J Theor Biol 2020 06 19;495:110251. Epub 2020 Mar 19.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 1H9 AB, Canada.
Muscle is typically modelled using a lump sum idealization, scaling a single fascicle to represent the entire muscle. However, fascicles within a muscle have unique orientations, which could result in forces exerted not only in the axis running along the tendon, but also the two perpendicular axes, describing the muscle's width and depth. The purpose of this research was to develop a geometric-based model of the soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and lateral gastrocnemius as distributed force systems which can predict three-dimensional forces. Read More