128,293 results match your criteria Medial Epicondylitis


Impact of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on histaminergic neurons, histidine decarboxylase levels and histamine H receptors in adult rat offspring.

Alcohol 2018 Jul 22;76:47-57. Epub 2018 Jul 22.

Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, United States. Electronic address:

We have reported that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) elevates histamine H receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission in dentate gyrus (DG), and that the H receptor antagonist ABT-239 ameliorates PAE-induced deficits in DG long-term potentiation. Here, we investigated whether PAE alters other markers of histaminergic neurotransmission. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or a 5% ethanol solution 4 h each day throughout gestation. Read More

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Impairment in complex activities of daily living is related to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease-specific regions.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 26;75:109-116. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is an early clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neurobiology underlying IADL disruptions is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the relationship between IADL functioning and cortical atrophy across the AD spectrum. Read More

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November 2018

Experimentally induced subclinical hypothyroidism causes decreased functional connectivity of the cuneus: A resting state fMRI study.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 12;102:158-163. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; Department of Psychology II, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Objective: The aim of this study was to experimentally evaluate the effects of subclinical mild hypothyroidism on brain network connectivity as determined by resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) which serves as a proxy for global changes in brain function.

Methods: Fifteen otherwise healthy patients with complete hypothyroidism under stable, long term levothyroxine substitution volunteered for the study. They reduced their pretest levothyroxine dosage by 30% for 52-56 days. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence for Fucoidan-P-selectin Axis as a Therapeutic Target on Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Hypertension.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Justus-Leibig-University, Internal Medicine, Giessen, Germany ;

Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vascular remodeling and excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Fucoidan, polysacharidic ligand of an adhesion molecule P-selectin exhibits anti-proliferative properties. The effects of Fucoidan/P-selectin axis on vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension (PH) following hypoxia remain unexplored. Read More

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December 2018

A pedicled split extended vertical deep inferior epigastric (s-vDIEP) flap and an adipo-dermal thigh local flap for the reconstruction of the medial thigh compartment after sarcoma resection: A case report.

Microsurgery 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Large upper medial thigh defects in prior irradiated tissue require challenging reconstructions. Several techniques have been reported to reconstruct this region and according to the literature, pedicled perforator flaps are the first reconstructive option. The anterolateral thigh flap is considered the gold standard, while surprisingly the pedicle deep inferior epigastric (DIEP) flap in vertical fashion has not been frequently employed, if compared with its muscular counterpart, the pedicle vertical rectus abdomins flap (vRAM). Read More

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December 2018
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The Medial Pillar Island Flap for Oncoplastic Breast Reconstruction of Upper Pole Defects.

Ann Plast Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.

Background: Breast deformity is common following lumpectomy. Use of ptotic lower pole tissue for restoration of volume in the upper pole is quite appealing since it allows for a concomitant lift. This study presents the medial pillar island flap technique of oncoplastic breast reconstruction of upper pole defects. Read More

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December 2018

Long Term Follow Up of a Vascularized Osteocutaneous Free Flap for Reconstruction in Charcot Neuroarthropathy: A Case Report.

Ann Plast Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Curtis National Hand Center, MedStar Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Vascularized osteocutaneous free flaps have seen increasing use in foot and ankle surgery for the repair of bony defects secondary to chronic nonunion, osteomyelitis, and fractures. One example is the Medial Femoral Condyle (MFC) Flap. The utility of the MFC flap for the repair of a bony defect in a diabetic patient, however, has yet to be explored. Read More

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December 2018

Caudal musculature in ground sharks, Carcharhiniformes, with remarks on their phylogenetic interrelationships.

J Morphol 2019 Jan;280(1):68-77

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Relationships among families of the shark order Carcharhiniformes are still being debated, for example, in relation to the inclusion of hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae) and the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the Carcharhinidae. Previous morphological studies have not analyzed the phylogenetic significance of axial caudal muscles among carcharhiniforms. The authors therefore describe here the axial muscles of the tail region (m. Read More

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January 2019

Age-related changes in muscle elasticity and thickness of the lower extremities are associated with physical functions among community-dwelling older women.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, Japan.

Aim: To clarify the age-related changes in muscle elasticity or thickness of the lower extremities in older women, and to analyze their relationship with physical functions.

Methods: The muscle elasticity and thickness of the rectus femoris and medial head of the gastrocnemius of 102 young women (young group) and 221 elderly women (elderly group) were measured using ultrasonography. In the elderly group, physical functions, including knee extension strength, Timed Up and Go test, single-leg standing, maximum gait speed and Four Square Step Test were also measured. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of a void in the equine medial femoral condyle on bone stresses and peak contact pressures in a finite element model.

Vet Surg 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

Objective: To predict bone and medial meniscal stresses and contact pressures in an equine stifle with a medial femoral condyle (MFC) intact or with a 2-cm subchondral bone void, under varying degrees of internal femoral rotation (IFR).

Study Design: Finite element model (FEM) of a cadaveric equine stifle loaded to 8000 N.

Methods: The FEM was constructed from computed tomography (CT) of the right, extended stifle of a yearling. Read More

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December 2018

A new method for tensioning of a chronic tibial bony avulsion of the posterior cruciate ligament as a posteromedial bundle and augmentation by anterolateral bundle reconstruction in a bicruciate ligament injury: A case report.

Asia Pac J Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Technol 2019 Jan 22;15:13-16. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Sports Medicine, Kameda Medical Center, Chiba, Japan.

Multiple ligament injury is associated with high instability; hence, it is necessary to restore stability through application of a reliable treatment strategy. We report our experiences in handling a case of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) complicated by chronic bony avulsion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Favourable results were obtained as a result of ACR reconstruction following a new method for tensioning of the chronic tibial bony avulsion of PCL as a postero-medial bundle and augmentation by PCL anterolateral bundle reconstruction. Read More

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January 2019

Altered Gray Matter Volume and Its Correlation With PTSD Severity in Chinese Earthquake Survivors.

Front Psychiatry 2018 30;9:629. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

To detect the changes of gray matter volume (GMV) and their correlation with severity of symptom in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were defined with updated DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. 71 participants were assigned into PTSD group ( = 35) or trauma-exposed control (TEC) group ( = 36) with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was used to detect alterations in GMV in the PTSD group. Read More

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November 2018

Wiring the depressed brain: optogenetic and chemogenetic circuit interrogation in animal models of depression.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

The advent of optogenetics and chemogenetics has revolutionized the study of neural circuit mechanisms of behavioral dysregulation in psychiatric disease. These powerful technologies allow manipulation of specific neurons to determine causal relationships between neuronal activity and behavior. Optogenetic tools have been key to mapping the circuitry underlying depression-like behavior in animal models, clarifying the contribution of the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, ventral hippocampus, and other limbic areas, to stress susceptibility. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of novel domain-specific mutations in the zebrafish / gene generated using CRISPR-Cas9 RNPs.

J Genet 2018 Dec;97(5):1315-1325

Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Nodal-related protein (ndr2) is amember of the transforming growth factor type β superfamily of factors and is required for ventral midline patterning of the embryonic central nervous system in zebrafish. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding nodal cause holoprosencephaly and heterotaxy. Mutations in the gene in the zebrafish () lead to similar phenotypes, including loss of the medial floor plate, severe deficits in ventral forebrain development and cyclopia. Read More

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December 2018

Subregional volume reduction of the cholinergic forebrain in subjective cognitive decline (SCD).

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 27:101612. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, Germany.

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) patients are considered as a risk population for preclinical Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Supporting this idea, previous studies in SCD populations report subtle alterations in various cognitive and neuroimaging biomarkers that are typically affected during AD progression. To extend these observations, the present study examined whether SCD patients show atrophy of cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei (chBFN), analogous with recent findings in prodromal and clinical AD patients. Read More

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November 2018

Effect of meniscus repair on pivot-shift during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Objective evaluation using triaxial accelerometer.

Knee 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Joint Surgery and Sports Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Some types of meniscus tear, especially lateral meniscus tear, have been reported to be associated with rotatory knee laxity. However, precise information regarding the effect of meniscus repair on rotatory laxity is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lateral and medial meniscus repair on rotatory laxity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured knees. Read More

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December 2018

Foot arch deformation and plantar fascia loading during running with rearfoot strike and forefoot strike: A dynamic finite element analysis.

J Biomech 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Electronic address:

Forefoot strike becomes popular among runners because it facilitates better impact attenuation. However, forefoot strike may overload the plantar fascia and impose risk of plantar fasciitis. This study aimed to examine and compare the foot arch deformation and plantar fascia tension between different foot strike techniques in running using a computational modelling approach. Read More

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December 2018

Thalamic Morphometric Changes Induced by First-Person Action Videogame Training.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Siena Brain Investigation & Neuromodulation Lab (Si-BIN Lab), Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology Section, University of Siena, Italy.

Cross-sectional data suggest videogaming as promoting modifications in perceptual and cognitive skills of players, as well as inducing structural brain changes. However, whether such changes are both possible after a systematic gaming exposure, and last beyond the training period, is not known. Here we originally quantified immediate and long-lasting cognitive and morphometric impact of a systematic gaming experience on a first-person shooter (FPS) game. Read More

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December 2018
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Evaluation of a more ventral starting point for thoracic pedicle screws: higher maximal insertional arc and more medial and safer screw angulation.

Authors:

J Neurosurg Spine 2018 Dec 14:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

OBJECTIVETo demonstrate that a more ventral starting point for thoracic pedicle screw insertion, produced by aggressively removing the dorsal transverse process bone down to the superior articular facet (SAF), results in a larger margin for error and more medial screw angulation compared to the traditional dorsal starting point (DSP). The margin for error will be quantified by the maximal insertional arc (MIA).METHODSThe study population included 10 consecutive operative patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis who underwent primary surgery. Read More

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December 2018

Chronic anterior sternoclavicular instability: technique and results of corrective clavicular osteotomy.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital Balgrist, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Chronic anterior sternoclavicular (SC) instability is a rare but potentially disabling condition. It can arise in conjunction with trauma or hyperlaxity, or both. Numerous surgical techniques have been described, but no gold standard exists. Read More

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December 2018

Histopathologic Characterization of Peripheral Arteries in Subjects With Abundant Risk Factors: Correlating Imaging With Pathology.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the pathology of the lower extremity arteries across their entire length in subjects dying with abundant risk factors and to evaluate the clinical and imaging implications of the pathological characteristics.

Background: Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity, but a systematic characterization of the pathology has never been undertaken.

Methods: Twelve legs were obtained from 8 cadavers with histories of coronary risk factors (median age 82 years, 6 men); 8 of 12 legs were evaluated using computed tomography before the major peripheral arteries were dissected along their entire length. Read More

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December 2018

Correlating Pathology to Imaging: Improved Insights Into Peripheral Artery Disease?

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Cardiology, University of Minnesota and VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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December 2018

Saphenous nerve block for medial foot surgery: Saphenous nerve beyond cutaneous sensory distribution.

J Clin Anesth 2018 Dec 12;54:160-161. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, Palo Alto, CA, United States. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Gait initiation and partial body weight unloading for functional improvement in post-stroke individuals.

Gait Posture 2018 Dec 6;68:305-310. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: To better understand gait initiation in individuals with stroke and suggest possible training strategies, we compared the gait initiation of individuals with stroke and age-matched controls, and we examined the influence of different amounts of body weight support (BWS) during the execution of gait initiation in individuals with stroke.

Materials And Methods: Twelve individuals with stroke and 12 age-matched controls initiated gait after a verbal command at a self-selected and comfortable speed, and individuals with stroke also initiated gait wearing a harness with 0%, 15%, and 30% of BWS. Length and velocity of the first step, distance between heels, and weight bearing in both lower limbs in the initial position were calculated. Read More

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December 2018

Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging parameter mapping in the posterior horn of ex vivo human menisci.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the relationship between meniscus magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation parameters and meniscus degradation through quantitative imaging of ex vivo posterior horns of menisci from subjects with and without knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Design: We sampled medial and lateral menisci from ten medial compartment knee OA patients (mean age 63 years) undergoing total knee replacement and from ten deceased donors (references, mean age 51 years). MR relaxation parameters T2*, T2 and T1 of the posterior horn were measured at a 9. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of botulinum toxin type A on the treatment of dry eye disease and tear cytokines.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: To determine the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection on dry eye signs, symptoms, and tear cytokine levels in patients with intractable dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: In this prospective study, patients with intractable DED were randomized to a BTX-A (group A) or control group (group B). Patients were injected with BTX-A or normal saline in the medial part of the upper and lower eyelids. Read More

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December 2018
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Pathoanatomy of Maisonneuve fracture based on radiologic and CT examination.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Orthopaedics, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and Military University Hospital Prague, U Vojenské Nemocnice 1200, 169 02, Prague 6, Czech Republic.

Introduction: Although Maisonneuve fracture (MF) is a well-known type of ankle fracture-dislocation, there is still a lack of information about the epidemiology and the extent of all associated injuries. The aim of study is to describe MF pathoanatomy on the basis of radiographs, CT scans and intraoperative findings.

Materials And Methods: The study comprised 54 adult patients. Read More

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December 2018

High tibial osteotomy with modern PEEK implants is safe and leads to lower hardware removal rates when compared to conventional metal fixation: a multi-center comparison study.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose: Various implant materials have been used in medial, opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) including traditional metal and modern polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants. The purpose of this study was to compare metal and PEEK implants and determine safety, varus deformity correction, as well as short- to mid-term hardware removal and arthroplasty rates.

Methods: HTO performed with metal and PEEK implants were reviewed between 2000 and 2015 at two institutions with a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Read More

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December 2018

Niche Partitioning in Theropod Dinosaurs: Diet and Habitat Preference in Predators from the Uppermost Cedar Mountain Formation (Utah, U.S.A.).

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17872. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, 73072, USA.

We explore hypothetical ecologies to explain diversity among predatory dinosaurs in North America's medial Cretaceous, based on occurrence, tooth morphology, and stable isotope analysis. The Mussentuchit local fauna, Utah, USA, is among the best-known terrestrial vertebrate assemblages from the Cretaceous. Study samples include teeth from six microvertebrate sites, ranging in depositional setting from distal floodplain to channel lags. Read More

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December 2018

Cortical thickness atrophy in the transentorhinal cortex in mild cognitive impairment.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Center for Imaging Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA; Institute for Computational Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.

This study examines the atrophy rates of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to controls in four regions within the medial temporal lobe: the transentorhinal cortex (TEC), entorhinal cortex (ERC), hippocampus, and amygdala. These regions were manually segmented and then corrected for undesirable longitudinal variability via Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM) based longitudinal diffeomorphometry. Diffeomorphometry techniques were used to compare thickness measurements in the TEC with the ERC. Read More

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December 2018

Posteromedial rotatory incongruity of the elbow: a computational kinematics study.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Background: Our objective was to analyze the effect of different anteromedial coronoid fracture patterns with different combinations of ligamentous repairs. We hypothesized that smaller fractures would be sufficiently treated with ligamentous repair alone but that larger fragments would require a combination of ligament and bony repair versus reconstruction.

Methods: Two multibody models were created from cadaveric specimens in the ADAMS program. Read More

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December 2018

Platelet-rich plasma versus Tenex in the treatment of medial and lateral epicondylitis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019 Jan;28(1):112-119

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis are among the most common elbow pathologies affecting people aged between 40 and 50 years. Although epicondylitis is often a self-limiting condition that improves with conservative treatment, the condition can be difficult to eradicate. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections and ultrasound-guided percutaneous tenotomy (Tenex) for the treatment of medial or lateral epicondylitis. Read More

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January 2019

Partial Costotransversectomy and Corpectomy for Thoracic Spinal Metastatic Disease: Operative Technique and Nuances: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida.

We describe the operative approach and management for thoracic metastatic disease in a 78-yr-old man with worsening mechanical lower back and left-sided thoracic radicular pain. Imaging of the thoracic spine revealed an osteolytic T11 mass with destruction of the left T11 pedicle and transverse process. Biopsy confirmed spinal metastasis from the liver. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of heel height and high-heel experience on foot stability during quiet standing.

Gait Posture 2018 Dec 5;68:252-257. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Background: The use of high-heeled shoes (HHS) introduces instability into the wearer's balance system but how high-heel experience might influence standing balance is less examined in literature.

Research Question: (1) Does foot stability decrease in both the antero-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions with increasing heel height during quiet standing? (2) Does high-heel experience improve the wearer's foot stability during quiet standing in high-heeled conditions?

Methods: Twenty-four young females (12 regular and 12 non-regular HHS wearers) were recruited to perform quiet standing while wearing shoes with heel heights of 1 cm, 5 cm, 8 cm and 10 cm. The effects of heel height on the mean center of pressure (COP), their variability (standard deviations) and mean COP velocities in both the AP and ML directions were analysed by one-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test. Read More

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December 2018

Striking reduction in neurons and glial cells in anterior thalamic nuclei of older patients with Down syndrome.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 17;75:54-61. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Electronic address:

The anterior thalamic nuclei are important for spatial and episodic memory, however, surprisingly little is known about the status of these nuclei in neurological conditions that present with memory impairments, such as Down syndrome. We quantified neurons and glial cells in the anterior thalamic nuclei of four older patients with Down syndrome. There was a striking reduction in the volume of the anterior thalamic nuclei and this appeared to reflect the loss of approximately 70% of neurons. Read More

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November 2018

Distinct regulation pattern of Egr-1, BDNF and Arc during morphine-withdrawal conditioned place aversion paradigm: role of glucocorticoids.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; Murcia Institute of Biomedical Research (IMIB), University of Murcia, Spain.

Negative affective aspects of opiate abstinence contribute to the persistence of substance abuse. Importantly, interconnected brain areas involved in aversive motivational processes, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), become activated when animals are confined to withdrawal-paired environments. In the present study, place aversion was elicited in sham and adrenalectomized (ADX) animals by conditioned naloxone-precipitated drug withdrawal following exposure to chronic morphine. Read More

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December 2018

Multiscale computational model of Achilles tendon wound healing: Untangling the effects of repair and loading.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 14;14(12):e1006652. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States of America.

Mechanical stimulation of the healing tendon is thought to regulate scar anisotropy and strength and is relatively easy to modulate through physical therapy. However, in vivo studies of various loading protocols in animal models have produced mixed results. To integrate and better understand the available data, we developed a multiscale model of rat Achilles tendon healing that incorporates the effect of changes in the mechanical environment on fibroblast behavior, collagen deposition, and scar formation. Read More

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December 2018
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Injury of the Medial Lemniscus due to Compression of the Medulla Oblongata by Tortuous Vertebral Artery.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

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December 2018

Collagen proton fraction from ultrashort echo time magnetization transfer (UTE-MT) MRI modelling correlates significantly with cortical bone porosity measured with micro-computed tomography (μCT).

NMR Biomed 2018 Dec 14:e4045. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Intracortical bone porosity is a key microstructural parameter that determines bone mechanical properties. While clinical MRI visualizes the cortical bone with a signal void, ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI can acquire high signal from cortical bone, thus enabling quantitative assessments. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging combined with UTE-MRI can indirectly assess protons in the bone collagenous matrix, which are inversely related to porosity. Read More

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December 2018

A novel lncRNA-mediated trans-regulatory mechanism in the development of cleft palate in mouse.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.

Background: Increasing evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial regulatory roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the regulatory mechanisms during EMT of the medial edge epithelium (MEE) remain elusive. The aim of this work is to reveal a novel lncRNA-regulated dysfunction of EMT involved in the development of cleft palate (CP). Read More

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December 2018

Role of BMP signaling for the formation of auditory brainstem nuclei and large auditory relay synapses.

Dev Neurobiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Synaptic Mechanisms, Brain Mind Institute, School of Life Science, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Large excitatory synapses are found at specific points in the neuronal circuits of the auditory brainstem, to enable fast information transfer and the preservation of acoustic timing information. The extracellular cues and signaling mechanisms that lead to the development of these specialized synaptic connections, exemplified by the calyx of Held in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), are still largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of BMP signaling for the early development of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and MNTB, and for the initial formation of the calyx of Held synaptic connection. Read More

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December 2018

Arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair: a comprehensive review of the literature.

SICOT J 2018 14;4:57. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

Rotator cuff repairs seek to achieve adequate tendon fixation and to secure the fixation during the process of biological healing. Currently, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become the gold standard. One of the earliest defined techniques is single-row repair but the inadequacy of single-row repair to precisely restore the anatomical footprint as well as the significant rates of retear especially in large tears have led surgeons to seek other techniques. Read More

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December 2018

Opening-wedge osteotomies of the distal femur: minor advantages for a biplanar compared to a uniplanar technique.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Biomechanics, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Purpose: Valgus malalignment of the distal femur may be treated with corrective osteotomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the primary stability of a lateral opening-wedge osteotomy (LOWO) using a uniplanar compared to a biplanar technique. A study was carried out to test both surgeries, with both an intact medial cortex and with a deliberate attached cut of the medial cortex simulating a fracture. Read More

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December 2018

Subregional Hippocampal Thickness Abnormalities in Older Adults with a History of Heavy Cannabis Use.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2018 10;3(1):242-251. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Legalization of cannabis (CB) for both medicinal and, in some states, recreational use, has given rise to increasing usage rates across the country. Of particular concern are indications that frequent CB use may be selectively harmful to the developing adolescent brain compared with adult-onset usage. However, the long-term effects of heavy, adolescent CB use on brain structure and cognitive performance in late-life remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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Dataset on significant role of Candesartan on cognitive functions in rats having memory impairment induced by electromagnetic waves.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 26;21:2390-2394. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Rammal Hassan Rammal Research Laboratory, Physio-toxicity (PhyTox) research group, Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences (V), Nabatieh, Lebanon.

Rapid growing of mobile phones users has raised about the possible effects of these electromagnetic waves (EMW) on human health. Many studies have examined the role of these EMW on biological systems, but the results are still contradictory and controversial. In addition to EMW, over-activation of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been associated with cognitive decline, incidence and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma with perineural metastasis in a cat.

JFMS Open Rep 2018 Jul-Dec;4(2):2055116918815323. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Case Summary: A 15-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented for hyporexia and acute development of L4-Cd myelopathy (urinary incontinence, pelvic limb paresis with hyporeflexia and absent tail tone). Humane euthanasia was elected owing to the rapid neurological deterioration and necropsy was performed. Post-mortem examination identified a right-sided anal sac mass and medial iliac lymphadenopathy. Read More

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December 2018

Frontostriatal grey matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis A visual rating study.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):388-393

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by frontostriatal grey matter changes similar to those in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, these changes are usually detected at a group level, and simple visual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical atrophy scales may further elucidate frontostriatal changes in ALS.

Objective: To investigate whether frontostriatal changes are detectable using simple visual MRI atrophy rating scales applied at an individual patient level in ALS. Read More

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December 2018

Lower trapezius transfer with semitendinosus tendon augmentation: Indication, technique, results.

Obere Extrem 2018 20;13(4):261-268. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Shoulder Unit, Clinique Bizet, 75116 Paris, France.

Background: Lower trapezius transfer can restore external rotation in brachial plexus palsies. In some cuff tear arthropathies, there is lack of active external rotation with a preservation of forward elevation. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of a lower trapezius transfer extended with a semitendinosus tendon and fixed to the insertion of the infraspinatus via arthroscopy. Read More

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November 2018

MicroRNA-128 targeting RPN2 inhibits cell proliferation and migration through the Akt-p53-cyclin pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 26;16(6):6940-6949. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery and Hernia Center, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510655, P.R. China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignancy with high metastatic rates. The mechanism of miR-128 on the regulation of Ribophorin-II (RPN2) in CRC cells was explored in the present study. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) or western blot analyses were conducted to detect miR-128 and RPN2 levels in tissues and cell lines. Read More

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December 2018

Homeostatic cAMP regulation by the RGS7 complex controls depression-related behaviors.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Oct 11. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, 130 Scripps Way, Jupiter, FL, 33458, USA.

Affective disorders arise from abnormal responses of the brain to prolonged exposure to challenging environmental stimuli. Recent work identified the orphan receptor GPR158 as a molecular link between chronic stress and depression. Here we reveal a non-canonical mechanism by which GPR158 exerts its effects on stress-induced depression by the complex formation with Regulator of G protein Signaling 7 (RGS7). Read More

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October 2018
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