258 results match your criteria Medial Gastrocnemius Strain


Differences in the strain applied to Achilles tendon fibers when the subtalar joint is overpronated: a simulation study.

Surg Radiol Anat 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Anatomy, School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata, Japan.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the strain applied to each of the tendon fiber bundles of the medial head of the gastrocnemius (MG), the lateral head of the gastrocnemius (LG), and the soleus muscle (Sol) that compose the Achilles tendon (AT) when the subtalar joint is pronated and supinated.

Methods: Three AT twist types (least, moderate, extreme) were investigated. Using the MicroScribe system, the AT and the talocrural and subtalar joints were digitized to reconstruct three-dimensional models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-019-02181-3DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Dynamic stretching is not detrimental to neuromechanical and sensorimotor performance of ankle plantarflexors.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019 Feb 8;29(2):200-212. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Centre for Human Performance, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, UK.

The acute effects of two dynamic stretching (DS) protocols on changes in the ankle range of motion (RoM), neuromechanical, and sensorimotor properties of the plantarflexor muscle group were examined. Eighteen participants received slow (SDS) or fast dynamic stretching (FDS) on two separate days. Outcome measures were assessed pre- and 2 minutes post-interventions, and included maximum dorsiflexion angle, maximum isometric torque at neutral ankle position, maximum concentric and eccentric torques, force matching capacity, joint position sense and medial gastrocnemius muscle and tendon strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13321DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Leg blood flow and skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion responses to submaximal exercise in peripheral arterial disease.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2018 Nov 10;315(5):H1425-H1433. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

VasoActive Research Group, School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, Australia.

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by stenosis and occlusion of the lower limb arteries. Although leg blood flow is limited in PAD, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion is affected. We compared whole leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion after cuff occlusion and submaximal leg exercise between patients with PAD ( n = 12, 69 ± 9 yr) and healthy age-matched control participants ( n = 12, 68 ± 7 yr). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00232.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Elasticity of the pronator teres muscle in youth baseball players with elbow injuries: evaluation using ultrasound strain elastography.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Sep 22;27(9):1642-1649. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan.

Background: Although the pronator teres muscle, a major dynamic stabilizer of elbow valgus stress during throwing, frequently presents stiffness, its relationship with elbow injuries in youth baseball players is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between the elasticity of the pronator teres muscle and elbow injuries in youth baseball players.

Methods: The strain ratio (SR) of 15 individuals with osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum (OCD group), 67 individuals with medial epicondylar fragmentation (medial injury group), and 115 healthy individuals (control group) was measured as the index of the elasticity of the pronator teres muscle using ultrasound strain elastography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2018.05.021DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Different Segments within Vertebrate Muscles Can Operate on Different Regions of Their Force-Length Relationships.

Integr Comp Biol 2018 08;58(2):219-231

Concord Field Station, MCZ, Harvard University, 100 Old Causeway Road, Bedford, MA 01730, USA.

To relate in vivo behavior of fascicle segments within a muscle to their in vitro force-length relationships, we examined the strain behavior of paired segments within each of three vertebrate muscles. After determining in vivo muscle activity patterns and length changes of in-series segments within the semimembranosus muscle (SM) in the American Toad (Bufo americanus) during hopping and within the sternohyoid (SH) muscle in the rat (Rattus rattus) during swallowing, and of spatially separated fascicles within the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in the rat during trotting, we measured their corresponding in vitro (toad) or in situ (rat) force-length relationships (FLRs). For all three muscles, in vivo strain heterogeneity lasted for about 36-57% of the behavior cycle, during which one segment or fascicle shortened while the other segment or fascicle simultaneously lengthened. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icy040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104704PMC
August 2018
2 Reads

Patellar tendon properties distinguish elite from non-elite soccer players and are related to peak horizontal but not vertical power.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2018 Aug 2;118(8):1737-1749. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK.

Purpose: To investigate potential differences in patellar tendon properties between elite and non-elite soccer players, and to establish whether tendon properties were related to power assessed during unilateral jumps performed in different directions.

Methods: Elite (n = 16; age 18.1 ± 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-3905-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060780PMC
August 2018
20 Reads

The repeated bout effect can occur without mechanical and neuromuscular changes after a bout of eccentric exercise.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018 Oct 7;28(10):2123-2134. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, Centre for Sensorimotor Performance, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Changes in muscle fascicle mechanics have been postulated to underpin the repeated bout effect (RBE) observed following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, in the medial gastrocnemius (MG), mixed evidence exists on whether fascicle stretch amplitude influences the level of EIMD, thus questioning whether changes in fascicle mechanics underpin the RBE. An alternative hypothesis is that neural adaptations contribute to the RBE in this muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13222DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Static Postural Stability in Chronic Ankle Instability, an Ankle Sprain and Healthy Ankles.

Authors:
Yong Ung Kwon

Int J Sports Med 2018 Jul 18;39(8):625-629. Epub 2018 May 18.

Youngstown State University Bitonte College of Health and Human Services, Kinesiology and Sport Science, Youngstown, United States.

To identify the single leg balance (SLB) test that discriminates among healthy, coper, and chronic ankle instability (CAI) groups and to determine effects of ankle muscles on the balance error scoring system (BESS) among the three populations. 60 subjects (20 per group) performed the SLB test with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Normalized mean amplitude (NMA) of the tibia anterior (TA), fibularis longus (FL), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles and BESS were measured while performing the SLB test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0608-4552DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Effects of an acute bout of dynamic stretching on biomechanical properties of the gastrocnemius muscle determined by shear wave elastography.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(5):e0196724. Epub 2018 May 3.

Centre for Human Performance, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.

Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of dynamic stretching (DS) exercise on passive ankle range of motion (RoM), resting localized muscle stiffness, as measured by shear wave speed (SWS) of medial gastrocnemius muscle, fascicle strain, and thickness.

Methods/results: Twenty-three participants performed a DS protocol. Before and after stretching, SWS was measured in the belly of the resting medial gastrocnemius muscle (MGM) using shear wave elastography. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196724PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933711PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Measurement of large strain properties in calf muscles in vivo using magnetic resonance elastography and spatial modulation of magnetization.

NMR Biomed 2018 10 19;31(10):e3925. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

It is important to measure the large deformation properties of skeletal muscle in vivo in order to understand and model movement and the force-producing capabilities of muscle. As muscle properties are non-linear, an understanding of how the deformation state affects the measured shear moduli is also useful for clinical applications of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to muscle disorders. MRE has so far only been used to measure the linear viscoelastic (small strain) properties of muscles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.3925DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Shear strain rate from phase contrast velocity encoded MRI: Application to study effects of aging in the medial gastrocnemius muscle.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Nov 1;48(5):1351-1357. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Muscle Imaging and Modeling Lab, Department of Radiology, UC San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Background: Strain rate (SR) is a measure of the rate of regional deformation that can be computed by analyzing velocity-encoded phase-contrast 2D images. Recent studies have explored the changes in normal components of the strain tensor in aging muscle, while shear strain may also provide valuable information.

Purpose: To compute the shear SR from velocity-encoded MRI of the lower leg and to study the correlation of SR parameters measured in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) to muscle force in a cohort of young and senior subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6167202PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Differences in in vivo muscle fascicle and tendinous tissue behavior between the ankle plantarflexors during running.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018 Jul 23;28(7):1828-1836. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

The primary human ankle plantarflexors, soleus (SO), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) are typically regarded as synergists and play a critical role in running. However, due to differences in muscle-tendon architecture and joint articulation, the muscle fascicles and tendinous tissue of the plantarflexors may exhibit differences in their behavior and interactions during running. We combined in vivo dynamic ultrasound measurements with inverse dynamics analyses to identify and explain differences in muscle fascicle, muscle-tendon unit, and tendinous tissue behavior of the primary ankle plantarflexors across a range of steady-state running speeds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13089DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Change in skeletal muscle stiffness after running competition is dependent on both running distance and recovery time: a pilot study.

PeerJ 2018 12;6:e4469. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, United States of America.

Long-distance running competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain leading to muscle edema and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Damage to various muscle fibers, metabolic impairments and fatigue have been linked to explain how DOMS impairs muscle function. Disruptions of muscle fiber during DOMS exacerbated by exercise have been shown to change muscle mechanical properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853607PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

Tracking of time-dependent changes in muscle hardness after a full marathon.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Department of Physical Therapy, Health Science University, Japan.

We sought to identify changes in individual muscle hardness after a full marathon and to track time-dependent changes using ultrasound strain elastography (SE). Twenty-one collegiate marathon runners were recruited. Muscle hardness (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002495DOI Listing
February 2018
3 Reads

Non-uniform displacement and strain between the soleus and gastrocnemius subtendons of rat Achilles tendon.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018 Mar 23;28(3):1009-1017. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Achilles tendon (AT) comprises of 3 subtendons arising from the soleus (SOL) and the lateral (LG) and medial (MG) heads of the gastrocnemius muscle. While recent human studies show differential displacement within AT, these displacements have not been attributed to specific subtendons. We tested the hypothesis that the SOL and LG subtendons show differential displacement and strain during various combinations of SOL, LG, and MG excitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13001DOI Listing
March 2018
2 Reads

The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of gastrocnemius strains: a retrospective observational study.

Platelets 2018 Sep 12;29(6):596-601. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

a Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences , University of Rome "Foro Italico" , Rome , Italy.

The aim of the present retrospective observational study was to evaluate the time of functional recovery following a specific combined therapeutic approach characterized by an active exercise therapy carried out immediately after Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for the treatment of the muscular lesion of the distal musculotendinous junction of the gastrocnemius medial head.Medical records of 31 subjects treated with three PRP intra-lesional ultrasound guided injections and 30 patients treated with the standard therapeutic approach (control group) were analyzed. Both groups followed the same rehabilitation therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2017.1349307DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

Are extramedian symptoms associated with peripheral causes in patient with carpal tunnel syndrome? Electrodiagnostic and ultrasonographic study.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2018 Feb 10;38:203-207. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between extramedian spreading of sensorial symptoms and median and ulnar nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) and to compare the ultrasonographic and electrophysiological findings in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with or without extramedian sensory symptoms.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Materials And Methods: Patients with CTS were divided into two groups as with or without extramedian symptoms and were assessed clinically, electrophysiologically and ultrasonographically by three blind investigators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2017.08.003DOI Listing
February 2018
4 Reads

Ultrasound Diagnosis of Calf Injuries.

Sports Health 2017 Jul/Aug;9(4):352-355. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Cone Health Sports Medicine Fellowship Program, Cone Health Hospital System, Greensboro, North Carolina.

Context: The medial head of the gastrocnemius is the third most commonly strained muscle in elite athletes after the biceps femoris and rectus femoris. The differential diagnosis of posterior calf injury includes musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal causes. Classically, delineation of these injuries from one another relied primarily on historical features and physical examination findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941738117696019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5496702PMC
August 2017
38 Reads

Relationship of changes in strain rate indices estimated from velocity-encoded MR imaging to loss of muscle force following disuse atrophy.

Magn Reson Med 2018 02 30;79(2):912-922. Epub 2017 May 30.

Muscle Imaging and Modeling Lab, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, California, USA.

Purpose: This study explores changes in strain rate (SR) (rate of regional deformation) parameters extracted from velocity-encoded MRI and their relationship to muscle force loss following 4-week unilateral lower limb suspension in healthy humans.

Methods: Two-dimensional SR maps were derived from three directional velocity-encoded MR phase-contrast images of the medial gastrocnemius in seven subjects. Atrophy-related and regional differences in the SR eigenvalues, angle between the SR and muscle fiber (SR-fiber angle), and strain rates in the fiber basis were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and linear regression. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/mrm.26759
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709278PMC
February 2018
5 Reads

Pronator Teres Myotendinous Tear.

Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2017 Mar/Apr;46(2):E105-E107

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.

Pronator teres muscle strain is a rare sporting injury reported thus far only in cricket and golf players. The injury appears to occur when the sporting club or racket strikes the ground during a forceful swing and causes the elbow to experience an eccentric force during resisted elbow flexion and pronation. On initial presentation, this injury can be mistaken for injury to the medial ulnar collateral ligament, or exacerbation of medial epicondylitis. Read More

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January 2018
45 Reads

Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging analyses indicate heterogeneous strains along human medial gastrocnemius fascicles caused by submaximal plantar-flexion activity.

J Biomech 2017 05 9;57:69-78. Epub 2017 Apr 9.

Biomedical Engineering Institute, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Sarcomere length changes are central to force production and excursion of skeletal muscle. Previous modeling indicates non-uniformity of that if mechanical interaction of muscle with its surrounding muscular and connective tissues is taken into account. Hence, quantifying length changes along the fascicles of activated human muscle in vivo is crucial, but this is lacking due to technical complexities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.03.028DOI Listing
May 2017
25 Reads

Neuromuscular Alterations After Ankle Sprains: An Animal Model to Establish Causal Links After Injury.

J Athl Train 2016 Oct 10;51(10):797-805. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Context: The mechanisms that contribute to the development of chronic ankle instability are not understood. Investigators have developed a hypothetical model in which neuromuscular alterations that stem from damaged ankle ligaments are thought to affect periarticular and proximal muscle activity. However, the retrospective nature of these studies does not allow a causal link to be established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-51.11.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5189233PMC
October 2016
3 Reads

Application of shear wave elastography for the gastrocnemius medial head to tennis leg.

Clin Anat 2017 Jan 28;30(1):114-119. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Department of Sports Medicine, Japan Institute of Sports Science, Tokyo, Japan.

Muscle strain of the gastrocnemius medial head mainly occurs at the musculotendinous junction (MTJ), and stiffness is a risk factor. Shear wave elastography (SWE) measures elasticity by determining the propagation velocity. The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of the normal muscle and aponeurosis in the MTJ of the gastrocnemius medial head using SWE, thus obtaining information relevant to muscle strain at this point. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.22788DOI Listing
January 2017
6 Reads

Characterization of three dimensional volumetric strain distribution during passive tension of the human tibialis anterior using Cine Phase Contrast MRI.

J Biomech 2016 10 15;49(14):3430-3436. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Motion Analysis Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Intramuscular pressure correlates strongly with muscle tension and is a promising tool for quantifying individual muscle force. However, clinical application is impeded by measurement variability that is not fully understood. Previous studies point to regional differences in IMP, specifically increasing pressure with muscle depth. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5074901PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.09.002DOI Listing
October 2016
10 Reads

Hip abductor strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners: A systematic review.

J Sci Med Sport 2017 Apr 20;20(4):349-355. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Walsh University, Doctorate of Physical Therapy Program, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Determine the association between hip abduction strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners.

Design: Systematic review.

Methods: Prospective longitudinal and cross sectional studies that quantified hip abduction strength and provided diagnosis of running related injury in distance runners were included and assessed for quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.09.002DOI Listing
April 2017
19 Reads

Lack of Effect of Ankle Position During the Nordic Curl on Muscle Activity of the Biceps Femoris and Medial Gastrocnemius.

J Sport Rehabil 2017 May 24;26(3):202-207. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Context: Regular performance (~2×/wk) of Nordic curls has been shown to increase hamstring strength and reduce the risk of hamstring strain injury, although no consensus on ankle position has been provided.

Objective: To compare the effects of performing Nordic curls, with the ankle in a dorsiflexed (DF) or plantar-flexed (PF) position, on muscle activity of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial gastrocnemius (MG).

Participants: 15 male college athletes (age 22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2015-0130DOI Listing
May 2017
19 Reads

Muscular Calf Injuries in Runners.

Curr Sports Med Rep 2016 Sep-Oct;15(5):320-4

Sports Medicine Fellowship Division of Sports Medicine Department of Family Medicine Cone Health Sports Medicine Center, Greenboro North Carolina, Greensboro, NC.

Calf pain is a common complaint among runners of all ages but is most frequent in masters athletes. This article focuses on injuries to the triceps surae or true 'calf muscles.' The most common calf injury is a tear of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (Tennis Leg) but other structures including the lateral gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus also may be the cause of muscular pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000292DOI Listing
February 2017
4 Reads

Human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanics and energetics during maximum acceleration sprinting.

J R Soc Interface 2016 08;13(121)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.

Tendon elastic strain energy is the dominant contributor to muscle-tendon work during steady-state running. Does this behaviour also occur for sprint accelerations? We used experimental data and computational modelling to quantify muscle fascicle work and tendon elastic strain energy for the human ankle plantar flexors (specifically soleus and medial gastrocnemius) for multiple foot contacts of a maximal sprint as well as for running at a steady-state speed. Positive work done by the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicles decreased incrementally throughout the maximal sprint and both muscles performed more work for the first foot contact of the maximal sprint (FC1) compared with steady-state running at 5 m s(-1) (SS5). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2016.0391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5014066PMC
August 2016
9 Reads

An Integrated Musculoskeletal-Finite-Element Model to Evaluate Effects of Load Carriage on the Tibia During Walking.

J Biomech Eng 2016 10;138(10)

Prior studies have assessed the effects of load carriage on the tibia. Here, we expand on these studies and investigate the effects of load carriage on joint reaction forces (JRFs) and the resulting spatiotemporal stress/strain distributions in the tibia. Using full-body motion and ground reaction forces from a female subject, we computed joint and muscle forces during walking for four load carriage conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4034216DOI Listing
October 2016
22 Reads

Protection from Muscle Damage in the Absence of Changes in Muscle Mechanical Behavior.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2016 08;48(8):1495-505

Centre for Sensorimotor Performance, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, AUSTRALIA.

Introduction: The repeated bout effect characterizes the protective adaptation after a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise that induces muscle damage. Sarcomerogenesis and increased tendon compliance have been suggested as potential mechanisms for the repeated bout effect by preventing muscle fascicles from being stretched onto the descending limb of the length-tension curve (the region where sarcomere damage is thought to occur). In this study, evidence was sought for three possible mechanical changes that would support either the sarcomerogenesis or the increased tendon compliance hypotheses: a sustained rightward shift in the fascicle length-tension relationship, reduced fascicle strain amplitude, and reduced starting fascicle length. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000920DOI Listing
August 2016
2 Reads

Combined magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging analyses provide a powerful tool for in vivo assessment of deformation along human muscle fibers.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2016 10 5;63:207-219. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Boğaziçi University, 34684 Çengelköy, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Muscle fiber direction strain provides invaluable information for characterizing muscle function. However, methods to study this for human muscles in vivo are lacking. Using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging based deformation analyses and diffusion tensor (DT) imaging based tractography combined, we aimed to assess muscle fiber direction local tissue deformations within the human medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.06.031DOI Listing
October 2016
19 Reads

Anconeus Epitrochlearis Muscle Causing Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow: Clinical and Neurophysiological Differential Diagnosis.

Orthopedics 2016 Sep 12;39(5):e988-91. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is the second most frequent entrapment neuropathy and is considered idiopathic in most patients. However, several anatomic variations, including the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, have been reported to cause ulnar nerve compression. The anconeus epitrochlearis muscle is a common anatomic variation, with a prevalence of up to 34%, but the clinical diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy of the elbow as a result of this variation is rare, with an unknown prevalence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20160623-11DOI Listing
September 2016
14 Reads

Intermuscular aponeuroses between the flexor muscles of the forearm and their relationships with the ulnar nerve.

Surg Radiol Anat 2016 Dec 12;38(10):1183-1189. Epub 2016 May 12.

Department of Anatomy, Catholic Institute for Applied Anatomy, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 06591, Korea.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological characteristics of the intermuscular aponeurosis between the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS; IMAS), and that between the FCU and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP; IMAP), and their topographic relationships with the ulnar nerve.

Materials And Methods: Fifty limbs of 38 adult cadavers were studied.

Results: The IMAS extended along the deep surface of the FCU adjoining the FDS, having the appearance of a ladder, giving off "steps" that decreased in width from superficial to deep around the middle of the forearm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-016-1695-9DOI Listing
December 2016
2 Reads

Quantitative Assessment of Muscle Activity and Joint Load in Braced and Unbraced Osteoarthritis Knee by External Strain Gauge Sensor.

Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2016 04;60(2):145-154

Objectives: Altered biomechanics leads to the development of degenerative joint disease. The joint pressure and dynamic loading varies during activities of daily living. The study was undertaken to assess the muscle activation pattern of the medial and lateral knee compartments (tibiofemoral joint) during gait in osteoarthritis subjects without and with knee brace undergoing either exercise therapy or balance therapy. Read More

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April 2016
3 Reads

Stretching Your Energetic Budget: How Tendon Compliance Affects the Metabolic Cost of Running.

PLoS One 2016 1;11(3):e0150378. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Muscles attach to bones via tendons that stretch and recoil, affecting muscle force generation and metabolic energy consumption. In this study, we investigated the effect of tendon compliance on the metabolic cost of running using a full-body musculoskeletal model with a detailed model of muscle energetics. We performed muscle-driven simulations of running at 2-5 m/s with tendon force-strain curves that produced between 1 and 10% strain when the muscles were developing maximum isometric force. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150378PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773147PMC
July 2016
2 Reads

In vivo passive mechanical properties estimation of Achilles tendon using ultrasound.

J Biomech 2016 Feb 3;49(4):507-13. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

A methodology is proposed for estimating Achilles tendon tangent modulus in vivo, to account for its large deformations and non-linear behavior. True stress is found dividing the axial force by the tendon true cross-sectional area (CSA), whose shrinking caused by axial tension is estimated with Poisson׳s coefficient. The true strain is calculated as the integral of incremental deformations along the tendon length change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.10.033DOI Listing
February 2016
8 Reads

The Effect of Tibial Rotation on the Contribution of Medial and Lateral Hamstrings During Isometric Knee Flexion.

Sports Health 2016 Mar-Apr;8(2):161-6

Background: Selective atrophy of hamstring components may result from muscle strain or graft harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Assessment and rehabilitation that specifically targets medial (MH) or lateral (LH) hamstring components may improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of volitional tibial rotation medially (MR) versus laterally (LR) on activation levels of MH versus LH and strength measures during isometric testing of knee flexors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941738115625039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4789934PMC
December 2016
5 Reads

Hybrid diffuse optical techniques for continuous hemodynamic measurement in gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercise.

J Biomed Opt 2015 ;20(12):125006

University of Kentucky, College of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 143 Graham Avenue, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0108, United States.

Occlusion calibrations and gating techniques have been recently applied by our laboratory for continuous and absolute diffuse optical measurements of forearm muscle hemodynamics during handgrip exercises. The translation of these techniques from the forearm to the lower limb is the goal of this study as various diseases preferentially affect muscles in the lower extremity. This study adapted a hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system with a gating algorithm to continuously quantify hemodynamic responses of medial gastrocnemius during plantar flexion exercises in 10 healthy subjects. Read More

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http://biomedicaloptics.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.20.12.125006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4688865PMC
September 2016
6 Reads

Early changes in Achilles tendon behaviour in vivo following downhill backwards walking.

J Sports Sci 2016 29;34(13):1215-21. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

c School of Exercise Science , Australian Catholic University , Fitzroy , Australia.

Downhill backwards walking causes repeated, cyclical loading of the muscle-tendon unit. The effect this type of repeated loading has on the mechanical behaviour of the Achilles tendon is presently unknown. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical response of the Achilles tendon aponeurosis complex following a downhill backwards walking protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2015.1102955DOI Listing
December 2016
27 Reads

Use of shear wave ultrasound elastography to quantify muscle properties in cerebral palsy.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2016 Jan 18;31:20-8. Epub 2015 Oct 18.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Individuals with cerebral palsy tend to have altered muscle architecture and composition, but little is known about the muscle material properties, specifically stiffness. Shear wave ultrasound elastography allows shear wave speed, which is related to stiffness, to be measured in vivo in individual muscles. Our aim was to evaluate the material properties, specifically stiffness, as measured by shear wave speed of the medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy across a range of ankle torques and positions, and fascicle strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729598PMC
January 2016
18 Reads

Gastrocnemius muscle architecture and achilles tendon properties influence walking distance in claudicants with peripheral arterial disease.

Muscle Nerve 2016 May 19;53(5):733-41. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street, L3 3AF, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Introduction: The extent to which gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles tendon properties contribute to the impaired walking endurance of claudicants is not known.

Methods: Ultrasound images quantified muscle architecture of the lateral and medial gastrocnemius (GL and GM) and were combined with dynamometry during plantarflexor contractions to calculate tendon stress, strain, stiffness, the Young modulus, and hysteresis. Key parameters were entered into multiple regression models to explain walking endurance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.24925DOI Listing
May 2016
6 Reads

Patterns of strain and the determination of the safe arc of motion after subscapularis repair--A biomechanical study.

J Orthop Res 2016 Mar 18;34(3):518-24. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

This study characterizes the strain patterns and safe arcs for passive range of motion (ROM) in the superior and inferior subscapularis tendon in seven cadaveric shoulders, mounted for controlled ROM, after deltopectoral approach to the glenohumeral joint, including tenotomy of the subscapularis tendon 1 cm medial to its insertion on the lesser tuberosity. The tenotomy was repaired with end-to-end suture in neutral rotation. Strain patterns were measured during passive ROM in external rotation (ER), ER with 30° abduction (ER+30), abduction, and forward flexion in the scapular plane (SP) before and after surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.23045DOI Listing
March 2016
5 Reads

The Consequence of a Medial Ankle Sprain on Physical and Self-reported Functional Limitations: A Case Study Over a 5-Month Period.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015 Oct 24;45(10):756-64. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Study Design: Case report.

Background: Little evidence exists about impairments and perceived disability following eversion injury to the deltoid ligament. This case study prospectively examined the neuromuscular, biomechanical, and psychological consequences of a case of a medial ankle sprain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2015.6097DOI Listing
October 2015
8 Reads

Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome due to subclavius posticus muscle with dynamic brachial plexus compression: a case report.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Aug 14;8:351. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is an underestimated cause of brachial weakness and pain. The subclavius posticus muscle (SPM) is an aberrant muscle originating from the medial aspect of the first rib reaching to superior border of the scapula, which may cause, depending on its activation, dynamic compression of the brachial plexus.

Case Presentation: In the present study, we report about a 32-year-old male caucasian patient with weakness in radial deviation of his left hand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1317-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4535788PMC
August 2015
12 Reads

Finite element modelling predicts changes in joint shape and cell behaviour due to loss of muscle strain in jaw development.

J Biomech 2015 Sep 28;48(12):3112-22. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Schools of Physiology and Pharmacology and of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, BS8 1TD Bristol, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Abnormal joint morphogenesis is linked to clinical conditions such as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) and to osteoarthritis (OA). Muscle activity is known to be important during the developmental process of joint morphogenesis. However, less is known about how this mechanical stimulus affects the behaviour of joint cells to generate altered morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.07.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4601018PMC
September 2015
5 Reads

Effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hardness evaluated by ultrasound real-time tissue elastography.

Springerplus 2015 2;4:308. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 Japan.

Purpose: To assess the effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hardness and evaluate the relationship between muscle hardness and muscle damage indicators.

Methods: Seven men (mean 25.3 years; 172. Read More

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http://www.springerplus.com/content/pdf/s40064-015-1094-4.pd
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http://www.springerplus.com/content/4/1/308
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-1094-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4488235PMC
July 2015
6 Reads

The optimum tension for bridging sutures in transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair: a cadaveric biomechanical study.

Am J Sports Med 2015 Sep 6;43(9):2118-25. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea

Background: Transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair can increase contact area and contact pressure between the repaired cuff tendon and bony footprint and can show higher ultimate loads to failure and smaller gap formation compared with other repair techniques. However, it has been suggested that medial rotator cuff failure after TOE repair may result from increased bridging suture tension.

Purpose: To determine optimum bridging suture tension in TOE repair by evaluating footprint contact and construct failure characteristics at different tensions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546515590596DOI Listing
September 2015
14 Reads

Middle-aged adults exhibit altered spatial variations in Achilles tendon wave speed.

Physiol Meas 2015 Jul 28;36(7):1485-96. Epub 2015 May 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in measured wave speed in the relaxed and stretched Achilles tendons of young and middle-aged adults. Wave speed was measured from the distal Achilles tendon, soleus aponeurosis, medial gastrocnemius aponeurosis and medial gastrocnemius muscle in healthy young (n = 15, aged 25   ±   4 years) and middle-aged (n = 10, aged 49   ±   4 years) adults in resting, dorsiflexed and plantarflexed postures. In both age groups, Achilles tendon wave speed decreased proximally, with the lowest wave speed measured in the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/36/7/1485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4835547PMC
July 2015
4 Reads

Changes in Achilles tendon mechanical properties following eccentric heel drop exercise are specific to the free tendon.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2016 Apr 27;26(4):421-31. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

Mechanical loading of the Achilles tendon during isolated eccentric contractions could induce immediate and region-dependent changes in mechanical properties. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to examine the immediate effect of isolated eccentric exercise on the mechanical properties of the distal (free tendon) and proximal (gastrocnemii) regions of the Achilles tendon. Participants (n = 14) underwent two testing sessions in which tendon measurements were made at rest and during a 30% and 70% isometric plantar flexion contractions immediately before and after either: (a) 3 × 15 eccentric heel drops or (b) 10-min rest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.12466DOI Listing
April 2016
4 Reads