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    Measles elimination and immunisation: national surveillance trends in Japan, 2008-2015.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Jun 23:1-8. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases,Tokyo,Japan.
    Measles elimination relies on vaccination programmes. In Japan, a major outbreak started in 2007. In response, 5-year two-dose catch-up vaccination programme was initiated in April 2008 for children 13-16-years-old. Read More

    The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(6):e0179470. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    The Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Minister of Education-School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai,China.
    Background: Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China. Read More

    Contrasting academic and lay press print coverage of the 2013-2016 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(6):e0179356. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
    Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Read More

    Emerging Viral Infections in Pakistan: Issues, Concerns, and Future Prospects.
    Health Secur 2017 May/Jun;15(3):268-281
    Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to public health security; this is especially true in the underdeveloped world because of limited resources to combat them. These emerging pathogens are characterized by a novel mode of pathogenesis and, in some cases, a broad host range. Over the past few decades, Pakistan has suffered a great deal from infectious diseases such as dengue, Crimean-Congo fever, hepatitis, measles, and polio. Read More

    Biology, evolution, and medical importance of polyomaviruses: An update.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Institute for Medical Informatics and Biometry, Technische Universität Dresden, Blasewitzer Strasse 86, 01307 Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:
    The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined. Read More

    Universal measles-mumps-rubella vaccination to new recruits and the incidence of mumps in the military.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    In response to the resurgence of mumps, the Korean Armed Forces started the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination to all new recruits regardless of prior vaccination history. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vaccination by comparing the incidence between the military and civilian populations before and after implementation of the new policy. The standardized incidence ratio of mumps in the military was 7. Read More

    Utilization and farmers' knowledge on pigeonpea diversity in Benin, West Africa.
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2017 Jun 20;13(1):37. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Department of Crop Science, School of Agriculture, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 44, Legon, Ghana.
    Background: Understanding factors driving farmers' uses of crop genetic resources is a key component not only to design appropriate conservation strategies but also to promote sustainable production. However, in Benin, limited information is available on farmers' knowledge related to pigeonpea uses and conservation. This study aimed at i) identifying and investigating the different uses of pigeonpea in relation with socio-cultural factors, namely age, gender, ethnic group and respondents' residence, ii) assessing pigeonpea varieties richness at household level and iii) evaluating the extent and distribution of pigeonpea varieties. Read More

    Mumps clinical diagnostic uncertainty.
    Eur J Public Health 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.
    Background: During recent years, various mumps outbreaks have occurred among populations vaccinated for mumps worldwide. In Italy, improving routine coverage with two doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is one of the key strategies to eliminate measles and rubella. To monitor the effect of the vaccination programme on the population, the surveillance of these vaccine-preventable diseases has been implemented. Read More

    Zinc supplementation for the treatment of measles in children.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jun 20;6:CD011177. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, George street, Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, 7700.
    Background: Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. Read More

    Qualitative Assessment of Vaccination Hesitancy Among Members of the Apostolic Church of Zimbabwe: A Case Study.
    J Relig Health 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Inter-country Support Team for East and Southern Africa, World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Vaccine hesitancy or lack of confidence in vaccines is considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. The rise and spread of measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections among Apostolic Church members, estimated at about 3.5 million in Zimbabwe as of 2014. Read More

    Measles Outbreak with Unique Virus Genotyping, Ontario, Canada, 2015.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Jul;23(7):1063-1069
    The province of Ontario continues to experience measles virus transmissions despite the elimination of measles in Canada. We describe an unusual outbreak of measles in Ontario, Canada, in early 2015 that involved cases with a unique strain of virus and no known association among primary case-patients. A total of 18 cases of measles were reported from 4 public health units during the outbreak period (January 25-March 23, 2015); none of these cases occurred in persons who had recently traveled. Read More

    Socio-economic and demographic determinants of full immunization among children of 12-23 months in Afghanistan.
    Nagoya J Med Sci 2017 Feb;79(2):179-188
    Department of Healthcare Administration, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
    Immunization is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce vaccine-preventable diseases morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is very low in Afghanistan; National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) Survey 2008 estimated the coverage of fully immunized children to be 37%. The current study was designed to examine the factors influencing full immunization among children aged 12-23 months. Read More

    How to Increase Vaccination Acceptance Among Apostolic Communities: Quantitative Results from an Assessment in Three Provinces in Zimbabwe.
    J Relig Health 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Inter-country Support Team for East and Southern Africa, World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    A worldwide increasing trend toward vaccine hesitancy has been reported. Measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections originating from Apostolic gatherings. Founded in Zimbabwe in the 1950s, the Apostolic church has built up a large number of followers with an estimated 3. Read More

    Timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccinations in children by two years of age in Alberta, Canada.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Jun 16;108(2):e124-e128. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Research and Innovation, Population Public and Indigenous Health, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB.
    Objectives: Assessing timeliness and completeness of vaccine administration is important for evaluating the effectiveness of immunization programs. Few studies have reported timeliness, particularly in Canada. The objective of this study was to examine timeliness of the receipt of vaccination for each routine childhood recommended vaccine by 24 months of age among children in a community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Read More

    A case of fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with acute myoclonic-astatic epilepsy.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2017 Apr-Jun;53(2):167-169
    Laboratorio Nazionale di Riferimento per il Morbillo e la Rosolia, Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    The neurologic sequelae post-measles are less common than other complications measles-related and can lead to severe disability or death: primary measles encephalitis (PME), acute post-infectious measles encephalomyelitis (APME), measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). SSPE syndrome can affect people years from the acute measles virus infection, as result of the persistence of defective viral particles in brain cells. Clinical onset typically manifests with progressive intellectual deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. Read More

    MMR vaccine in the postpartum does not expose seronegative women to untoward effects.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2017 Apr-Jun;53(2):152-156
    SOC Pediatria, Ospedale Castelli, Verbania, Italy.
    Background: The aim of this study was to assess whether rubella vaccination immediately after delivery could expose seronegative women to specific untoward effects.

    Methods: 163 rubella-seronegative women received Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine in the immediate postpartum period; they were evaluated at one month and at three months thereafter through telephone interviews. As controls, we matched 163 rubella-seropositive women, who might experience similar symptoms for any reason in the same timeframe. Read More

    Causes of childhood blindness in Ghana: results from a blind school survey in Upper West Region, Ghana, and review of the literature.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, 2351 Erwin Rd, DUMC 3802, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.
    Purpose: Data on childhood blindness in Ghana are limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the major causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment (SVI) at Wa Methodist School for the Blind in Northern Ghana, and to compare our results to those published from other studies conducted in Ghana.

    Methods: In this retrospective study, data from an eye screening at Wa Methodist School in November 2014 were coded according to the World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness standardized reporting methodology. Read More

    Pre-vaccination evolution of antibodies among infants 0, 3 and 6months of age: A longitudinal analysis of measles, enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus 16.
    Vaccine 2017 Jul 10;35(31):3817-3822. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Due to waning levels of maternal antibodies (measles; enterovirus 71, EV71; and coxsackievirus A16, CoxA16), some infants may lose protection against infection prior to vaccination. Using a longitudinal design, we examine how maternal antibody levels evolve over time in infants prior to vaccination.

    Methods: In 2013-2014, we collected sera at ages 0, 3 and 6months from infants. Read More

    Visualization and Analysis of MicroRNAs within KEGG Pathways using VANESA.
    J Integr Bioinform 2017 Jun 13;14(1). Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules which are known to take part in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Here, VANESA, an existing platform for reconstructing, visualizing, and analysis of large biological networks, has been further expanded to include all experimentally validated human miRNAs available within miRBase, TarBase and miRTarBase. This is done by integrating a custom hybrid miRNA database to DAWIS-M. Read More

    Perceptions of measles, pneumonia, and meningitis vaccines among caregivers in Shanghai, China, and the health belief model: a cross-sectional study.
    BMC Pediatr 2017 Jun 12;17(1):143. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.
    Background: In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis. Read More

    The effectiveness of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination in the prevention of pediatric hospitalizations for targeted and untargeted infections: a retrospective cohort study.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    b RM/1 Local Health Unit , Rome , Italy.
    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in reducing hospitalizations for infectious disease, targeted and not targeted, as well as from respiratory diseases in children in Rome.

    Methods: . The cohort was recomposed through record linkage of two archives (vaccination register and hospital discharge records. Read More

    Vaccination in newly arrived immigrants to the European Union.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Biovomed, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.
    The challenge of assimilating millions of immigrants in the European region each year presents significant socioeconomic issues. Among them is the threat of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) disease transmission within immigrant groups and the broader population given the permeability of nation state borders. A total of 3. Read More

    Structure and organization of paramyxovirus particles.
    Curr Opin Virol 2017 Jun 8;24:105-114. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, United States. Electronic address:
    The paramyxovirus family comprises major human and animal pathogens such as measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), the parainfluenzaviruses, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the highly pathogenic zoonotic hendra (HeV) and nipah (NiV) viruses. Paramyxovirus particles are pleomorphic, with a lipid envelope, nonsegmented RNA genomes of negative polarity, and densely packed glycoproteins on the virion surface. A number of crystal structures of different paramyxovirus proteins and protein fragments were solved, but the available information concerning overall virion organization remains limited. Read More

    How order and disorder within paramyxoviral nucleoproteins and phosphoproteins orchestrate the molecular interplay of transcription and replication.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    CIRI, International Center for Infectiology Research, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.
    In this review, we summarize computational and experimental data gathered so far showing that structural disorder is abundant within paramyxoviral nucleoproteins (N) and phosphoproteins (P). In particular, we focus on measles, Nipah, and Hendra viruses and highlight both commonalities and differences with respect to the closely related Sendai virus. The molecular mechanisms that control the disorder-to-order transition undergone by the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (NTAIL) of their N proteins upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the homologous P proteins are described in detail. Read More

    Reduced antibody response to infant measles vaccination: effects based on type and timing of the first vaccine dose persist after the second dose.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    British Columbia Center for Disease Control, Vancouver, Canada.
    Background: The effect of age at first dose on the immunogenicity of a two-dose pediatric schedule of Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or MMR-Varicella (MMRV) vaccines was assessed in children born to mostly vaccinated mothers.

    Methods: Immunogenicity data among children given their first measles vaccine dose between 11 and 22 months of age were pooled from five randomized controlled trials conducted in Europe and the United States between 2004 and 2010. Measles antibody titers were measured by ELISA before/after each dose: geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) and the proportion sero-negative (GMC<150mIU/ml) were derived by age at first dose. Read More

    Genetic Variants in the IL-4/IL-13 Pathway Influence Measles Vaccine Responses and Vaccine Failure in Children from Mozambique.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    1 Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia , Perth, Western Australia, Australia .
    Despite effective measles vaccines, measles still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The Th2 pathway involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 cytokines, and their receptor IL-4Rα, play important roles in the Th1/Th2 balance and antibody production. A Th2 skewing of the cytokine milieu may affect vaccine responses. Read More

    Dimerization Efficiency of Canine Distemper Virus Matrix Protein Regulates Membrane Budding Activity.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Division of Neurological Sciences, DCR-VPH, Vetsuisse faculty, Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, Veterinary Public Health Institute, DCR-VPH, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, 3001 Bern, Switzerland
    Paramyxoviruses rely on the matrix (M) protein to orchestrate viral assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. Although mechanistic details remain largely unknown, structural data suggested that M dimers and/or higher oligomers may facilitate membrane budding. To gain functional insights, we here employed a structure-guided mutagenesis approach to investigate the role of canine distemper virus (CDV) M protein self-assembly in membrane budding activity. Read More

    Noma in an HIV infected patient in Guinea-Bissau: a case report.
    Infection 2017 Jun 6. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Bandim Health Project, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
    Background: Noma is a multifactorial and multibacterial opportunistic infection that initially causes necrotic gingivitis but rapidly spreads to the nearby orofacial tissue resulting in sloughing and severe deformation of the facial structures. The majority of cases are seen in young children under the age of 6 years. Noma is strongly associated with poverty, malnutrition and immunosuppression, and is often preceded by severe systemic infections such as measles and malaria. Read More

    Measles hepatitis in a vaccinated liver transplant recipient: case report and review of literature.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 Jun 20;5(6):867-870. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Gastroenterology & Hepatology DepartmentHamad Medical CorporationDohaQatar.
    Measles infection, postliver transplant, may lead to a fatal graft loss. Individuals who have been previously exposed to the measles antigen may have a modified disease presentation. Although vaccination may not provide solid immunity, it ameliorates the severity of the disease. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies and Predictors for Seropositivity among Chinese Children.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Jun 6;14(6). Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, China.
    Background: Supplementary measles immunization has been implemented since 2010 throughout China, yet few studies have reported its effect in the northwest regions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 2 to 4 years old (n = 755) from February to September 2014 in 25 towns of Qian County, Shaanxi Province. Blood samples were analyzed for measles antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays. Read More

    Etiological and epidemiological factors in hearing-impaired students in Van, East of Turkey: A case series.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Jun;67(6):951-953
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Van, Turkey.
    The aim of the present case series was to investigate the causes of hearing loss in the children studying at a primary School for the deaf in Van Province, Turkey. The present series included 95 children with sensorineural hearing loss. Otoscopic and ophthalmological examinations, pure-tone audiometry, and tympanometry were performed for each patient. Read More

    Global and national laboratory networks support high quality surveillance for measles and rubella.
    Int Health 2017 May;9(3):184-189
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
    Laboratory networks are an essential component of disease surveillance systems because they provide accurate and timely confirmation of infection. WHO coordinates global laboratory surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases, including measles and rubella. The more than 700 laboratories within the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) supports surveillance for measles, rubella and congenial rubella syndrome in 191 counties. Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of providing measles vaccination to all children in Guinea-Bissau.
    Glob Health Action 2017 ;10(1):1329968
    e Department of Global Health and Development , London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Background: Measles vaccination is associated with major reductions in child mortality and morbidity. In Guinea-Bissau, to limit vaccine wastage, children are only measles-vaccinated if at least six children aged 9-11 months are present at a vaccination session.

    Objective: To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of providing measles vaccine (MV) to all children regardless of age and number of children present. Read More

    The Diversity of Challenges in the Control of Measles Outbreaks.
    Health Secur 2017 May/Jun;15(3):303-306. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Jeffrey D. Gunzenhauser, MD, MPH, is with the Medical Bureau, Disease Control, and Franklin D. Pratt, MD, MPHTM, is with the Immunization Program, both in the County of Los Angeles Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA.
    From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations. Read More

    Forgotten but Not Gone: Update on Measles Infection for Hospitalists.
    J Hosp Med 2017 Jun;12(6):472-476
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Viral Disease, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Measles (rubeola) continues to be endemic and epidemic in many regions of the world. Measles is primarily a disease of childhood, but it can also affect adult populations, and therefore it is important that both adult and pediatric hospitalist physicians be able to recognize it. Although the disease is rarely encountered in the United States, measles infection can spread rapidly across vulnerable populations. Read More

    Reemergence of Measles in the Americas: The Genotype B3 2011-2012 Outbreak in Ecuador.
    Vaccines (Basel) 2017 Jun 2;5(2). Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department. of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.
    This study characterizes a measles outbreak which occurred in Ecuador in 2011-2012, analyzing data from 3700 suspected cases of measles reported to Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. The study population had a large age range and included 333 confirmed cases of measles. The greatest number of cases were found in the <1 year (32. Read More

    Voluntary Vaccination through Self-organizing Behaviors on Locally-mixed Social Networks.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 1;7(1):2665. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    School of Cyberspace, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018, China.
    Voluntary vaccination reflects how individuals weigh the risk of infection and the cost of vaccination against the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as smallpox and measles. In a homogeneously mixing population, the infection risk of an individual depends largely on the proportion of vaccinated individuals due to the effects of herd immunity. While in a structured population, the infection risk can also be affected by the structure of individuals' social network. Read More

    Trends of vaccine-preventable diseases in Afghanistan from the Disease Early Warning System, 2009-2015.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(6):e0178677. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.
    Background: Afghanistan's public health system was neglected during decades of military and civil conflict, and trends in infectious disease occurrence remain poorly characterized. This study examines cyclical and long-term trends of six vaccine-preventable diseases: pneumonia, diarrhea, meningitis, typhoid, measles, and acute viral hepatitis.

    Methods: Using weekly data collected between 2009 and 2015 through Afghanistan's Disease Early Warning System, we calculated monthly case counts, and fit a Poisson regression with a Fourier transformation for seasonal cycles and dummy variables for year. Read More

    Stop measles in Switzerland - The importance of travel medicine.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 29;35(30):3760-3763. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Rheumatology, Basel University Hospital, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: In line with the worldwide strive to combat measles, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Heath (FOPH) launched a National Strategy for measles elimination 2011-2015. In this study, we highlight the importance of travel medicine consultations to complement measles vaccination programmes based on data from the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich.

    Method: We analysed measles vaccination data from the Zurich Travel Clinic between July 2010 and February 2016 and focused on three groups: (i) all clients who received the measles vaccination, (ii) all clients aged>two years who received the measles vaccination ("catch-up vaccination"), and (iii) all clients aged>two years and born after 1963 ("FOPH recommended catch-up vaccination"). Read More

    Modeling the Transmission of Measles and Rubella to Support Global Management Policy Analyses and Eradication Investment Cases.
    Risk Anal 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Kid Risk, Inc., Orlando, FL, USA.
    Policy makers responsible for managing measles and rubella immunization programs currently use a wide range of different vaccines formulations and immunization schedules. With endemic measles and rubella transmission interrupted in the region of the Americas, all five other regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) targeting the elimination of measles transmission by 2020, and increasing adoption of rubella vaccine globally, integrated dynamic disease, risk, decision, and economic models can help national, regional, and global health leaders manage measles and rubella population immunity. Despite hundreds of publications describing models for measles or rubella and decades of use of vaccines that contain both antigens (e. Read More

    Chaos as an intermittently forced linear system.
    Nat Commun 2017 May 30;8(1):19. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.
    Understanding the interplay of order and disorder in chaos is a central challenge in modern quantitative science. Approximate linear representations of nonlinear dynamics have long been sought, driving considerable interest in Koopman theory. We present a universal, data-driven decomposition of chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. Read More

    Enhancing global vaccine pharmacovigilance: Proof-of-concept study on aseptic meningitis and immune thrombocytopenic purpura following measles-mumps containing vaccination.
    Vaccine 2017 May 27. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are now being introduced without prior record of utilization in countries with robust pharmacovigilance systems. To address this deficit, our objective was to demonstrate feasibility of an international hospital-based network for the assessment of potential epidemiological associations between serious and rare adverse events and vaccines in any setting. This was done through a proof-of-concept evaluation of the risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and aseptic meningitis (AM) following administration of the first dose of measles-mumps-containing vaccines using the self-controlled risk interval method in the primary analysis. Read More

    Semantic network analysis of vaccine sentiment in online social media.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 27;35(29):3621-3638. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Biocomplexity Institute, Virginia Tech, USA. Electronic address:
    Objective: To examine current vaccine sentiment on social media by constructing and analyzing semantic networks of vaccine information from highly shared websites of Twitter users in the United States; and to assist public health communication of vaccines.

    Background: Vaccine hesitancy continues to contribute to suboptimal vaccination coverage in the United States, posing significant risk of disease outbreaks, yet remains poorly understood.

    Methods: We constructed semantic networks of vaccine information from internet articles shared by Twitter users in the United States. Read More

    Underreporting of congenital rubella in Italy, 2010-2014.
    Eur J Pediatr 2017 Jul 28;176(7):955-962. Epub 2017 May 28.
    Communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.
    In accordance with the goals of the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Europe, the Italian national Measles and Rubella Elimination Plan 2010-2015 aimed to reduce the incidence of congenital rubella cases to <1 case/100,000 live births by 2015. In Italy, a passive national surveillance system for congenital rubella and rubella in pregnancy is active since 2005. We estimated the degree of underreporting of congenital rubella, performing a capture-recapture analysis of cases detected through two independent sources: the national surveillance system and the national hospital discharge database, in the years 2010-2014. Read More

    Why does measles persist in Europe?
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 May 26. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Public Health Agency of Catalonia, Department of Health of Catalonia, Roc Boronat 83-95, Barcelona, 08005, Spain.
    Several reasons may explain why measles was not eliminated by 2015 and continues to persist in Europe, including low measles vaccination coverage, low anti-measles herd immunity levels, and the mobility of individuals with measles across Europe. The study assessed the mean measles vaccination coverage in the European Union and the WHO European region with one and two doses of measles vaccine from 1980 to 2015, and the prevalence of vaccine-induced protected individuals and anti-measles herd immunity levels in the WHO European region during 2000-2015. The study found that measles vaccination coverage with two doses of vaccine was <90% in the European Union and the WHO European region from 1995 to 2015. Read More

    Immunization requirements of the top 200 universities: Implications for vaccine-hesitant families.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 23;35(29):3661-3665. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Yale School of Medicine, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: The majority of pediatricians encounter vaccine hesitancy in their practices. As part of a broad discussion about vaccination, school requirements arise as a topic yet providers may lack information about the effects of immunization on university matriculation.

    Methods: We surveyed the top-ranked 200 universities regarding required immunizations, medical, religious, and philosophical exemptions, and noncompliance policies. Read More

    On religious and secular exemptions: A case study of childhood vaccination waivers.
    Ethnicities 2017 Apr 9;17(2):220-241. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Paul Scholten Centre for Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    This paper analyses exemptions to general law through the prism of vaccine waivers in the United States. All US states legally require the vaccination of children prior to school or daycare entry; however, this obligation is accompanied with a system of medical, religious, and/or philosophical exemptions. Nonmedical exemptions became subject of discussion after the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak in California, which unequivocally brought to light what had been brewing below the surface for a while: a slow but steady decline in vaccination rates in Western societies, resulting in the reoccurrence of measles outbreaks. Read More

    Effect of early measles vaccine on pneumococcal colonization: A randomized trial from Guinea-Bissau.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(5):e0177547. Epub 2017 May 17.
    The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection.

    Objective: We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. Read More

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