophy under treatment with nusinersen.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 6;10(1):11069. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

5q-Associated spinal muscular atrophy is a hereditary neuromuscular disease leading to progressive muscle weakness in which fatigue occurs and affects quality of life. Treatment with the antisense oligonucleotide nusinersen has been shown to improve motor function. Fatigue can be measured within the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68051-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338415PMC

Lateralized Connectivity between Globus Pallidus and Motor Cortex is Associated with Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, United States; Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, United States. Electronic address:

Freezing of gait (FoG) is a brief, episodic absence or marked reduction of forward progression of the feet, despite the intention to walk, that is common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that not only motor, but higher level cognitive and attention areas may be impaired in freezers. In this study, we aimed to characterize differences in cortical and subcortical functional connectivity specific to FoG. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.06.036DOI Listing

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Incident Stroke Types: The FIT (Henry Ford ExercIse Testing) Project.

Mayo Clin Proc 2020 Jul;95(7):1379-1389

Department of Cardiac Imaging, Houston Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, TX. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and incident stroke types.

Patients And Methods: We studied a retrospective cohort of patients referred for treadmill stress testing in the Henry Ford Health System (Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project) without history of stroke. CRF was expressed by metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.11.027DOI Listing

Assessment of polygenic architecture and risk prediction based on common variants across fourteen cancers.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 3;11(1):3353. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16483-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335068PMC

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review.

Neurophysiol Clin 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Neurorehabilitation, Hospital of Vipiteno, Vipiteno, Italy; Research Unit for Neurorehabilitation South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may offer a reliable means of characterizing important pathophysiologic aspects of motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, high-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS), especially if delivered bilaterally over motor cortical regions, can have beneficial effects on parkinsonian motor symptoms. However, only a few studies have investigated the effects of rTMS on freezing of gait (FOG) and other gait disturbances in PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2020.05.002DOI Listing

Creation and validation of a bladder dysfunction symptom score for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Jul 3;15(1):175. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Rare Diseases Research, Institute of Medical Science, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Background: Urinary dysfunction is one of the main features of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, a comprehensive assessment of the severity is difficult because a standardized assessment measure is unavailable. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a novel symptom score for the assessment of urinary dysfunction in HAM/TSP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01451-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333329PMC

Accuracy of identifying incident stroke cases from linked health care data in UK Biobank.

Neurology 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

From the Centre for Medical Informatics, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics (K.R., K.B., R.F., A.H., J.N., C.S., T.W., K.W., Q.Z., C.L.M.S.), and Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences (R.A.-S.S., F.D., N.S., W.W., R.W.), University of Edinburgh; UK Biobank (K.R., K.B., R.F., A.H., J.N., C.S., T.W., K.W., R.W., Q.Z., N.A., C.L.M.S.), Stockport; University of Edinburgh Medical School (K.N., D.E.H., S.O.); and Nuffield Department of Population Health (N.A.), University of Oxford, UK.

Objective: In UK Biobank (UKB), a large population-based prospective study, cases of many diseases are ascertained through linkage to routinely collected, coded national health datasets. We assessed the accuracy of these for identifying incident strokes.

Methods: In a regional UKB subpopulation (n = 17,249), we identified all participants with ≥1 code signifying a first stroke after recruitment (incident stroke-coded cases) in linked hospital admission, primary care, or death record data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009924DOI Listing

Hypothyroidism correlates with favourable survival prognosis in patients with brain metastatic cancer.

Eur J Cancer 2020 Jun 27;135:150-158. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Medicine I, Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Several preclinical and epidemiologic studies have indicated tumour-promoting effects of thyroid hormones (THs). However, very limited knowledge exists on the prognostic impact of thyroid function in metastatic cancer.

Methods: We compiled a discovery cohort of 1692 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases (BMs) of solid cancers treated at the Medical University of Vienna and an independent validation cohort of 191 patients with newly diagnosed BMs treated at the University Hospital Zurich. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.05.011DOI Listing

Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Assessment of Brain Iron Level in Alzheimer Disease Using 3-T MRI.

Radiology 2020 Jun 30:192541. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

From the Department of Neurology (A.D., L.P., M. Soellradl, M. Sackl, C.T., E.H., C.E., S.R., R.S., C.L.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation (E.H.), and Division of Neuroradiology, Vascular, and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (C.E.), Medical University of Graz, Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 22, 8036 Graz, Austria; and Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research (ISD), University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany (B.G., M.D.).

Background Deep gray matter structures in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) contain higher brain iron concentrations. However, few studies have included neocortical areas, which are challenging to assess with MRI. Purpose To investigate baseline and change in brain iron levels using MRI at 3 T with R2* relaxation rate mapping in individuals with AD compared with healthy control (HC) participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020192541DOI Listing

How to diagnose and treat post-stroke seizures and epilepsy.

Epileptic Disord 2020 Jun;22(3):252-263

Department of Neurology, Franz Tappeiner Hospital, Merano, Italy.

Stroke is one of the commonest causes of seizures and epilepsy, mainly among the elderly and adults. This seminar paper aims to provide an updated overview of post-stroke seizures and post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) and offers clinical guidance to anyone involved in the treatment of patients with seizures and stroke. The distinction between acute symptomatic seizures occurring within seven days from stroke (early seizures) and unprovoked seizures occurring afterwards (late seizures) is crucial regarding their different risks of recurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2020.1159DOI Listing

Mega-analysis methods in ENIGMA: The experience of the generalized anxiety disorder working group.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25096DOI Listing
June 2020
5.969 Impact Factor

Downregulation of synapse-associated protein expression and loss of homeostatic microglial control in cerebrospinal fluid of infectious patients with delirium and patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Radboudumc, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Radboudumc, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Delirium is a complex and multifactorial condition associated with long-term cognitive decline. Due to the strong links between systemic inflammation, delirium and dementia we hypothesized that responses within the brain in patients who develop delirium could show biochemical overlap with patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this observational study we analyzed protein expression signatures in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 15 patients with infectious delirium and compared these to 29 patients with AD, 30 infectious patients without delirium and 15 non-infectious controls free of neurological disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.06.027DOI Listing

MRI signatures of brain age and disease over the lifespan based on a deep brain network and 14 468 individuals worldwide.

Brain 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Center for Biomedical Image Computing and Analytics, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Deep learning has emerged as a powerful approach to constructing imaging signatures of normal brain ageing as well as of various neuropathological processes associated with brain diseases. In particular, MRI-derived brain age has been used as a comprehensive biomarker of brain health that can identify both advanced and resilient ageing individuals via deviations from typical brain ageing. Imaging signatures of various brain diseases, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, have also been identified using machine learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa160DOI Listing

Long-term exposure to ambient source-specific particulate matter and its components and incidence of cardiovascular events - The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

Environ Int 2020 Sep 24;142:105854. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Environmental Epidemiology Group, Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Medical Research School Düsseldorf, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Few studies have examined the risk of long-term exposure to source-specific airborne pollutants on incidence of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.

Objectives: We aimed to estimate the effect of long-term exposure to source-specific air pollution and particulate matter (PM) components on incidence of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and total cardiovascular events (CVE) in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (HNR).

Methods: We used baseline (2000-2003) and 14-year follow-up data of the HNR Study, an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study in Western Germany. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105854DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of physicians' participation in non-interventional post-marketing studies on their prescription habits: A retrospective 2-armed cohort study in Germany.

PLoS Med 2020 Jun 26;17(6):e1003151. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Non-interventional post-marketing studies (NIPMSs) sponsored by pharmaceutical companies are controversial because, while they are theoretically useful instruments for pharmacovigilance, some authors have hypothesized that they are merely marketing instruments used to influence physicians' prescription behavior. So far, it has not been shown, to our knowledge, whether NIPMSs actually do have an influence on prescription behavior. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether physicians' participation in NIPMSs initiated by pharmaceutical companies has an impact on their prescription behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319278PMC

ASSOCIATION OF RETINAL LAYER MEASUREMENTS AND ADULT COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY.

Neurology 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

David D. Ward, Population Health Sciences, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany.

Objective: To quantify the associations of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and macular ganglion cell layer (mGCL) volume with cognitive functioning, as well as to investigate how demographic and vascular health factors impact upon these associations, in a population-based sample of adults.

Methods: The sample included the first 3000 participants (age range = 30 - 95) of the Rhineland Study (recruited from March 2016 to December 2018), who underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and cognitive assessment at one of two identical study centres in Bonn, Germany. We used multiple linear regression models to examine the relationships between retinal layer measurements and cognitive functioning after adjustment for confounders, and also examined the moderating effects of demographic and vascular health factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010146DOI Listing

Patterns of motor recovery and structural neuroplasticity after striatal infarcts.

Neurology 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Objective: To elucidate the timeframe and spatial patterns of cortical reorganization after different stroke-induced basal ganglia lesions, we measured cortical thickness at five timepoints over a six-month period. We hypothesized that cortical reorganization would occur very early and that, along with motor recovery, it would vary based on the stroke lesion site.

Methods: Thirty-three patients with unilateral basal ganglia stroke and 23 healthy control participants underwent MRI scanning and behavioral testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010149DOI Listing

Global alterations to the choroid plexus blood-CSF barrier in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2020 Jun 26;8(1):92. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Neurobiology, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center and Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 W Thomas Road, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA.

The choroid plexus (CP) is a highly vascularized structure located in the ventricles that forms the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) and separates the blood from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In addition to its role as a physical barrier, the CP functions in CSF secretion, transport of nutrients into the central nervous system (CNS) and a gated point of entry of circulating immune cells into the CNS. Aging and neurodegeneration have been reported to affect CP morphology and function and increase protein leakage from blood to the CSF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-020-00968-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318439PMC

Matrix Gla protein polymorphism rs1800801 associates with recurrence of ischemic stroke.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(6):e0235122. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Geisinger, Danville, PA, United States of America.

The MGP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800801 has previously been associated with recurrent ischemic stroke in a Spanish cohort. Here, we tested for association of this SNP with ischemic stroke recurrence in a North American Caucasian cohort. Acute ischemic stroke patients admitted between 10/2009 and 12/2016 at three hospitals within a large healthcare system in the northeastern United States that were enrolled in a healthcare system-wide exome sequencing program were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235122PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316322PMC

Prior Stroke in PFO Patients Is Associated With Both PFO-Related and -Unrelated Factors.

Front Neurol 2020 4;11:503. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.

To identify factors associated with prior stroke at presentation in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) and patent foramen ovale (PFO). We studied cross-sectional data from the International PFO Consortium Study (NCT00859885). Patients with first-ever stroke and those with prior stroke at baseline were analyzed for an association with PFO-related (right-to-left shunt at rest, atrial septal aneurysm, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and Valsalva maneuver) and PFO-unrelated factors (age, gender, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, migraine, coronary artery disease, aortic plaque). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289181PMC

Long-Term Neuroanatomical Consequences of Childhood Maltreatment: Reduced Amygdala Inhibition by Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

Front Syst Neurosci 2020 3;14:28. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Department of Medicine, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Similar to patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD), healthy subjects at risk for depression show hyperactivation of the amygdala as a response to negative emotional expressions. The medial prefrontal cortex is responsible for amygdala control. Analyzing a large cohort of healthy subjects, we aimed to delineate malfunction in amygdala regulation by the medial prefrontal cortex in subjects at increased risk for depression, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2020.00028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283497PMC

Cerebral perfusion is associated with blast exposure in military personnel without moderate or severe TBI.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2020 Jun 24:271678X20935190. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) and Geriatric Research, Educational and Clinical Center (GRECC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA.

Due to the use of improvised explosive devices, blast exposure and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have become hallmark injuries of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Although the mechanisms of the effects of blast on human neurobiology remain active areas of investigation, research suggests that the cerebrovasculature may be particularly vulnerable to blast via molecular processes that impact cerebral blood flow. Given that recent work suggests that blast exposure, even without a subsequent TBI, may have negative consequences on brain structure and function, the current study sought to further understand the effects of blast exposure on perfusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20935190DOI Listing

Non-convulsive status epilepticus with right arm apraxia: A case report.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2020 2;14:100371. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, University Hospital Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Non-convulsive SE (NCSE) is characterized by altered consciousness with or without slight motor manifestations or other phenomena such as aphasia, sensory, auditory, emotional, gustatory or other symptoms. A 69-year-old right-handed man developed the sudden onset of apraxia in his right arm. On admission, the patient was alert and well oriented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebr.2020.100371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303554PMC

Genome-wide association study of rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients identifies novel genes and pathways.

Alzheimers Dement 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Variability exists in the disease trajectories of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We performed a genome-wide association study to examine rate of cognitive decline (ROD) in patients with AD.

Methods: We tested for interactions between genetic variants and time since diagnosis to predict the ROD of a composite cognitive score in 3946 AD cases and performed pathway analysis on the top genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12106DOI Listing
June 2020
12.407 Impact Factor

Parkinson's Disease, NOTCH3 Genetic Variants, and White Matter Hyperintensities.

Mov Disord 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease and the Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging may influence clinical presentation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), although their significance and pathophysiological origins remain unresolved. Studies examining WMH have identified pathogenic variants in NOTCH3 as an underlying cause of inherited forms of cerebral small vessel disease.

Methods: We examined NOTCH3 variants, WMH volumes, and clinical correlates in 139 PD patients in the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28171DOI Listing

Investigation of The Relationship Between IL-18 (-607 C/A), IL-18 (-137 G/C) Gene Variations and Ischemic Stroke Disease Development in Thrace Region of Turkey.

Immunol Invest 2020 Jun 23:1-12. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University , Edirne, Turkey.

Background: Ischemic stroke is a clinical condition characterized by focal or global cerebral dysfunction resulting from inhibition of brain blood flow. Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. As a result of IL-18 (-607 C/A, -137 G/C) gene variations, it is thought that binding of transcription factors may be affected and IL-18 mRNA expression can be modulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1782932DOI Listing

The Smart Device System for Movement Disorders: Preliminary Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy in a Prospective Study.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Jun;270:889-893

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Münster, Germany.

Consumer wearables can provide objective monitoring of movement disorders and may identify new phenotypical biomarkers. We present a novel smartwatch-based prototype, which is implemented as a prospective study in neurology. A full-stack Machine Learning pipeline utilizing Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Random Forests and Support Vector Machines (SVM) was established and optimized to train for two clinically relevant classification tasks: First, to distinguish neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) or Essential Tremor from healthy subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200289DOI Listing

Using Unsupervised Learning to Identify Clinical Subtypes of Alzheimer's Disease in Electronic Health Records.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2020 Jun;270:499-503

Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK.

Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can lead towards the creation of personalized interventions and potentially improve outcomes. In this study, we use UK primary care electronic health records (EHR) from the CALIBER resource to identify and characterize clinically-meaningful clusters patients using unsupervised learning approaches of MCA and K-means. We discovered and characterized five clusters with different profiles (mental health, non-typical AD, typical AD, CVD and men with cancer). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/SHTI200210DOI Listing

Characterizing the heterogeneous metabolic progression in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 May 26;27:102294. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland; Dept. Informatics, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Objective: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a prodromal stage of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Positron emission tomography (PET) with F-FDG reveals metabolic perturbations, which are scored by spatial covariance analysis. However, the resultant pattern scores do not capture the spatially heterogeneous trajectories of metabolic changes between individual brain regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322340PMC

Computational study on new natural compound inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 Jun 22;12(12):11349-11363. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO), is a speed limiting enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition and metabolism of Tryptophan along Tryptophan-IDO-Kynurenine pathway [1]. Tryptophan is a necessary amino acid for activating cell growth and metabolism. Additionally, the insufficiency of Tryptophan can lead to immune system dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103113DOI Listing

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 by bronchoscopy after negative nasopharyngeal testing: Stay vigilant for COVID-19.

Respir Med Case Rep 2020 8;30:101120. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is required for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sensitivity of RT-PCR nasopharyngeal (NP) testing is presumed to be high, but there is no gold standard against which this has been determined. The objective was to determine whether lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), occurs in the absence of upper respiratory tract infection with clinical testing of both specimen types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2020.101120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298516PMC

A Lead Field Two-Domain Model for Longitudinal Neural Tracts-Analytical Framework and Implications for Signal Bandwidth.

Comput Math Methods Med 2020 29;2020:5436807. Epub 2020 May 29.

Institute of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, UMIT-Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Eduard-Wallnoefer-Zentrum 1, 6060 Hall in Tirol, Austria.

Somatosensory evoked potentials are a well-established tool for assessing volley conduction in afferent neural pathways. However, from a clinical perspective, recording of spinal signals is still a demanding task due to the low amplitudes compared to relevant noise sources. Computer modeling is a powerful tool for gaining insight into signal genesis and, thus, for promoting future innovations in signal extraction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5436807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275970PMC

Predictors of general and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease and related disorders including caregiver perspectives.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 Jun 10;77:5-10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Departments of Neurology and Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Our understanding of the determinants of quality of life (QOL) in people living with Parkinson's disease and related disorders (PDRD) has grown remarkably in the past decade. However, several areas remain understudied including determinants of general vs. health-related QOL, determinants in high-need patients, drivers of perceptions of caregivers vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.05.036DOI Listing

Temporal phenotyping for transitional disease progress: An application to epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.

J Biomed Inform 2020 Jun 18;107:103462. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

School of Biomedical Informatics, UTHealth, Houston, TX, United States.

Complicated multifactorial diseases deteriorate from one disease to other diseases. For example, existing studies consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) a comorbidity of epilepsy, but also recognize epilepsy to occur more frequently in patients with AD than those without. It is important to understand the progress of disease that deteriorates to severe diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2020.103462DOI Listing

A missense mutation in the MLKL brace region promotes lethal neonatal inflammation and hematopoietic dysfunction.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 19;11(1):3150. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.

MLKL is the essential effector of necroptosis, a form of programmed lytic cell death. We have isolated a mouse strain with a single missense mutation, Mlkl, that alters the two-helix 'brace' that connects the killer four-helix bundle and regulatory pseudokinase domains. This confers constitutive, RIPK3 independent killing activity to MLKL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16819-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305203PMC
June 2020
10.742 Impact Factor

Healthcare Challenges in the Era of Cybersecurity.

Health Secur 2020 May/Jun;18(3):228-231

Christian Dameff, MD, is an Assistant Professor, Departments of Emergency Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, and Computer Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA.

As a result of the extensive integration of technology into the healthcare system, cybersecurity incidents have become an increasing challenge for the healthcare industry. Recent examples include WannaCry, a nontargeted ransomware attack on more than 150 countries worldwide that temporarily crippled parts of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom, and the 2016 ransomware attack on Los Angeles's Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center. The attacks cost millions of dollars in lost revenue and fines, as well as significant reputational damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hs.2019.0123DOI Listing

Imaging genomics discovery of a new risk variant for Alzheimer's disease in the postsynaptic SHARPIN gene.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Molecular mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) are difficult to investigate, partly because diagnosis lags behind the insidious pathological processes. Therefore, identifying AD neuroimaging markers and their genetic modifiers may help study early mechanisms of neurodegeneration. We aimed to identify brain regions of the highest vulnerability to AD using a data-driven search in the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, n = 1,100 subjects), and further explored genetic variants affecting this critical brain trait using both ADNI and the younger UK Biobank cohort (n = 8,428 subjects). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25083DOI Listing

Meta-Analysis of Gut Dysbiosis in Parkinson's Disease.

Mov Disord 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Division of Neurogenetics, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: PD may begin with the intestinal accumulation of α-synuclein fibrils, which can be causally associated with gut dysbiosis. The variability of gut microbiota across countries prevented us from identifying shared gut dysbiosis in PD.

Objectives: To identify gut dysbiosis in PD across countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28119DOI Listing

Surrogate Satisfaction with Decision Making After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Neurocrit Care 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Stroke Program, Department of Neurology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr. CVC 3392, SPC 5855, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-5855, USA.

Background/objective: Surrogate decision makers for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are frequently asked to make difficult decisions on use of life-sustaining treatments. We explored ICH surrogate satisfaction with decision making and experience of decision regret using validated measures in a prospective multicenter study.

Methods: Cases of non-traumatic ICH were enrolled from three hospitals (September 2015-December 2016), and surrogate decision makers were invited to complete a self-administered survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01018-xDOI Listing

TLR Stimulation Produces IFN-β as the Primary Driver of IFN Signaling in Nonlymphoid Primary Human Cells.

Immunohorizons 2020 Jun 18;4(6):332-338. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Centers for Therapeutic Innovation, Pfizer Inc., Cambridge, MA 02139;

Several human autoimmune diseases are characterized by increased expression of type 1 IFN-stimulated genes in both the peripheral blood and tissue. The contributions of different type I IFNs to this gene signature are uncertain as the type I IFN family consists of 13 alphas and one each of β, ε, κ, and ω subtypes. We sought to investigate the contribution of various IFNs to IFN signaling in primary human cell types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/immunohorizons.1800054DOI Listing

Annual Prevalence of Use of Potentially Inappropriate Medications for Treatment of Affective Disorders in Parkinson's Disease.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, (DSA, TPPN, DW, AWW), Philadelphia, PA; Department of Neurology Translational Center for Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurological Outcomes Research, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, (DSA, TPPN, AWW), Philadelphia, PA; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, (DSA, TPPN, SH, DX, AWW), Philadelphia, PA; Department of Biostatics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, (DSA, TPPN, SH, DX, AWW), Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To examine the national prevalence of pharmacological treatment of affective disorders in older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD), and determine the prevalence and risk factors for receipt of an American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria® defined potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) for affective disorder treatment.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 2014 Medicare data.

Setting: Research Identifiable File data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.05.014DOI Listing

Cerebral Microbleed Burdens in Specific Brain Regions Are Associated With Disease Severity of Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jul 17;9(13):e016233. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology Neurological Institute Taipei Veterans General Hospital Taipei Taiwan.

Background Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, caused by mutations, is characterized by recurrent ischemic strokes and progressive cognitive decline. It remains unclear whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) can serve as a surrogate marker for disease progression in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. We aimed to investigate the CMB burdens in mutation carriers at different disease stages and test their associations with cognitive performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.016233DOI Listing

Minor Structural Differences in the Cervical Spine Between Patients With Cervical Dystonia and Age-Matched Healthy Controls.

Front Neurol 2020 29;11:472. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia. The frequency and pattern of degenerative changes of the cervical spine in patients with cervical dystonia and their relation to clinical symptoms remain unclear as no direct comparison to healthy controls has been performed yet. Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate (1) whether structural abnormalities of the cervical spine are more common in patients with cervical dystonia compared to age-matched healthy controls, (2) if there are clinical predictors for abnormalities on MRI, and (3) to calculate the inter-rater reliability of the respective radiological scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272577PMC