116,277 results match your criteria Mediators of Inflammation [Journal]


3‑Bromo‑5‑(ethoxymethyl)‑1,2‑benzenediol inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by preventing ROS production and downregulating NF-κB in vitro and in a zebrafish model.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 8;67:98-105. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Chuncheon Center, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The anti-inflammatory effects of 3‑bromo‑5‑(ethoxymethyl)‑1,2‑benzenediol (BEMB) from Polysiphonia morrowii were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish embryo. BEMB showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the LPS-activated RAW264. Read More

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December 2018

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor: Current knowledge and future perspectives.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The immunosuppressive features of tumor lesions participate not only as one of the major players inducing cancer progression but also a big challenge for effective immunotherapy. It has been found that immunosuppression associated with chronic inflammatory factors, such as growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines is generated by stroma and tumor cells. Chronic and exhaustive secretion of these mediators triggers the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) demonstrating one of the key players engaged in tumor immunosuppression. Read More

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December 2018
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Perilipin-2 promotes obesity and progressive fatty liver disease in mice through mechanistically distinct hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte actions.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Graduate Program in Integrated Physiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

Key Points: Wild type mice as well as mice with hepatocyte-specific or whole-body deletions of perilipin-2 (Plin2) were used to define hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte effects of altered cellular lipid storage on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology in a western-diet (WD) model of these disorders. Extra-hepatocyte actions of Plin2 are responsible for obesity, adipose inflammation, and glucose clearance abnormalities in WD-fed mice. Hepatocyte and extra-hepatic actions of Plin2 mediate fatty liver formation in WD-fed mice through distinct mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Fibroblast-specific integrin alpha V differentially regulates type 17 and type 2 driven inflammation and fibrosis.

J Pathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Fibroproliferative diseases affect a significant proportion of the world's population. Despite this, core mechanisms driving organ fibrosis of diverse etiologies remain ill defined. Recent studies suggest that integrin-alpha V serves as a master driver of fibrosis in multiple organs. Read More

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December 2018

Complement factor and T-cell interactions during alloimmune inflammation in transplantation.

J Leukoc Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Organ Transplant Research Section, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Complement factor and T-cell signaling during an effective alloimmune response plays a key role in transplant-associated injury, which leads to the progression of chronic rejection (CR). During an alloimmune response, activated complement factors (C3a and C5a) bind to their corresponding receptors (C3aR and C5aR) on a number of lymphocytes, including T-regulatory cells (Tregs), and these cell-molecular interactions have been vital to modulate an effective immune response to/from Th1-effector cell and Treg activities, which result in massive inflammation, microvascular impairments, and fibrotic remodeling. Involvement of the complement-mediated cell signaling during transplantation signifies a crucial role of complement components as a key therapeutic switch to regulate ongoing inflammatory state, and further to avoid the progression of CR of the transplanted organ. Read More

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December 2018

Dendrimer functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as a promising platform for localized hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Hematology and Cell Therapy Department, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are a well-explored class of nanomaterials known for their high magnetization and biocompatibility. They have been used in various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, biosensors, hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. It is necessary to surface modify the nanoparticles with a biocompatible moiety to prevent their agglomeration and enable them to target to the defined area. Read More

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December 2018

EP and EP receptor antagonists: Impact on cytokine production and β -adrenergic receptor desensitization in human airway smooth muscle.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Woolcock Emphysema Centre, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Prostaglandin E (PGE ) is a key prostanoid known to have both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory impact in the context of chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesize that these opposing effects may be the result of different prostanoid E (EP) receptor-mediated signaling pathways. In this study, we focus on two of the four EP receptors, EP and EP , as they are known to induce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Read More

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December 2018

Oral health-related quality of life in patients with disorders of nutrition.

J Oral Rehabil 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Community Dentistry, Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: Researchers demonstrated a correlation between nutrition and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Little is known about the correlation between disorders of nutrition (DON) and Oral HRQoL (OHRQoL).

Objectives: 1) to measure OHRQoL in DON patients compared to patients attending nutritional counseling for other reasons (e. Read More

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December 2018

Applying the handicap principle to biofilms: condition-dependent signaling in Bacillus subtilis microbial communities.

Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Bacteria in nature often reside in differentiated communities termed biofilms. These communities, which are composed of a number of functionally distinct cell types, are an interesting example of division of labor in microbes, and as such have been used as a system to study the evolution of cooperation. The structured population of the biofilm also plays a critical role in the persistence of infections, and biofouling of medical and industrial devices. Read More

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December 2018

Inflammasomes in Bone Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:269-279

Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Unresolved inflammation is harmful to any tissues in the organism. Bone in particular is vulnerable to inflammatory assaults because its integrity depends on the activity of osteoclasts, which arise from myeloid precursors. Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption in normal and disease conditions. Read More

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January 2018

Inflammasomes in CNS Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:41-60

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, chronic inflammasome activation can eventually result in cellular death and tissue damage, leading to the release of DAMPs that can reactivate the inflammasome, thereby propagating a vicious cycle of inflammation. Read More

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January 2018

Intrasubject repeatability of in vivo intervertebral motion parameters using quantitative fluoroscopy.

Eur Spine J 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK.

Purpose: In vivo quantification of intervertebral motion through imaging has progressed to a point where biomarkers for low back pain are emerging. This makes possible deeper study of the condition's biometrics. However, the measurement of change over time involves error. Read More

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December 2018
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Motivation as a mediator of the relation between cognitive reserve and cognitive performance.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES - Overcoming Vulnerability: Life Course Perspectives.

Objectives: Interindividual differences in cognitive aging may be explained by differences in cognitive reserve (CR) that are built-up across the lifespan. A plausible but under-researched mechanism for these differences is that CR helps compensating cognitive decline by enhancing motivation to cope with challenging cognitive situations. Theories of motivation on cognition suggest that perceived capacity and intrinsic motivation may be key mediators in this respect. Read More

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December 2018

Lack of the pH-sensing Receptor TDAG8 [GPR65] in Macrophages Plays a Detrimental Role in Murine Models of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zürich, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Tissue inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD] is associated with local acidification. Genetic variants in the pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptor 65, also known as T cell death-associated gene 8 [TDAG8], have been implicated in IBD and other autoimmune diseases. Since the role of TDAG8 in intestinal inflammation remains unclear, we investigated the function of TDAG8 using murine colitis models. Read More

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October 2018
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Mesenchymal stromal cells derived exosomes as tools for chronic wound healing therapy.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):655-662

Laboratory of Mesenchymal Stromal Progenitor Cells Therapy, Department of Regenerative Medicine, "Nicolae Simionescu" Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology, Bucharest, Romania;

In modern society, the healing of chronic wounds is still a major cause of discomfort for the patients and a financial burden for the care system. Current approaches use either organic tissue-engineered skin substitutes or stem cells based therapy. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to improve the wound healing process by secreting factors with anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and pro-angiogenic activities either as soluble molecules (growth factors, cytokines) or encapsulated within membrane vesicles (microparticles, exosomes). Read More

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January 2018

Aluminum Ingestion Promotes Colorectal Hypersensitivity in Rodents.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 20;7(1):185-196. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Université Lille, INSERM, CHR Lille, Lille Inflammation Research International Center, U995, Lille, France.

Background & Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disease arising from a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and environmental influences. To date, environmental triggers are not well known. Aluminum is commonly present in food, notably by its use as food additive. Read More

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September 2018

Eosinophil Extracellular Traps and Inflammatory Pathologies-Untangling the Web!

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2763. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

Eosinophils are an enigmatic white blood cell, whose immune functions are still under intense investigation. Classically, the eosinophil was considered to fulfill a protective role against parasitic infections, primarily large multicellular helminths. Although eosinophils are predominantly associated with parasite infections, evidence of a role for eosinophils in mediating immunity against bacterial, viral, and fungal infections has been recently reported. Read More

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November 2018

Non-redundant Functions of IL-6 Produced by Macrophages and Dendritic Cells in Allergic Airway Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2718. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Asthma is a common inflammatory disease of the airway caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and characterized by airflow obstruction, wheezing, eosinophilia, and neutrophilia of lungs and sputum. Similar to other proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 is elevated in asthma and plays an active role in this disease. However, the exact molecular mechanism of IL-6 involvement in the pathogenesis of asthma remains largely unknown and the major cellular source of pathogenic IL-6 has not been defined. Read More

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November 2018

IL-17 in Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Inflammation and Angiogenesis: Conclusions and Perspectives.

Front Physiol 2018 26;9:1694. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medicine I, Nephrology, Transplantation, Medical Intensive Care, University of Witten/Herdecke, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center, Cologne, Germany.

Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) is associated with peritoneal membrane remodeling. This includes changes in peritoneal vasculature, which may ultimately lead to inadequate solute and water removal and treatment failure. The potential cause of such alterations is chronic inflammation induced by repeated episodes of infectious peritonitis and/or exposure to bioincompatible PD fluids. Read More

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November 2018

(Re) Solving Repair After Myocardial Infarction.

Front Pharmacol 2018 26;9:1342. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention (IPEK), University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and its complications such as heart failure, are the leading cause of death worldwide. To date, basic and translational research becomes necessary to unravel the mechanisms of cardiac repair post-myocardial infarction. The local inflammatory tissue response after acute myocardial infarction determines the subsequent healing process. Read More

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November 2018

Contribution of Neurons and Glial Cells to Complement-Mediated Synapse Removal during Development, Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mediators Inflamm 2018 11;2018:2530414. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, CIBERNED and Departamento de Neurociencias de la Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa, Spain.

Synapse loss is an early manifestation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is currently the best correlate to cognitive decline. Microglial cells are involved in synapse pruning during development via the complement pathway. Moreover, recent evidence points towards a key role played by glial cells in synapse loss during AD. Read More

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November 2018

(Gaertn.) Roxb. Extract and Gallic Acid Attenuate LPS-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress via MAPK/NF-B and Akt/AMPK/Nrf2 Pathways.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 8;2018:9364364. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan.

Excessive oxidative stress plays a critical role in the progression of various diseases. Recently, we showed that (Gaertn.) Roxb. Read More

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November 2018

Divergent Innate and Epithelial Functions of the RNA-Binding Protein HuR in Intestinal Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2018 23;9:2732. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Division of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center Alexander Fleming, Vari, Greece.

HuR is an abundant RNA-binding protein acting as a post-transcriptional regulator of many RNAs including mRNAs encoding inflammatory mediators, cytokines, death signalers and cell cycle regulators. In the context of intestinal pathologies, elevated HuR is considered to enhance the stability and the translation of pro-tumorigenic mRNAs providing the rationale for its pharmacological targeting. However, HuR also possesses specific regulatory functions for innate immunity and cytokine mRNA control which can oppose intestinal inflammation and tumor promotion. Read More

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November 2018

Therapeutic Potential of Extracellular Vesicles for Demyelinating Diseases; Challenges and Opportunities.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 23;11:434. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, San Sebastian, Spain.

Multiple Sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system for which no remyelination therapy is available and alternative strategies are being tested. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as players in physiological and pathological processes and are being proposed as therapeutic targets and mediators. More concretely, EVs have shown to be involved in myelination related processes such as axon-oligodendrocyte communication or oligodendrocyte precursor cell migration. Read More

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November 2018

RIG-I Signaling via MAVS Is Dispensable for Survival in Lethal Influenza Infection .

Mediators Inflamm 2018 8;2018:6808934. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. It requires interaction with an adaptor molecule, mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), to activate downstream signaling pathways. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which RIG-I-dependent recognition of IAV infection triggers innate immune responses, we infected mutant mice lacking RIG-I or MAVS with influenza A virus (IAV) and measured their innate immune responses. Read More

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November 2018
3.236 Impact Factor

Role of Physical Activity in Parkinson's Disease.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):242-249

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is common, age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder caused by a severe loss of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Given the projected increase in the number of people with PD over the coming decades, interventions aimed at minimizing morbidity and improve quality of life are crucial. There is currently no fully proven pharmacological therapy that can modify or slow the disease progression. Read More

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December 2018

[Los niveles de mediadores prorresolutivos no corresponden con los de mediadores inflamatorios en enfermedades isquémicas coronarias].

Gac Med Mex 2018 ;154(Supp 2):S9-S14

Departmento de Inmunología, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Ciudad de México, México.

Background: Inflammation can be grouped into three phases: proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and resolution. The latter, mainly attributed to lipid mediators, is the most recently described, and has been studied little in coronary ischemic diseases.

Objective: To evaluate 1) if acute coronary syndromes (ACS) manifest different circulating levels of resolution mediators compared with stable angina (SA); 2) if their concentrations are related to those of pro and anti-inflammatory mediators; and 3) if such concentrations are associated with the severity of the disease and the damage produced. Read More

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January 2018

The acute pulmonary toxicity in mice induced by Staphylococcus aureus, particulate matter, and their combination.

Exp Anim 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Energy and Environment Engineering, Zhongyuan University of Technology.

Inhalation of pathogenic bacteria transported by particulate matter (PM) presents an important potential threat to human health. Therefore, the pulmonary toxicity in mice caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and PM as individual matter and mixtures was studied. Read More

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December 2018

An adapted anti-CTLA4 therapeutic aimed at mitigating the toxicities of checkpoint inhibition.

J Clin Invest 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Antibodies that target immune checkpoint molecules, such as CTLA4, provide robust antitumor effects in a subset of patients. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to immune checkpoint inhibition, and some develop life-threatening immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The mechanisms that underlie irAEs from immune checkpoint inhibition are not fully understood, and treatment strategies are currently limited to targeting inflammatory mediators. Read More

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December 2018

A functional variant of enhances macrophage recruitment and inflammatory response via TGF-β signal activation in Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.

Aging (Albany NY) 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital and Institute for Cardiovascular Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is the most fatal macro vascular disease. The mortality of 48h after diagnosis of dissection is up to approximately 50-68%. However, the genetic factors and potential mechanism underlying sporadic TAAD remain largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018

A serum-induced transcriptome and serum cytokine signature obtained at diagnosis correlates with the development of early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma metastasis.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

pediatrics/hematology/oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin

Background: Despite the accessibility of blood, identification of systemic biomarkers associated with cancer progression has been challenging. The aim of this study was to determine a difference in baseline serum immune signatures in patients that experienced early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) metastasis with patients that did not. We hypothesized that immune mediators would differ in the baseline serum of these patient cohorts. Read More

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December 2018

Lithium-containing biomaterials stimulate bone marrow stromal cell-derived exosomal miR-130a secretion to promote angiogenesis.

Biomaterials 2018 Nov 8;192:523-536. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Orthodontics, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Collage of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China. Electronic address:

The chemical signals of biomaterials could influence bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)-endothelial cells (ECs) communication during vascularized bone regeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain unknown. Exosomes, a series of extracellular vesicles, have recently emerged as potential paracrine mediators in cell-cell communication. Read More

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November 2018

A randomized controlled trial comparing a "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach to cognitive training in schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 1;109:118-125. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The development of effective cognitive training (CT) interventions is critical for improving the daily lives of people with schizophrenia. At this point, it is unclear whether a so-called "bottom-up" or "top-down" CT approach is more beneficial for inducing cognitive gains and generalization in this population. The aims of this randomized controlled trial were to: 1) Compare the effects of these two types of training approaches on performance-based (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, MCCB) and neurophysiological (mismatch negativity, MMN) measures of cognition, and 2) Evaluate MMN as a potential predictor of treatment response. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive processes mediate the effects of insomnia treatment: evidence from a randomized wait-list controlled trial.

Sleep Med 2018 Oct 29;54:86-93. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Both guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) are effective in improving insomnia symptoms and sleep efficiency. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms generating this effect. The present study tests the assumption that pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related worry and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep are mediators in the effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia. Read More

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October 2018

Structural Basis of Interleukin-5 Inhibition by the Small Cyclic Peptide AF17121.

J Mol Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Molecular Plant Physiology and Biophysics, Julius-von-Sachs Institute of the University Wuerzburg, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 2, D-97082, Wuerzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a T2 cytokine involved in many aspects of eosinophil life. Eosinophilic granulocytes play a pathogenic role in the progression of atopic diseases, such as allergy, asthma and atopic dermatitis and hypereosinophilic syndromes. Here, eosinophils upon activation degranulate leading to the release of proinflammatory proteins and mediators stored in intracellular vesicles termed granula thereby causing local inflammation, which when persisting leads to tissue damage and organ failure. Read More

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December 2018

Progression in migraine: role of mast cells and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UOS Clinica dei Pazienti del Territorio, Policlinico Gemelli, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Migraine is a common painful neurovascular disorder usually associated with several symptoms, such as photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, vomiting and inflammation, and involves immune cells. Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells derived from hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells which migrate and mature close to epithelial, blood vessels, and nerves. In almost all vascularized tissues there are MCs that produce, contain and release biologically active products including cytokines, arachidonic acid compounds, and proteases. Read More

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December 2018

Engineering Lymphocytes with RNAi.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of Precision NanoMedicine, School of Molecular Cell Biology and Biotechnology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Cancer Biology Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Lymphocytes are the gatekeepers of the body's immune system and are involved in pathogenesis if their surveillance is stalled by inhibitory molecules or when they act as mediators for viral entry. Engineering lymphocytes in order to restore their functions is an unmet need in immunological disorders, cancer and in lymphotropic viral infections. Recently, the FDA approved several therapeutic antibodies for blocking inhibitory signals on T cells. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-arthritic effect of pentosan polysulfate in rats with collagen-induced arthritis.

Res Vet Sci 2018 Dec 1;122:179-185. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is currently under investigation as a potential disease-modifying antiarthritic agent. In the present study the effects of PPS on arthritic profiles based on clinical score, ankle size, histological changes, and activity of inflammatory mediators using collagen-induced arthritic rat are reported. Model of arthritis was developed in Sprague Dawley rats by intradermal injection of bovine type II collagen emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Read More

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December 2018

Periodontitis and mechanisms of cardiometabolic risk: Novel insights and future perspectives.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, University of Palermo, Italy.

Periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues caused by the accumulation of subgingival plaque and the action of specific periodontopathogenic bacteria. Periodontitis has been associated with cardiovascular diseases and considered a cardiovascular risk factor. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association, such as the infection of atherosclerotic plaques by periodontal pathogens, the pro-atherogenic effect on the lipid profile, the systemic dissemination of pro-inflammatory mediators or the contribution to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read More

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December 2018
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Nuclear RXRα and RXRβ receptors exert distinct and opposite effects on RA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centro de Estudos em Estresse Oxidativo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2600 - Anexo, Porto Alegre, RS CEP 90035-003, Brazil.

Retinoic acid (RA) promotes differentiation in multiple neurogenic cell types by promoting gene reprogramming through retinoid receptors and also by inducing cytosolic signaling events. The nuclear RXR receptors are one of the main mediators of RA cellular effects, classically by joining the direct receptors of RA, the nuclear RAR receptors, in RAR/RXR dimers which act as transcription factors. Distinct RXR genes lead to RXRα, RXRβ and RXRγ subtypes, but their specific roles in neuronal differentiation remain unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Promising neuroprotective effects of β-caryophyllene against LPS-induced oligodendrocyte toxicity: A mechanistic study.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Student Research Committee, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Myelin loss subsequent to oligodendrocyte death has been reported in a variety of myelin-associated disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to elicit cellular responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and trigger immune infiltrates and glial cells to release a variety of inflammatory cytokines and mediators. LPS-induced oligodendrocytes toxicity may be chosen as an efficient model to evaluate the role of oligodendrocytes in neuroprotective activities of compounds. Read More

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December 2018

Diadzein ameliorates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in rodents.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly prescribed anti-cancer agent however, its use is associated with several debilitating adverse effects such as intestinal mucositis (IM) and myelosuppression. Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors in the development of mucositis. Diadzein is known for its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities from decades. Read More

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December 2018

VIP modulates the ALX/FPR2 receptor axis toward inflammation resolution in a mouse model of bacterial keratitis.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2018 Dec 4;140:18-25. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual & Anatomical Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, United States. Electronic address:

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been shown to regulate corneal inflammation. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) is a transmembrane protein belonging to the GPCR family. Ligands include pro-resolving lipids, lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and resolvin D1 (RvD1). Read More

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December 2018

Oxidative and inflammatory mediators are upregulated in neutrophils of autistic children: Role of IL-17A receptor signaling.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by repetitive behaviors, impaired social communication and stereotyped interests, and often associated with dysregulations in innate/adaptive immune cells. IL-17A has been linked with abnormal behavioral patterns observed in autistic children and animal models of autism. However, it is yet to be investigated if IL-17A and its receptors are implicated in regulation of oxidative and inflammatory mediators in neutrophils of ASD patients. Read More

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December 2018

Bradykinin interleukin-1β synergistically increase the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, through the RNA-binding protein HuR in rat dorsal root ganglion cells.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Hiroshima, JAPAN. Electronic address:

Synergistic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and bradykinin (BK) in peri-sensory neurons results in the production of prostanoids, which affects sensory neuronal activity and responsiveness and causes hyperalgesia. To evaluate the effects of pro-inflammatory mediators on COX-2 expression, cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells were treated with IL-1β and BK, which caused persistent increased COX-2 expression. Co-treatment increased COX-2 transcriptional activities in an additive manner by a COX-2 promoter luciferase assay. Read More

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December 2018

Dynamic differences in dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in sputum of COPD patients and controls.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Center for Proteomics and Metabolomics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Disturbances in onset and resolution of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are incompletely understood. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be converted into lipid mediators here collectively named oxylipins. These include classical eicosanoids, but also pro-resolving mediators. Read More

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December 2018

Plasma Proteome Profiling Reveals Dynamics of Inflammatory and Lipid Homeostasis Markers after Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery.

Cell Syst 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, NNF Center for Protein Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address:

Obesity-related diseases affect half of the global population, and bariatric surgery is one of the few interventions with long-lasting weight loss and cardio-metabolic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on the plasma proteome, hypothesizing that specific proteins or protein patterns may serve as key mediators and markers of the metabolic response. We performed mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics on two longitudinal studies encompassing 47 morbidly obese patients, generating quantitative information on more than 1,700 proteins. Read More

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November 2018

Role of oxidative stress, angiogenesis and chemo-attractant cytokines in the pathogenesis of ischaemic protection induced by remote ischaemic conditioning: Study of a human model of ischaemia-reperfusion induced vascular injury.

Pathophysiology 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Belgium. Electronic address:

Aims: We explored the effect of remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) on endothelial function and on circulating mediators.

Methods And Results: In 20 healthy male volunteers (mean age 31 ± 10 years), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after 20 min of arm ischaemia, followed by reperfusion. Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) was performed by applying 3 cycles of 5 min of ischaemia of the leg at the onset of index arm ischaemia. Read More

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November 2018

Non-duplex G-Quadruplex Structures Emerge as Mediators of Epigenetic Modifications.

Trends Genet 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Genomics and Molecular Medicine Unit, CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110025, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110025, India; GNR Knowledge Centre for Genome Informatics, CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110025, India. Electronic address:

The role of non-duplex DNA, the guanine-quadruplex structure in particular, is becoming widely appreciated. Increasing evidence in the last decade implicates quadruplexes in important processes such as transcription and replication. Interestingly, more recent work suggests roles for quadruplexes, in association with quadruplex-interacting proteins, in epigenetics through both DNA and histone modifications. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of regulatory T cells on tolerance to airborne allergens and allergen immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Dec;142(6):1697-1709

Institute for Immunology, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

Forkhead box P3-positive regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential mediators of tolerance against self-antigens and harmless exogenous antigens. Treg cell deficiencies result in multiple autoimmune and allergic syndromes in neonates. How Treg cells affect conventional allergies against aeroantigens, which are restricted to a few specific proteins released from inhaled particles, remains controversial. Read More

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December 2018