1,106,230 results match your criteria Mechanisms of Development [Journal]


[Megaimplants of the Proximal Femur: Current Concepts].

Z Orthop Unfall 2018 Dec 14;156(6):685-691. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Orthopädie und Sportorthopädie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München.

In addition to their outstanding significance in the field of tumor orthopaedics, megaprostheses are becoming increasingly important for revision arthroplasty. Despite their wide application, the reported complication and failure rates remain high. The analysis of failure mechanisms roughly allows a breakdown into mechanical and non-mechanical causes; soft-tissue failure, loosening and periprosthetic infection play outstanding roles. Read More

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December 2018

Menthol cigarettes, tobacco dependence, and smoking persistence: The need to examine enhanced cognitive functioning as a neuropsychological mechanism.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Introduction: Despite the overall decline in the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, menthol cigarette use among smokers is rising, and evidence shows that it may lead to more detrimental effects on public health than regular cigarette use. One of the mechanisms by which nicotine sustains tobacco use and dependence is due to its cognitive enhancing properties, and basic science literature suggests that menthol may also enhance nicotine's acute effect on cognition.

Aims And Methods: The purpose of this review is to suggest that the cognitive enhancing effects of menthol may be a potentially important neuropsychological mechanism that has yet to be examined. Read More

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December 2018

Elagolix for endometriosis: all that glitters is not gold.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Commenda, 12, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Elagolix, an orally active non-peptidic GnRH antagonist, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of moderate to severe pain associated with endometriosis. As the degree of ovarian suppression obtained with elagolix is dose-dependent, pain relief may be achieved by modulating the level of hypo-oestrogenism while limiting side effects. Elagolix may thus be considered a novelty in terms of its endocrine and pharmacological properties but not for its impact on the pathogenic mechanisms of endometriosis, as the target of this new drug is, yet again, alteration of the hormonal milieu. Read More

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December 2018

Competitive adsorption of heavy metals in aqueous solution onto biochar derived from anaerobically digested sludge.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 7;219:351-357. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, PR China. Electronic address:

Heavy metals often coexist in contaminated wastewater systems and their competitive behavior could affect the adsorption capacity of biochar. Till now, the competitive adsorption of heavy metals by biochar derived from anaerobically digested sludge has never been reported. In this work, biochar from anaerobically digested sludge was synthesized and characterized to explore the competitive behavior of widely co-existed Pb(II) and Cd(II). Read More

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December 2018

Advances and opportunities for the design of self-sufficient and spatially organized cell-free biocatalytic systems.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2018 Dec 11;49:97-104. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Heterogeneous biocatalysis laboratory, Instituto de Síntesis Química y Catálisis Homogénea (ISQCH-CSIC), University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain; ARAID, Aragon I+D foundation, Zaragoza, Spain. Electronic address:

During the past decades, biocatalysis has made important contributions to chemical manufacturing by using both whole-cell and cell-free biotransformation reactions. More recently, multi-enzyme systems that can run step-wise reactions in one-pot with high selectivity are increasingly being developed. The use of multiple isolated enzymes to perform a series of reactions offers operational and process advantages over the use of living or resting cells, but such cell free processes need to be optimized to meet industrial productivity and titer requirements. Read More

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December 2018
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Mobilising evidence to improve nursing practice: A qualitative study of leadership roles and processes in four countries.

Int J Nurs Stud 2018 Nov 27;90:21-30. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Education, Health, and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.

Background: The approach and style of leaders is known to be an important factor influencing the translation of research evidence into nursing practice. However, questions remain as to what types of roles are most effective and the specific mechanisms through which influence is achieved.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which key nursing roles lead the implementation of evidence-based practice across different care settings and countries and the contextual factors that influence them. Read More

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November 2018

Vestibular dysfunction as cortical damage with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 5;397:4-8. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: Cortical damage in areas such as the frontal lobe is reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, aside from executive dysfunction, the pathological significance of this cortical damage has yet to be clarified. The present study investigated the effects of cortical damage on vestibular function in ALS. Read More

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December 2018

Investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying Salicornia ramosissima response to atmospheric CO enrichment under coexistence of prolonged soil flooding and saline excess.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;135:149-159. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, 1095, 41080, Sevilla, Spain.

A 45-days long climatic chamber experiment was design to evaluate the effect of 400 and 700 ppm atmospheric CO treatments with and without soil water logging in combination with 171 and 510 mM NaCl in the halophyte Salicornia ramosissima. In order to ascertain the possible synergetic impact of these factors associate to climatic change in this plant species physiological and growth responses. Our results indicated that elevated atmospheric CO concentration improved plant physiological performance under suboptimal root-flooding and saline conditions plants. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of the full 26 cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and analysis of their expression in response to benzo[α]pyrene in the marine rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2018 Dec 4;29:185-192. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, South Korea. Electronic address:

Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are a large gene superfamily that are found in all living organisms. CYPs have a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous chemicals. Although aquatic invertebrate CYPs and their detoxification mechanisms have been reported, little is known about interspecific comparison of CYPs and their detoxification mechanism in the rotifer Brachionus spp. Read More

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December 2018

Two distinct mechanisms of selection in working memory: Additive last-item and retro-cue benefits.

Cognition 2018 Dec 11;183:282-302. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

In working memory research, individual items are sometimes said to be in the "focus of attention". According to one view, this occurs for the last item in a sequentially presented list (last-item benefit). According to a second view, this occurs when items are externally cued during the retention interval (retro-cue benefit). Read More

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December 2018

Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist treatment protects rats from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 11;111:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cardiology, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 20025, PR China. Electronic address:

The interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling pathway plays a vital role in multiple mechanisms associated with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, including inflammation and apoptosis. An IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) can block IL-1 by competitive binding to the IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) and thus may provide a cardioprotective effect. In the present investigation, we determined whether exogenous administration of recombinant human IL-1Ra (rhIL-1Ra) provides a protective role against myocardial I/R injury. Read More

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December 2018

Fish antiviral tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

INRA, Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France. Electronic address:

Tripartite motif (TRIM) family or RBCC proteins comprises characteristic zinc-binding domains (a RING (R), a B-box type 1 (B1) and a B-box type 2 (B2)) and coiled-coil (CC) domain followed by a C-terminus variable domain. There are about 80 different TRIM proteins in human, but more than 200 in zebrafish with several large gene expansions (ftr >70 genes; btr >30 genes; trim35 > 30 genes). Repertoires of trim genes in fish are variable across fishes, but they have been remarkably diversified independently in a number of species. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of hypoxia-reoxygenation stress on mitochondrial proteome and bioenergetics of the hypoxia-tolerant marine bivalve Crassostrea gigas.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Marine Biology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; Department of Maritime Systems, Interdisciplinary Faculty, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Mitochondria are key intracellular targets of hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) stress due to their central role in generation of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intertidal oysters Crassostrea gigas are adapted to frequent H/R cycles and maintain aerobic function despite frequent oxygen fluctuations. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of H/R tolerance, we assessed changes in mitochondrial respiration and (phospho)proteome of C. Read More

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December 2018

Early-life exposure to the endocrine disruptor 17-α-ethinylestradiol induces delayed effects in adult brain, liver and ovotestis proteomes of a self-fertilizing fish.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory of Evolutionary and Adaptive Physiology - Institute of Life, Earth and Environment - University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B5000 Namur, Belgium.

Early-life represents a critically sensitive window to endocrine disrupting chemicals, potentially leading to long-term repercussions on the phenotype later in life. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, referred to as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), are still poorly understood. To gain molecular understanding of these effects, we exposed mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) for 28 days post hatching (dph) to 4 and 120 ng/L 17-α-ethinylestradiol, a model xenoestrogen. Read More

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December 2018

Scavenging effect of oxidized biochar against the phytotoxicity of lead ions on hydroponically grown chicory: An anatomical and ultrastructural investigation.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 11;170:363-374. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States; Department of Soil Science, University of Haripur, Haripur 22620, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

To evaluate the scavenging effect of functionalized biochar against the phytotoxicity of Pb, original biochar (O-B) was chemically oxidized with either HNO or KMnO to serve as biofilters (O-BF, HNO-BF and KMnO-BF) to hydroponically grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. intybus). Read More

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December 2018

CircRNAs and cancer: biomarkers and master regulators.

Semin Cancer Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Molecular Oncology group, Biodonostia Research Institute, Paseo Doctor Begiristain, s/n San Sebastián, 20014, Spain; Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom; IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, María Díaz Haroko Kalea, 3, 48013, Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of regulatory RNAs that despite being relatively abundant have only recently begun to be explored. There are many thousands of genes that appear capable of producing circRNAs, however the function of all but a handful remain to be determined. What is emerging about these highly conserved molecules is that they play important roles in biology and cancer biology in particular. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of locomotor response to psychostimulants in the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis): A promising model for studying the neural and molecular mechanisms of drug addiction.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind & Behavior, and Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA.

Although scientific research using mammalian models has made great strides in uncovering the enigmatic neural and molecular mechanisms orchestrating the state of drug addiction, a complete understanding has thus far eluded researchers. The complexity of the task has led to the use of invertebrate model systems to complement the research of drug-induced reward in mammalian systems. Invertebrates, such as crayfish, offer excellent model systems to help reveal the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as they retain the ancestral neural reward circuit that is evolutionarily conserved across taxa, and they possess relatively few, large neurons, laid out in an accessible, modularly organized nervous system. Read More

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December 2018

Chronic Adolescent Stress Sex-Specifically Alters Central and Peripheral Neuro-Immune Reactivity in Rats.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, United States. Electronic address:

Adversity during development is a reliable predictor of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety which are increasingly recognized to have an immune component. We have previously demonstrated that chronic adolescent stress (CAS) in rats leads to depressive-like behavior in adulthood along with long-lasting changes to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and pro-inflammatory cytokine induction in the hippocampus. However, the mechanisms by which CAS promotes hippocampal inflammation are not yet defined. Read More

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December 2018

Cyclical Treatment of Colorectal Tumor Spheroids Induces Resistance to MEK Inhibitors.

Transl Oncol 2018 Dec 11;12(3):404-416. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA. Electronic address:

Adaptive drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment of colorectal cancers. Physiologic tumor models of drug resistance are crucial to understand mechanisms of treatment failure and improve therapy by developing new therapeutics and treatment strategies. Using our aqueous two-phase system microtechnology, we developed colorectal tumor spheroids and periodically treated them with sub-lethal concentrations of three Mitogen Activated Kinase inhibitors (MEKi) used in clinical trials. Read More

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December 2018

Signalling molecules responsive to ozone-induced oxidative stress in Salvia officinalis.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 2;657:568-576. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa 56124, Italy; CIRSEC, Centre for Climatic Change Impact, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa 56124, Italy; Nutrafood Research Center, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

Tropospheric ozone (O) is the most important gaseous pollutant and induces a mass of negative impacts on vegetation at functional and genic levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species and signalling molecules in sage plants exposed to O (200 ppb, 5 h). Ozone exposure induced only a transient oxidative burst, as confirmed by the rapid peak of anion superoxide during the first hours of exposure (+16% compared to controls). Read More

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December 2018

Exploring the underpinning mechanisms of the proximity effect within a competitive food environment.

Appetite 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Birmingham City University, Curzon Building, 4 Cardigan Street, Birmingham, B4 7BD, United Kingdom.

Objective: One method of influencing an individual's food consumption involves placing unhealthy snacks further away from individuals, known as the "proximity effect". However, only one laboratory study has explored the effect while both an unhealthy and a healthy option are presented simultaneously. Further, little is known about the potential underpinning mechanisms of the effect. Read More

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December 2018

FTY720 inhibits the activation of pancreatic stellate cells by promoting apoptosis and suppressing autophagy via the AMPK/mTOR pathway.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Institute of Acute Abdominal Diseases of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin 300100, China; Nankai Clinical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300107, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis. Any agents that can affect PSC activation could become potential candidates for treating pancreatic fibrosis. FTY720 can attenuate chronic pancreatic fibrosis by suppressing T-cell infiltration, but its effect on PSCs remains unknown. Read More

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December 2018

The IRS/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway mediates olanzapine-induced hepatic insulin resistance in male rats.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia. Electronic address:

Aims: Chronic treatment with antipsychotics, especially most of atypical ones, leads to development of metabolic abnormalities. Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced metabolic adverse effects in the liver, however, remain unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Branching mechanisms shaping dendrite architecture.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

A neuron's contribution to the information flow within a neural circuit is governed by the structure of its dendritic arbor. The geometry of the dendritic arbor directly determines synaptic density and the size of the receptive field, both of which influence the firing pattern of the neuron. Importantly, the position of individual dendritic branches determines the identity of the neuron's presynaptic partner and thus the nature of the incoming sensory information. Read More

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December 2018

Stromal PTEN Regulates Extracellular Matrix Organization in the Mammary Gland.

Neoplasia 2018 Dec 11;21(1):132-145. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210; The James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Electronic address:

The organization of the extracellular matrix has a profound impact on cancer development and progression. The matrix becomes aligned throughout tumor progression, providing "highways" for tumor cell invasion. Aligned matrix is associated with breast density and is a negative prognostic factor in several cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating this reorganization remain poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018

Dependence of initial silica scaling on the surface physicochemical properties of reverse osmosis membranes during bench-scale brackish water desalination.

Water Res 2018 Nov 30;150:358-367. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875, China; Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The John Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, MD, 21205, USA. Electronic address:

Silica scaling of reverse osmosis membranes in brackish water desalination is less understood than hardness scaling due to the complex silica behaviors at the membrane/water interface. In this study, -COOH, -SOH, -NH and -OH functional groups were introduced onto polyamide membranes to create distinct surface physicochemical properties. The resulting membranes were further studied under similar scaling conditions to yield temporal flux loss data that were empirically interpreted by a logistic growth model. Read More

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November 2018

Emergent neural turing machine and its visual navigation.

Neural Netw 2018 Nov 27;110:116-130. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA; Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA; Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Traditional Turing Machines (TMs) are symbolic whose hand-crafted representations are static and limited. Developmental Network 1 (DN-1) uses emergent representation to perform Turing Computation. But DN-1 lacks hierarchy in its internal representations, and is hard to handle the complex visual navigation tasks. Read More

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November 2018

Inflammation and oxidative stress are key mediators in AKB48-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Beyazıt, 34116 Istanbul, Turkey.

Synthetic cannabinoids were introduced into market in early 2000s; since these "legal highs" are dramatically popular among youth, it becomes a deadly problem. Synthetic cannabinoids have high affinity to cannabinoid receptors; leading to various clinical symptoms. AKB48 (Apinaca) has been classified as a third-generation synthetic cannabinoid for the first time in 2014. Read More

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December 2018
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Cisplatin induces autophagy to enhance hepatitis B virus replication via activation of ROS/JNK and inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ministry of Education), Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious global health concern. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat various cancers. However, HBV-infected patients receiving chemotherapy are at risk of HBV reactivation via unknown mechanisms, which we aimed to elucidate in this study. Read More

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December 2018

A role for Wnt/β-catenin signalling in suppressing Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-induced macrophage autophagy.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Conservation and Utilization of Special Biological Resources in the Western China, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia, China; College of Life Science, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 750021, Ningxia, China. Electronic address:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-induced autophagy of alveolar macrophages has been confirmed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Growing evidence indicates that excessive or uncontrolled autophagic activity, which results in type II programmed cell death, can be regulated by many factors, including Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Wnt/β-catenin signalling has been demonstrated to be involved in multiple diseases through the regulation of autophagy; however, its exact role in regulating autophagy induced by Mtb remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Geraniol protects against lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine-induced fulminant hepatic failure by activating PPARγ.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China. Electronic address:

Geraniol (GOH), a natural component of plant essential oils, exhibits potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects and mechanisms of GOH on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Mice were treated with GOH (12. Read More

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December 2018

The role of neurogenesis in neurorepair after stroke.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Stroke consists of an abrupt reduction of cerebral blood flow resulting in hypoxia that triggers an excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. After the ischemic process, neural precursor cells present in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus proliferate and migrate towards the lesion, contributing to the brain repair. The neurogenesis is induced by signal transduction pathways, growth factors, attractive factors for neuroblasts, transcription factors, pro and anti-inflammatory mediators and specific neurotransmissions. Read More

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December 2018

Resveratrol prevents cognitive deficits by attenuating oxidative damage and inflammation in rat model of streptozotocin diabetes induced vascular dementia.

Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Kocaeli, Turkey; Kocaeli University, Experimental Medical Research and Application Centre, Kocaeli, Turkey.

Diabetes is one of the risk factors for the development of vascular dementia (VD), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Resveratrol has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. The previous studies have also reported that resveratrol improves cognitive and vascular endothelial functions in several pathological conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Is ventromedial prefrontal cortex critical for behavior change without external reinforcement?

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurobiology, The Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Cue-approach training (CAT) is a novel paradigm that has been shown to induce preference changes towards items without external reinforcements. In the task, the mere association of a neutral cue and a speeded button response has been shown to induce a behavioral choice preference change lasting for months. This paradigm includes several phases: after the training of individual items, behavior change is manifested in binary choices of items with similar initial values. Read More

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December 2018

Virus and host interactions critical for filoviral RNA synthesis as therapeutic targets.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Filoviruses, which include Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are negative-sense RNA viruses associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by uncontrolled virus replication. The extreme virulence and emerging nature of these zoonotic pathogens make them a significant threat to human health. Replication of the filovirus genome and production of viral RNAs requires the function of a complex of four viral proteins, the nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), viral protein 30 (VP30) and large protein (L). Read More

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December 2018

Comparative Flavivirus-Host Protein Interaction Mapping Reveals Mechanisms of Dengue and Zika Virus Pathogenesis.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1931-1945.e18

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute (QBI), University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; The J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are a growing public health concern. Systems-level analysis of how flaviviruses hijack cellular processes through virus-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provides information about their replication and pathogenic mechanisms. We used affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to compare flavivirus-host interactions for two viruses (DENV and ZIKV) in two hosts (human and mosquito). Read More

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December 2018

The capacity and resolution of spatial working memory and its role in the storage of non-spatial features.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK. Electronic address:

The question whether the storage of spatial locations and other non-spatial features in visual working memory (WM) is based on shared or separate processes remains unresolved. We recorded contralateral delay activity (CDA) components as on-line electrophysiological markers of WM maintenance in two tasks where observers had to retain either the colors or locations of sample stimuli. CDA components were elicited both in the Color and in the Location task, and increasing WM load had identical effects on CDA amplitudes, suggesting shared underlying mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

The role of RNA adenosine demethylases in the control of gene expression.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Brno 625 00, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

RNA modifications are being recognized as an essential factor in gene expression regulation. They play essential roles in germ line development, differentiation and disease. In eukaryotic mRNAs, N-adenosine methylation (mA) is the most prevalent internal chemical modification identified to date. Read More

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December 2018

Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis.

Surv Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis, a chronic, bilateral, seasonal allergic inflammatory disease of the eye, is an important cause of visual debilitation and impairment of quality of life in children and young adults in certain parts of the world such as the Mediterranean areas, Central and West Africa, the Middle East, Japan, the Indian subcontinent, and South America. It usually has a self-limiting course; however, in a few cases the disease is recurrent and leads to long-term visual disabling complications like keratoconus and limbal stem cell deficiency. The main pathogenic mechanism is IgE mediated; however, there may be non-IgE and certain non-specific hypersensitivity mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

NF45 promotes esophageal squamous carcinoma cell invasion by increasing Rac1 activity through 14-3-3ε protein.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Nuclear factor 45 (NF-45) has been found to be markedly upregulated in several cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions remain unclear. In this study, we confirm that overexpression of NF45 was frequently detected in ESCC tissues and was associated with poor outcome. Read More

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December 2018

The Role of Common Factors in Psychotherapy Outcomes.

Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical, Neuro-, and Developmental Psychology, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands; email:

Psychotherapies may work through techniques that are specific to each therapy or through factors that all therapies have in common. Proponents of the common factors model often point to meta-analyses of comparative outcome studies that show all therapies have comparable effects. However, not all meta-analyses support the common factors model; the included studies often have several methodological problems; and there are alternative explanations for finding comparable outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

Enhancing Electrochemical Efficiency of Hydroxyl Radical Formation on Diamond Electrodes by Functionalization with Hydrophobic Monolayers.

Langmuir 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Electrochemical formation of high-energy species such as hydroxyl radical in aqueous media is inefficient because oxidation of HO to form O is a more thermodynamically favorable reaction. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is widely used as an electrode material for generating ∙OH radicals because it has a very large kinetic overpotential for O production, thus increasing electrochemical efficiency for ∙OH production. Yet, the underlying mechanisms of O and ∙OH production at diamond electrodes are not well understood. Read More

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December 2018

Internet-based cognitive and behavioural therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 14;12:CD011710. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cardiff, UK, CF24 4HQ.

Background: Therapist-delivered trauma-focused psychological therapies are an effective treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These have become the accepted first-line treatments for the disorder. Despite the established evidence-base for these therapies, they are not always widely available or accessible. Read More

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December 2018

Chirality Dependence of Amyloid β Cellular Uptake and a New Mechanistic Perspective.

Chembiochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

UCSC, Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1156 High Street, 95064, Santa Cruz, UNITED STATES.

Amyloid β is an inherently disordered peptide that can form diverse neurotoxic aggregates, and its 42 amino acid long isoform is the believed culprit of Alzheimer's Disease. Cellular uptake of the peptide is a pivotal step for it to be able to exert many of its toxic actions. The cellular uptake process is complex, and numerous competing internalization pathways have been proposed. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanisms of acquired resistance to afatinib clarified with liquid biopsy.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209384. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, Respiratory Medicine and Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.

Although mechanisms of acquired resistance to 1st and 3rd generation EGFR-TKI continue to be elucidated, there have been few clinical investigations into the mechanisms of acquired resistance to the 2nd generation EGFR-TKI afatinib. We analyzed data from 20 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who acquired resistance to afatinib, including resistance during EGFR-TKI re-challenge. We examined EGFR T790M and C797S mutations, BRAF V600E mutation, and MET amplification with the MBP-QP method and with droplet digital PCR using ctDNA and re-biopsy samples obtained before and after afatinib treatment. Read More

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December 2018
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Sugarcane apoplast fluid modulates the global transcriptional profile of the diazotrophic bacteria Paraburkholderia tropica strain Ppe8.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0207863. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica-RJ-CEP, Brazil.

The stalk apoplast fluid of sugarcane contains different sugars, organic acids and amino acids that may supply the demand for carbohydrates by endophytic bacteria including diazotrophs P. tropica (syn. B. Read More

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December 2018

Glandular defects in the mouse uterus with sustained activation of TGF-beta signaling is associated with altered differentiation of endometrial stromal cells and formation of stromal compartment.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209417. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Uterine gland development, also known as adenogenesis, is a key uterine morphogenic process indispensable for normal uterine function and fertility. Our earlier studies have reported that overactivation of TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in the mouse uterus using progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase causes female infertility, defective decidualization, and reduced uterine gland formation, a developmental milestone of postnatal uterus. To understand mechanisms that underpin the disrupted uterine gland formation in mice with sustained activation of TGFBR1, we raised the question of whether early postnatal adenogenesis was compromised in these mice. Read More

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December 2018

microRNA-2110 functions as an onco-suppressor in neuroblastoma by directly targeting Tsukushi.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208777. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, United States of America.

microRNA-2110 (miR-2110) was previously identified as inducing neurite outgrowth in a neuroblastoma cell lines BE(2)-C, suggesting its differentiation-inducing and oncosuppressive function in neuroblastoma. In this study, we demonstrated that synthetic miR-2110 mimic had a generic effect on reducing cell survival in neuroblastoma cell lines with distinct genetic backgrounds, although the induction of cell differentiation traits varied between cell lines. In investigating the mechanisms underlying such functions of miR-2110, we identified that among its predicted target genes down-regulated by miR-2110, knockdown of Tsukushi (TSKU) expression showed the most potent effect in inducing cell differentiation and reducing cell survival, suggesting that TSKU protein plays a key role in mediating the functions of miR-2110. Read More

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December 2018
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Prediction of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli from large-scale pan-genome data.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 14;14(12):e1006258. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom.

The emergence of microbial antibiotic resistance is a global health threat. In clinical settings, the key to controlling spread of resistant strains is accurate and rapid detection. As traditional culture-based methods are time consuming, genetic approaches have recently been developed for this task. Read More

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December 2018
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Glucosylceramide acyl chain length is sensed by the glycolipid transfer protein.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209230. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6A, III, FI Turku, Finland.

The glycolipid transfer protein, GLTP, can be found in the cytoplasm, and it has a FFAT-like motif (two phenylalanines in an acidic tract) that targets it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that GLTP can bind to a transmembrane ER protein, vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A (VAP-A), which is involved in a wide range of ER functions. We have addressed the mechanisms that might regulate the association between GLTP and the VAP proteins by studying the capacity of GLTP to recognize different N-linked acyl chain species of glucosylceramide. Read More

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December 2018
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