142,087 results match your criteria Medical Engineering & Physics [Journal]


A scalable database of organ doses for common diagnostic fluoroscopy examinations of children: procedures of current practice at the University of Florida.

Phys Med Biol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116131, 1275 Center Drive, Gainesville, Florida, 32611-6131, UNITED STATES.

Of all the medical imaging modalities that utilize ionizing radiation, fluoroscopy proves to be the most difficult to assess values of patient organ dose owing to the dynamic and patient-specific nature of the irradiation geometry and its associated x-ray beam characteristics. With the introduction of the radiation dose structured report (RDSR) in the mid-2000s, however, computational tools have been developed to extract patient and procedure-specific data for each irradiation event of the study, and when coupled to a computational phantom of the patient, values of skin and internal organ dose may be assessed. Unfortunately, many legacy and even current diagnostic fluoroscopy units do not have RDSR reporting capabilities, thus limiting these dosimetry reporting advances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ab1badDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Self-powered, flexible and remote-controlled breath monitor based on TiO2 nanowire networks.

Nanotechnology 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, CANADA.

Smart breath monitor devices with high stretchability, fast response/ recovery times and self-powered characteristic are essential in the wearable medical and life science applications. In this work, we report on the development of a versatile high-performance humidity sensor based on TiO2 nanowire networks for self-powered sensing application of human breath monitoring. These sensors, with typical response times of ~ 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab1b93DOI Listing

Long non-coding RNA XIST regulates the EGF receptor to promote TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer.

Biochem Cell Biol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Yunnan Engineering Technology Center of Diagnosis and Treatment of Digestive Diseases , No.295, Xichang Road , Kunming , China , 650032 ;

Background: This study focuses on lncRNA XIST, a lncRNA involved in multiple human cancers, and aims to investigate the functional significance of XIST and the molecular mechanism underlying the EMT in PC.

Methods: Clinical specimens from 25 patients and five human bladder cancer cell lines were analyzed for XIST, YAP and microRNA(miR)-34a by qRT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). To investigate how XIST influences the cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis in PC, we performed the CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/bcb-2018-0274DOI Listing

Construct Cyan Fluorescence by De Novo Tripeptides: An In Vitro Mutation Study on the Role of Single Amino Acid Residues and Their Sequence.

Chembiochem 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Oral Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Oral Disease, Stomatology Hospital, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, P. R. China., Yuexiu Road, CHINA.

Amino acids are a natural choice as building blocks for developing bio-functional entities owing to their superior diversity and versatile physicochemical properties compared to nucleotide bases. A simple permutation of amino acids creates a broad palette of proteins that are successfully engineered as useful bio-functional agents. For example, the intrinsic ultraviolet fluorescence of phenylalanine (F) and tryptophan (W) have been engineered to emit in the visible spectrum [1, 2], that has broad applications as imaging/sensing probes, photothermal therapy agents, optogenetic switches, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201900166DOI Listing

Graphene Oxide Incorporated Polycaprolactone/Chitosan/Collagen Electrospun Scaffold: Enhanced Osteogenic Properties for Bone Tissue Engineering.

Artif Organs 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Group, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, Iran.

This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and biological activity of the polycaprolactone/chitosan/collagen scaffolds incorporated with 0, 0.5, 3, and 6 wt% graphene oxide (GO). Using standard tests and MG-63 cells the characteristics of scaffolds were evaluated, and the behavior of osteoblasts were simulated respectively. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/aor.13474
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aor.13474DOI Listing
April 2019
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Hypertension Contributes to Neuropathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes.

Am J Hypertens 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Qatar Foundation, Education City, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) can lead to foot ulceration and amputation. There are currently no disease modifying therapies for DPN. The aim of this study was to determine if hypertension contributes to DPN in patients with T1DM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpz058DOI Listing

Methods of synthesis, properties and biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates: a review.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2019 Apr 23:1-18. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

a "Evaluation and Conservation of Cultural Heritage" Research Group, National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, Bucharest, Romania.

This study aims to provide an overview of the main polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) used in medical applications. In this review, it has been demonstrated that the properties of PHAs can be controlled both by varying the concentration of units in the copolymer and the substrate for PHA production. Another way of controlling the mechanical properties of PHAs is varying the 3HV content, such as the case of P(3HB-co-3HV). Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09205063.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2019.1605866DOI Listing
April 2019
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Study of Mutation from DNA to Biological Evolution.

Int J Radiat Biol 2019 Apr 23:1-42. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

a Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University , Japan.

Purpose: This is a paper based on a talk given in the BER2018 conference by M. Bando. We first emphasize the importance of collaborations among scientists in various fields for the low dose/dose-rate effects on biological body. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2019.1606957DOI Listing

The process of 3D printed skull models for anatomy education.

Comput Assist Surg (Abingdon) 2019 Apr 23:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

i Department of Endocrinology, Endocrine Key Laboratory of Ministry of Health , PUMCH, CAMS & PUMC , Beijing , China.

In general, the 3 D printed medical models are made based on virtual digital models obtained from machines such as the computed tomography scanner. However, due to the limited accuracy of CT scanning technology, which is usually 1 millimeter, there are differences between scanned results and the real structure. Besides, the collected data can hardly be printed directly because of some errors in the model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24699322.2018.1560101DOI Listing

Laser Acceleration of Highly Energetic Carbon Ions Using a Double-Layer Target Composed of Slightly Underdense Plasma and Ultrathin Foil.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Jan;122(1):014803

Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science, Gwangju 61005, Korea.

We report the experimental generation of highly energetic carbon ions up to 48 MeV per nucleon by shooting double-layer targets composed of well-controlled slightly underdense plasma and ultrathin foils with ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that carbon ions are ejected from the ultrathin foils due to radiation pressure and then accelerated in an enhanced sheath field established by the superponderomotive electron flow. Such a cascaded acceleration is especially suited for heavy ion acceleration with femtosecond laser pulses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.014803DOI Listing
January 2019

Controllable Eu-Doped Orthophosphate Blue-/Red-Emitting Phosphors: Charge Compensation and Lattice-Strain Control.

Inorg Chem 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Changchun 130022 , P. R. China.

Cation-substitution-induced controllable luminescence tuning could efficiently optimize and improve the luminescence performances of novel phosphor materials for realizing high-quality lighting. As important members of the orthophosphate family, ABPO (A = alkali metal Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs; B = alkali earth metal Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) offers an abundant cation lattice environment for rare earth ions. Herein, we successfully prepared a broad-band red-emitting CsMgPO:Eu phosphor with an emission peak at 628 nm (fwhm = 118 nm). Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b00577
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b00577DOI Listing
April 2019
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Pharmacogenomics-Driven Prediction of Antidepressant Treatment Outcomes: A Machine Learning Approach with Multi-Trial Replication.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Dept. of Psychiatry & Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

We set out to determine whether machine learning-based algorithms that included functionally validated pharmacogenomic biomarkers joined with clinical measures could predict selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) remission/response in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We studied 1,030 Caucasian MDD outpatients treated with citalopram/escitalopram in the PGRN-AMPS (n = 398), STAR*D (n = 467), and ISPC (n = 165) trials. GWAS for PGRN-AMPS plasma metabolites associated with SSRI response (serotonin) and baseline MDD severity (kynurenine) identified SNPs in DEFB1, ERICH3, AHR, and TSPAN5 that we tested as predictors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1482DOI Listing

Severe digital malformations in a rare variant of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Center for Research in FOP & Related Disorders, Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

A 16-year-old girl with a history of nontraumatic swelling of both forearms, osteochondromas of the knees, heterotopic ossification of the neck and back, severe malformations of all digits with hypoplastic or absent nails, alopecia partialis of the scalp, and moderate cognitive impairment was seen for diagnostic evaluation. Whole exome sequencing identified an activating mutation of ACVR1 (c.983G > A; p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61153DOI Listing

Sustained-release of sclerostin single-chain antibody fragments using Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres for osteoporotic fracture repair.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Shijitan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing, Peking University Ninth School of Clinical Medicine, 100038 China.

Osteoporotic fracture is one of the most common bone diseases in middle and old age, as the most serious consequence of osteoporosis. Sclerostin single-chain antibody fragments (SCL-scFv) has been proven to promote bone formation by binding to scleroprotein, a natural antagonist of the Wnt pathway, but it is difficult to rule alone due to the weak permeability and immunogenicity. Herein, we prepared poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres as a sustained-release vehicle to prolong the activity of SCL-scFv. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36704DOI Listing

Physicochemical Characterization of Polymer-stabilized Coacervate Protocells.

Chembiochem 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Bio-medical engineering and Chemical engineering & Chemistry, building 14, Helix (STO 3.39) Het Kranenveld, 5600 MB, Eindhoven, NETHERLANDS.

The bottom-up construction of cell mimics has produced a range of membrane-bound protocells that have been endowed with functionality and biochemical processes reminiscent of living systems. The contents of these compartments, however, experience semi-dilute conditions, whereas macromolecules in the cytosol are in a protein-rich crowded environment that affects their physicochemical properties such as diffusion and catalytic activity. Recently, complex coacervates have emerged as attractive protocellular models because their condensed interior is expected to better mimic this crowding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201900195DOI Listing

Corneal bioprinting utilizing collagen-based bioinks and primary human keratocytes.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Corneal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with advanced corneal diseases. However, the outcome may be affected by graft rejection, high associated costs, surgical expertise and most importantly the worldwide donor shortage. In recent years, bioprinting has emerged as an alternative method for fabricating tissue equivalents using autologous cells with architecture resembling the native tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36702DOI Listing

Temporal variations of atmospheric benzene and its health effects in Tehran megacity (2010-2013).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The main aims of the present research were (1) investigation of the temporal trends of atmospheric benzene concentrations in Tehran city during the period 2010 to 2013 and (2) assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of inhalation exposure to benzene. For the first objective, the data of ambient air benzene concentrations were derived from 15 air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) in Tehran during the years 2010 to 2013 and they were temporally investigated after data cleaning and missing data imputation. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated to reveal the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects of exposure to ambient benzene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05086-1DOI Listing

A Region-Based Deep Level Set Formulation for Vertebral Bone Segmentation of Osteoporotic Fractures.

J Digit Imaging 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

POF's Hospital, Wah Cantt, Pakistan.

Accurate segmentation of the vertebrae from medical images plays an important role in computer-aided diagnoses (CADs). It provides an initial and early diagnosis of various vertebral abnormalities to doctors and radiologists. Vertebrae segmentation is very important but difficult task in medical imaging due to low-contrast imaging and noise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10278-019-00216-0DOI Listing

Altered large-scale functional brain networks in neurological Wilson's disease.

Brain Imaging Behav 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Wilson's disease patients with neurological symptoms have motor symptoms and cognitive deficits, including frontal executive, visuospatial processing, and memory impairments. Although the brain structural abnormalities associated with Wilson's disease have been documented, it remains largely unknown how Wilson's disease affects large-scale functional brain networks. In this study, we investigated functional brain networks in Wilson's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00066-yDOI Listing
April 2019
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Nanoislands as plasmonic materials.

Nanoscale 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST Institute for Health Science and Technology (KIHST), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Dahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Subwavelength metal nanoislands thermally dewetted from a thin film emerge as a powerful and cost-effective photonic material, due to the formation of substantially strong nano-gap-based plasmonic hot spots and their simple large-area nanofabrication. Unlike conventional nanostructures, nanoislands dewetted from thin metal films can be formed on a large scale at the wafer level and show substrate-dependent plasmonic phenomena across a broad spectral range from ultraviolet to infrared. Substrate-selective dewetting methods for metal nanoislands enable diverse nanophotonic and optoelectronic technologies, underlining mechanical, structural, and material properties of a substrate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr10539aDOI Listing

Pancreatic islet surface engineering with a starPEG-chondroitin sulfate nanocoating.

Biomater Sci 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomaterial Research, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China.

Islet transplantation is one of the most promising therapeutic options that could restore euglycaemia in type 1 diabetic individuals. The currently implemented alginate microsphere islet encapsulation approach has led to positive outcomes in improving intraportal islet delivery in rodents. However, results obtained from human clinical trials remain disappointing. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C9BM00061E
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9bm00061eDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Oral Non-Viral Gene Delivery for Applications in DNA Vaccination and Gene Therapy.

Curr Opin Biomed Eng 2018 Sep 26;7:51-57. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583.

Non-viral gene delivery via the oral route is a promising strategy for improving outcomes of DNA vaccination and gene therapy applications. Unlike traditional parenteral administration routes, the oral route is a non-invasive approach that lends itself to high patient compliance and ease of dosing. Moreover, oral administration allows for both local and systemic production of therapeutic genes or, in the case of DNA vaccination, mucosal and systemic immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cobme.2018.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474414PMC
September 2018

How to maintain the maximal level of blinding in randomisation for a placebo-controlled drug trial.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2019 Jun 9;14:100356. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBME), Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, UK.

We illustrate the approach of randomising treatments and compare it with the traditional approach of randomising patients, using a case study drawn from the authors' experience in clinical trials. The setting is a double-blind parallel two-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT), but the method in this paper can be extended to single-blind, cross-over, or multi-arm RCTs. We propose the concept of two different levels of blinding: full blinding and partial blinding. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24518654193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462539PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Membrane fusogenic lysine type lipid assemblies possess enhanced NLRP3 inflammasome activation potency.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2019 Jul 12;18:100623. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

Lysine (K) type cationic lipid with a propyl spacer and ditetradecyl hydrophobic moieties composing liposomes, K3C14, previously studied for gene delivery, were reported to activate the NLRP3 inflammasomes in human macrophages via the conventional phagolysosomal pathway. In this study, K3C16, a propyl spacer bearing lysine type lipids with dihexadecyl moieties (an extension of two hydrocarbon tail length) were compared with K3C14 as liposomes. Such a small change in tail length did not alter the physical properties such as size distribution, zeta potential and polydispersity index (PDI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2019.100623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462779PMC

Data on THMs concentration and spatial trend in water distribution network (a preliminary study in center of Iran).

MethodsX 2019 3;6:760-763. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Student Research Committee, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

The Trihalomethanes (THMs) formed due to a reaction between water disinfection chlorine and some natural organic matters, as chlorinated by products. The aim of this study was determination of THMs values and spatial trend in Yazd city water distribution network, in center of Iran. Sampling of tap water was done in two autumn and winter seasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.03.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462497PMC

Medical waste generation and management in medical clinics in South of Iran.

MethodsX 2019 3;6:727-733. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Medical wastes account for around 1-2% of urban wastes, which are very important in terms of health. In this regard, they are very important and can jeopardize human health. The aim of this study was to determine the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the wastes in medical clinics in the south of Iran and in order to present suitable management solutions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.03.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461567PMC

Significance of Complement System in Ischemic Stroke: A Comprehensive Review.

Aging Dis 2019 Apr 1;10(2):429-462. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The complement system is an essential part of innate immunity, typically conferring protection via eliminating pathogens and accumulating debris. However, the defensive function of the complement system can exacerbate immune, inflammatory, and degenerative responses in various pathological conditions. Cumulative evidence indicates that the complement system plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury, as the depletion of certain complement components or the inhibition of complement activation could reduce ischemic brain injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2019.0119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457046PMC

Redefining Chronic Inflammation in Aging and Age-Related Diseases: Proposal of the Senoinflammation Concept.

Aging Dis 2019 Apr 1;10(2):367-382. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

8Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

Age-associated chronic inflammation is characterized by unresolved and uncontrolled inflammation with multivariable low-grade, chronic and systemic responses that exacerbate the aging process and age-related chronic diseases. Currently, there are two major hypotheses related to the involvement of chronic inflammation in the aging process: molecular inflammation of aging and inflammaging. However, neither of these hypotheses satisfactorily addresses age-related chronic inflammation, considering the recent advances that have been made in inflammation research. Read More

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http://www.aginganddisease.org/EN/10.14336/AD.2018.0324
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2018.0324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457053PMC
April 2019
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Influence of Environment and Lifestyle on Incidence and Progress of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in A German ALS Population.

Aging Dis 2019 Apr 1;10(2):205-216. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

1Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Germany.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease mainly affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Pathogenesis of ALS is still unclear, and a multifactorial etiology is presumed. The remarkable clinical heterogeneity between different phenotypes of ALS patients suggests that environmental and lifestyle factors could play a role in onset and progression of ALS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2018.0327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457054PMC

Sustained release of targeted cardiac therapy with a replenishable implanted epicardial reservoir.

Nat Biomed Eng 2018 Jun 11;2(6):416-428. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The clinical translation of regenerative therapy for the diseased heart, whether in the form of cells, macromolecules or small molecules, is hampered by several factors: the poor retention and short biological half-life of the therapeutic agent, the adverse side effects from systemic delivery, and difficulties with the administration of multiple doses. Here, we report the development and application of a therapeutic epicardial device that enables sustained and repeated administration of small molecules, macromolecules and cells directly to the epicardium via a polymer-based reservoir connected to a subcutaneous port. In a myocardial infarct rodent model, we show that repeated administration of cells over a four-week period using the epicardial reservoir provided functional benefits in ejection fraction, fractional shortening and stroke work, compared to a single injection of cells and to no treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-018-0247-5DOI Listing

Biomanufacturing for clinically advanced cell therapies.

Nat Biomed Eng 2018 Jun 11;2(6):362-376. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

The achievements of cell-based therapeutics have galvanized efforts to bring cell therapies to the market. To address the demands of the clinical and eventual commercial-scale production of cells, and with the increasing generation of large clinical datasets from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy, from transplants of engineered haematopoietic stem cells and from other promising cell therapies, an emphasis on biomanufacturing requirements becomes necessary. Robust infrastructure should address current limitations in cell harvesting, expansion, manipulation, purification, preservation and formulation, ultimately leading to successful therapy administration to patients at an acceptable cost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-018-0246-6DOI Listing

U2AF1 mutations induce oncogenic IRAK4 isoforms and activate innate immune pathways in myeloid malignancies.

Nat Cell Biol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Spliceosome mutations are common in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), but the oncogenic changes due to these mutations have not been identified. Here a global analysis of exon usage in AML samples revealed distinct molecular subsets containing alternative spliced isoforms of inflammatory and immune genes. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) was the dominant alternatively spliced isoform in MDS and AML and is characterized by a longer isoform that retains exon 4, which encodes IRAK4-long (IRAK4-L), a protein that assembles with the myddosome, results in maximal activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of B cells (NF-κB) and is essential for leukaemic cell function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-019-0314-5DOI Listing

Molecular architecture, polar targeting and biogenesis of the Legionella Dot/Icm T4SS.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates inside host cells by secreting ~300 effectors through the defective in organelle trafficking (Dot)/intracellular multiplication (Icm) type IVB secretion system (T4BSS). Here, we used complementary electron cryotomography and immunofluorescence microscopy to investigate the molecular architecture and biogenesis of the Dot/Icm secretion apparatus. Electron cryotomography mapped the location of the core and accessory components of the Legionella core transmembrane subcomplex, revealing a well-ordered central channel that opens into a large, windowed secretion chamber with an unusual 13-fold symmetry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0427-4DOI Listing

Postural Strategy in Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young People during Local Vibratory Stimulation for Proprioceptive Inputs.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Dec 19;3(4). Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan.

Proprioceptive input may greatly affect postural stability. However, the proprioceptive postural strategy in elderly, middle-aged, and young people has not been investigated sufficiently. Hence, in this study, we aimed to investigate differences in proprioceptive postural strategies of elderly, middle-aged, and young people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040093DOI Listing
December 2018

Economic Potential for Distributed Manufacturing of Adaptive Aids for Arthritis Patients in the U.S.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Dec 6;3(4). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA.

By 2040, more than a quarter of the U.S. population will have diagnosed arthritic conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3040089DOI Listing
December 2018

Altered Functional Brain Connectivity in Mild Cognitive Impairment during a Cognitively Complex Car Following Task.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2018 Apr 19;3(2). Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Neuroscience Research Program, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON M5B 1T8, Canada.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can affect multiple cognitive abilities, leading to difficulty in performing complex, cognitively demanding daily tasks, such as driving. This study combined driving simulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain function in individuals with MCI while they performed a car-following task. The behavioral driving performance of 24 patients with MCI and 20 healthy age-matched controls was compared during a simulated car-following task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3020020DOI Listing

Genetic Regulation of enoyl-CoA hydratase Domain-Containing 3 in Adipose Tissue Determines Insulin Sensitivity in African Americans and Europeans.

Diabetes 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157

Insulin resistance (IR) is a harbinger of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and partly determined by genetic factors. However, genetically-regulated mechanisms of IR remain poorly understood. Using gene expression, genotype, and insulin sensitivity data from an African American cohort (AAGMEx), we performed transcript-wide correlation and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses to identify IR-correlated -regulated transcripts (-eGenes) in adipose tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db18-1229DOI Listing

Circulating heparin oligosaccharides rapidly target the hippocampus in sepsis, potentially impacting cognitive functions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180;

Sepsis induces heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx, a heparan sulfate-enriched endovascular layer critical to vascular homeostasis, releasing highly sulfated domains of heparan sulfate into the circulation. These domains are oligosaccharides rich in heparin-like trisulfated disaccharide repeating units. Using a chemoenzymatic approach, an undecasaccharide containing a uniformly C-labeled internal 2-sulfoiduronic acid residue was synthesized on a -nitrophenylglucuronide acceptor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1902227116DOI Listing

Tetraspanin CD82 Organizes Dectin-1 into Signaling Domains to Mediate Cellular Responses to .

J Immunol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114;

Tetraspanins are a family of proteins possessing four transmembrane domains that help in lateral organization of plasma membrane proteins. These proteins interact with each other as well as other receptors and signaling proteins, resulting in functional complexes called "tetraspanin microdomains." Tetraspanins, including CD82, play an essential role in the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801384DOI Listing

Breast Cancer Subtype Classification Using 4-Plex Droplet Digital PCR.

Clin Chem 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Central Laboratory, Shenzhen Nanshan People's Hospital and the 6th Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Background: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDCA) is the most common form of invasive breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is widely used to analyze estrogen receptor 1 (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) that can help classify the tumor to guide the medical treatment. IHC examinations require experienced pathologists to provide interpretations that are subjective, thereby lowering the reproducibility of IHC-based diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2019.302315DOI Listing

Microscopic heat pulses activate cardiac thin filaments.

J Gen Physiol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan

During the excitation-contraction coupling of the heart, sarcomeres are activated via thin filament structural changes (i.e., from the "off" state to the "on" state) in response to a release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201812243DOI Listing

Fibroblast and keratinocyte crosstalk: the effect of a poly(tri[ethylene glycol] ethyl ether methacrylate) thermoresponsive surface on short-term co-culture.

Eur J Dermatol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Katowice, Medyków 18 str, Bldg. C-1, 40-752 Katowice,, Centre for Burn Treatment in Siemianowice Śląskie, Siemianowice Śląskie Jana Pawla II.

The treatment of difficult-to-treat wounds can be challenging. Although a number of approaches have been investigated, the healing process may be slow and unsatisfactory. An alternative approach is the use of a continuous sheet of skin cells applied over a wound which may improve cell implantation and patient recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2019.3561DOI Listing
April 2019
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Biological Benefits of Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Radiotherapy: Sleeping Beauty Awoken.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

FLASH radiotherapy (FLASH-RT) is a technology that could modify the way radiotherapy is delivered in the future. This technique involves the ultra-fast delivery of radiotherapy at dose rates several orders of magnitude higher than those currently used in routine clinical practice. This very short time of exposure leads to the striking observation of relative protection of normal tissues that are exposed to FLASH-RT as compared with conventional dose rate radiotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Crystal structure of phyllogen, a phyllody-inducing effector protein of phytoplasma.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan.

Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that often induce unique phyllody symptoms in which the floral organs are transformed into leaf-like structures. Recently, a novel family of bacterial effector genes, called phyllody-inducing genes (phyllogens), was identified as being involved in the induction of phyllody by degrading floral MADS-domain transcription factors (MTFs). However, the structural characteristics of phyllogens are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.04.060DOI Listing

Twente Spine Model: A thorough investigation of the spinal loads in a complete and coherent musculoskeletal model of the human spine.

Med Eng Phys 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Biomechanical Engineering, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, AE Enschede 7500, the Netherlands.

Although in vivospinal loads have been previously measured, existing data are limited to certain lumbar and thoracic levels. A detailed investigation of spinal loads would assist with injury prevention and implant design but is unavailable. In this study, we developed a complete and coherent musculoskeletal model of the entire human spine and studied the intervertebral disc compression forces for physiological movements on three anatomical planes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2019.03.015DOI Listing

MRI Monitoring and Quantification of Ultrasound-Mediated Delivery of Liposomes Dually Labeled with Gadolinium and Fluorophore through the Blood-Brain Barrier.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Magnetic resonance image-guided focused ultrasound has emerged as a viable non-invasive technique for the treatment of central nervous system-related diseases/disorders. Application of mechanical and thermal effects associated with focused transcranial ultrasound has been studied extensively in pre-clinical models, which has paved the way for clinical trials. However, in vivo treatment evaluation techniques on drug delivery application via blood-brain barrier opening has not been fully explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2019.02.024DOI Listing

Layer-specific arterial micromechanics and microstructure: Influences of age, anatomical location, and processing technique.

J Biomech 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Electronic address:

The importance of matrix micromechanics is increasingly recognized in cardiovascular research due to the intimate role they play in local vascular cell physiology. However, variations in micromechanics among arterial layers (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.03.026DOI Listing

The value of quantitative CT texture analysis in differentiation of angiomyolipoma without visible fat from clear cell renal cell carcinoma on four-phase contrast-enhanced CT images.

Clin Radiol 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Aim: To investigate the diagnostic performance and usefulness of texture analysis in differentiating angiomyolipoma (AML) without visible fat from clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) on four-phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT).

Materials And Methods: Seventeen patients with AML without visible fat and 50 patients with ccRCC of size ≤4.5 cm who had also undergone preoperative four-phase CECT were included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2019.02.018DOI Listing

Multifactorial analysis to examine drivers of CMS summary star ratings in home health agencies.

Home Health Care Serv Q 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

a College of Health Sciences , Central Michigan University , Mount Pleasant , USA.

This cross-sectional study examines factors associated with the CMS Summary Star Ratings in Home Health Agencies (HHA). Using Home Health Compare, medical claims, and census data, negative binomial regression analysis was conducted at the HHA level. Positive associations were found between Summary Star Ratings and beneficiary age, the number of claims, the proportion for specific diagnoses, the agency being hospital based, HHA age since establishment, patient retainment, improved walking/moving/bathing, and homeownership. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01621424.2019.1604459DOI Listing

Hair cortisol, perceived stress, and social support in mother-child dyads living in an urban neighborhood.

Stress 2019 Apr 23:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

a Department of Pediatrics , Connecticut Children's Medical Center , Hartford , CT , USA.

Women and children belonging to a racial/ethnic minority bear a disproportionate burden of psychosocial stress that increases their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. Hair cortisol has been rapidly advanced as a biomarker of the intensity and course of the stress response over time and may provide an opportunity to increase our understanding of the role of psychological stress in health. However, research on the link between hair cortisol levels and subjective measures of maternal and child stress among low-income and minority individuals is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10253890.2019.1604667DOI Listing