19 results match your criteria Medical Immunology [Journal]

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Chronic Granulomatous Disease; fundamental stages in our understanding of CGD.

Authors:
Tracy Assari

Med Immunol 2006 Sep 21;5. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

Molecular Immunology Unit, The Institute of Child Health, University College London and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 3EH, UK.

It has been 50 years since chronic granulomatous disease was first reported as a disease which fatally affected the ability of children to survive infections. Various milestone discoveries from the insufficient ability of patients' leucocytes to destroy microbial particles to the underlying genetic predispositions through which the disease is inherited have had important consequences. Longterm antibiotic prophylaxis has helped to fight infections associated with chronic granulomatous disease while the steady progress in bone marrow transplantation and the prospect of gene therapy are hailed as long awaited permanent treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-5-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592097PMC
September 2006
6 Reads

The structure of IL2 bound to the three chains of the IL2 receptor and how signaling occurs.

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2006 Aug 14;5. Epub 2006 Aug 14.

The Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.

The interleukin-2 molecule and receptor were the first of the interleukins to be discovered and characterized at the molecular level. Now after 20 years of effort, two groups have succeeded in determining the structure of IL2 bound to the external domains of the three receptor chains in a quaternary complex. What do we know now that we did not know before this structural information was available, and how do these new data help us to develop new therapies? Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-5-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1562422PMC
August 2006
3 Reads

The continuing HIV vaccine saga: is a paradigm shift necessary?

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2006 May 18;5. Epub 2006 May 18.

As pointed out in previous editorials, the development of an effective vaccine for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus capable of preventing infection, or even one capable of preventing the Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome, has eluded investigators for the past 20 years. Now Reche and Keskin and their co-workers have provided evidence that an entirely new approach, based upon modern bioinformatics methods and skillful in vitro immunological experiments, may result in an effective way to prime the T cell immune response of normal individuals against conserved peptide epitopes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-5-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1488837PMC
May 2006
3 Reads

Elicitation from virus-naive individuals of cytotoxic T lymphocytes directed against conserved HIV-1 epitopes.

Med Immunol 2006 May 18;5. Epub 2006 May 18.

Laboratory of Immunobiology and Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) protect against viruses including HIV-1. To avoid viral escape mutants that thwart immunity, we chose 25 CTL epitopes defined in the context of natural infection with functional and/or structural constraints that maintain sequence conservation. By combining HLA binding predictions with knowledge concerning HLA allele frequencies, a metric estimating population protection coverage (PPC) was computed and epitope pools assembled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-5-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1559620PMC
May 2006
9 Reads

The continuing HIV vaccine saga: naked emperors alongside fairy godmothers.

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2005 May 6;4(1). Epub 2005 May 6.

The Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY USA.

The latest developments in the HIV vaccine field were aired at a Keystone Symposium recently. This Commentary summarizes some of the highlights from this meeting, and focuses on some of the developments that appeared particularly promising, as well as those that do not. Unfortunately, the "saga" continues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-4-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1131919PMC
May 2005
2 Reads

Wanted, an Anthrax vaccine: Dead or Alive?

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2005 Apr 18;4(1). Epub 2005 Apr 18.

The Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, 10021, USA.

It has been more than 100 years since the realization that microbes are capable of causing disease. In that time, we have learned a great deal as to how each organism has adapted to the immune system so as to avoid elimination. As well, we have also learned an immense amount since Louis Pasteur first proposed that the solution to infectious diseases was to culture the microbes and attenuate their virulence, so as to use them as vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-4-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1087873PMC
April 2005
4 Reads

Anthrax vaccine design: strategies to achieve comprehensive protection against spore, bacillus, and toxin.

Med Immunol 2005 Mar 24;4(1). Epub 2005 Mar 24.

Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The successful use of Bacillus anthracis as a lethal biological weapon has prompted renewed research interest in the development of more effective vaccines against anthrax. The disease consists of three critical components: spore, bacillus, and toxin, elimination of any of which confers at least partial protection against anthrax. Current remedies rely on postexposure antibiotics to eliminate bacilli and pre- and postexposure vaccination to target primarily toxins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-4-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1079933PMC
March 2005
8 Reads

The Classics of Immunology.

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2005 Mar 10;4(1). Epub 2005 Mar 10.

The Division of Immunology Department of Medicine Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, NY 10021 USA.

Medical Immunology will be publishing invited Reviews and Commentaries from investigators who are at the forefront of their fields, to up-date our readers as to the current state of their art. These Reviews and Commentaries will be accompanied by Editorials that place the current work into the perspective of the first contribution in an area, which resulted in a "Classic" paper. Where possible, links will be provided to the original publication, so that the modern student of immunology can read the original and draw their own conclusions as to the value of the "Classic" contribution, and its relationship to our contemporary views as to how the immune system functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-4-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1079932PMC
March 2005
3 Reads

The Future of Smallpox Vaccination: is MVA the key?

Authors:
Mark K Slifka

Med Immunol 2005 Mar 1;4(1). Epub 2005 Mar 1.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Sciences University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.

Eradication of the smallpox virus through extensive global vaccination efforts has resulted in one of the most important breakthroughs in medical history, saving countless lives from the severe morbidity and mortality that is associated with this disease. Although smallpox is now extinct in nature, laboratory stocks of this virus still remain and the subject of smallpox vaccination has gained renewed attention due to the potential risk that smallpox may be used as a biological weapon by terrorists or rogue states. Despite having the longest history of any modern vaccine, there is still much to be learned about smallpox vaccination and the correlates of protection remain to be formally defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-4-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC554756PMC
March 2005
5 Reads

FADD adaptor in cancer.

Med Immunol 2005 Feb 17;4(1). Epub 2005 Feb 17.

Département d'Immunologie, Institut Cochin, INSERM U 567, CNRS UMR 8104, IFR 116, Université René Descartes, Paris V, Paris, France.

FADD (Fas Associated protein with Death Domain) is a key adaptor molecule transmitting the death signal mediated by death receptors. In addition, this multiple functional protein is implicated in survival/proliferation and cell cycle progression. FADD functions are regulated via cellular sublocalization, protein phosphorylation, and inhibitory molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-4-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC550674PMC
February 2005
7 Reads

The quantal theory of how the immune system discriminates between "self and non-self"

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2004 Dec 17;3(1). Epub 2004 Dec 17.

The Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America.

In the past 50 years, immunologists have accumulated an amazing amount of information as to how the immune system functions. However, one of the most fundamental aspects of immunity, how the immune system discriminates between self vs. non-self, still remains an enigma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-3-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC544850PMC
December 2004
4 Reads

New approaches to eliciting protective immunity through T cell repertoire manipulation: the concept of thymic vaccination.

Med Immunol 2004 Dec 8;3(1). Epub 2004 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Immunobiology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, USA.

Conventional vaccines afford protection against infectious diseases by expanding existing pathogen-specific peripheral lymphocytes, both CD8 cytotoxic effector (CTL) and CD4 helper T cells. The latter induce B cell maturation and antibody production. As a consequence, lymphocytes within the memory pool are poised to rapidly proliferate at the time of a subsequent infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-3-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC544398PMC
December 2004
8 Reads

NF-kB inhibitor blocks B cell development at two checkpoints.

Med Immunol 2004 Mar 29;3(1). Epub 2004 Mar 29.

Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Members of the NF-kB transcription factor family are differentially expressed in the B cell lineage. Disruption of individual or two NF-kB subunits exhibits distinct defects in B lymphocyte development, activation, and survival. However, the role each NF-kB plays during B cell development has been obscured by molecular compensation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-9433-3-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC419369PMC
March 2004
24 Reads

The HIV vaccine saga.

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2003 Feb 14;2(1). Epub 2003 Feb 14.

The Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.

The development of a vaccine that can prevent infection by the Human immunodeficiency virus or prevent the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has remained elusive despite 20 years of scientific effort. This "Commentary" analyzes the reasons that the development of a vaccine has been so difficult, and proposes a plan to work towards an immunological approach to investigate the best vaccine candidates in the first world in individuals who are already infected, before taking the most promising vaccines to the developing world to attempt to prevent infection and disease. SAGA: (Old Norse) "a long, continued heroic story that is action-packed, but not especially romantic, and that is historical or legendary or both". Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC151598PMC
February 2003
4 Reads

New insights into the possible role of bacteriophages in host defense and disease.

Med Immunol 2003 Feb 14;2(1). Epub 2003 Feb 14.

L,Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, 53-114 Wroclaw, Poland.

BACKGROUND: While the ability of bacteriophages to kill bacteria is well known and has been used in some centers to combat antibiotics - resistant infections, our knowledge about phage interactions with mammalian cells is very limited and phages have been believed to have no intrinsic tropism for those cells. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: At least some phages (e.g. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC151275PMC
February 2003
13 Reads

Immunomodulation in stable renal transplant recipients with concomitant tacrolimus and sirolimus therapy.

Med Immunol 2002 Nov 19;1(1). Epub 2002 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine (Nephrology), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI-53226, USA.

BACKGROUND: Long term treatment with immunosuppressive agents results in nephrotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. We explored the effect of combination of Tacrolimus (TAC) and Sirolimus (SRL) on the immune system in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: 10 stable renal transplant recipients were selected to participate in a pharmacokinetic study with a combination of TAC and SRL. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC149406PMC
November 2002
8 Reads

Optimal clinical trial designs for immune-based therapies in persistent viral infections.

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2002 Nov 21;1(1). Epub 2002 Nov 21.

Weill Medical College of Cornell University Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine 1300 York Avenue, Box 41 New York, NY 10021, USA.

There is now effective therapy for infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), but there is no cure. Consequently, antiviral drugs must be administered continuously to suppress viral replication. Recently, a large phase III international immune-based therapy trial was discontinued because it is difficult to measure clinical endpoints while antivirals are administered. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC149407PMC
November 2002
4 Reads

DNA array analysis of interleukin-2-regulated immediate/early genes.

Med Immunol 2002 Nov 18;1(1). Epub 2002 Nov 18.

Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA.

BACKGROUND: Lymphocyte activation culminates in blastogenesis, cell cycle progression, DNA replication and mitosis. These complex cellular changes are programmed almost simultaneously by multiple ligands and receptors that trigger specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors. Until now, the discovery of the genes regulated by each ligand/receptor pair has been hampered by the technologies available. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC149405PMC
November 2002
4 Reads

Medical immunology: a new journal for a new subspecialty.

Authors:
Kendall A Smith

Med Immunol 2002 Sep 30;1(1). Epub 2002 Sep 30.

The Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine Weill Medical, College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 41, New York, NY 10021, USA.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC131025PMC
September 2002
4 Reads
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