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    Evaluation of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination Among Newly Arrived Refugees.
    Am J Public Health 2017 Mar 21:e1-e3. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    All of the authors are with the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Objectives: To assess US availability and use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination documentation for refugees vaccinated overseas.

    Methods: We selected 1500 refugee records from 14 states from March 2013 through July 2015 to determine whether overseas vaccination records were available at the US postarrival health assessment and integrated into the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule. We assessed number of doses, dosing interval, and contraindications. Read More

    Successful administration of measles-rubella-mumps vaccine by graded challenge in a case with anaphylaxis after prior vaccination.
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2017 Apr;115(2):e89-e91
    Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Department of Pediatrics. Izmir, Turkey.
    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies during childhood along with cow's milk allergy. The measles-mumpsrubella (MMR) vaccine is included in the pediatric immunization schedule and contains egg protein. The currently accepted opinion is that the MMR vaccination should be done in a single dose under medical observation in patients with egg allergy. Read More

    Exploring novel sero-epidemiological tools-Effect of different storage conditions on longitudinal stability of microarray slides comprising influenza A-, measles- and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens.
    J Virol Methods 2017 Mar 15. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Viroscience Department, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Virology Department, Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, Diagnostics and Screening, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, the Netherlands. Electronic address:
    In this study we evaluated the long-term stability of a microarray-based serological screening platform, containing antigens of influenza A, measles and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as part of a preparedness research program aiming to develop assays for syndromic disease detection. Spotted microarray slides were kept at four different storage regimes with varying temperature and humidity conditions. We showed that under the standard storage condition in a temperature-controlled (21°C) and desiccated environment (0% relative humidity), microarray slides remained stable for at least 22 months without loss of antigen quality, whereas the other three conditions (37°C, desiccated; Room temperature, non-desiccated; Frozen, desiccated) produced acceptable results for some antigens (influenza A, S. Read More

    Global eradication of measles: Are we poised?
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2017 Jan-Mar;35(1):10-16
    Department of Community Medicine, SDM College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.
    Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Read More

    Trend of measles, mumps, and rubella incidence following the measles-rubella catch up vaccination in the Republic of Korea, 2001.
    J Med Virol 2017 Mar 17. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Department of Epidemiology, Seoul National University School of Public Health, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted. Read More

    Evaluation of low immunization coverage among the Amish population in rural Ohio.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 Mar 13. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH.
    Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review included childhood immunizations among the 10 great public health achievements in the United States in the 20th century. Despite this acknowledged success, childhood immunization rates continue to be much lower in select populations. Amish communities have persistently lower immunization rates. Read More

    Effects on the anti-ABO titers of military blood donors from a predeployment vaccination program.
    J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2017 Mar 15. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    From the Department for Transfusion Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Background: The use of blood group O as "universal blood" for emergency whole blood transfusions carries the risk for a hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by incompatible A-/B-antibodies. This risk can be minimized by assuring that the donor has a low titer of anti-A and anti-B. The level of these naturally occurring antibodies have been shown to be increased by vaccination with most biologically derived vaccines. Read More

    The "Choosing Wisely" initiative in infectious diseases.
    Infection 2017 Mar 13. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department I of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Objective: "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming at practice changes to improve patient health and safety by both, conduct of essential and avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic procedures. The goal is to create an easily recognizable and distributable list ("Choosing Wisely items") that addresses common over- and underuse in the management of infectious diseases.

    Methods: The German Society of Infectious Diseases (DGI) participates in the campaign "Klug Entscheiden" by the German Society of Internal Medicine. Read More

    Genome-wide associations of CD46 and IFI44L genetic variants with neutralizing antibody response to measles vaccine.
    Hum Genet 2017 Apr 13;136(4):421-435. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Guggenheim 611C, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
    Population-based studies have revealed 2-10% measles vaccine failure rate even after two vaccine doses. While the mechanisms behind this remain unknown, we hypothesized that host genetic factors are likely to be involved. We performed a genome-wide association study of measles specific neutralizing antibody and IFNγ ELISPOT response in a combined sample of 2872 subjects. Read More

    Mobile phone-delivered reminders and incentives to improve childhood immunisation coverage and timeliness in Kenya (M-SIMU): a cluster randomised controlled trial.
    Lancet Glob Health 2017 Apr;5(4):e428-e438
    International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: As mobile phone access continues to expand globally, opportunities exist to leverage these technologies to support demand for immunisation services and improve vaccine coverage. We aimed to assess whether short message service (SMS) reminders and monetary incentives can improve immunisation uptake in Kenya.

    Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, villages were randomly and evenly allocated to four groups: control, SMS only, SMS plus a 75 Kenya Shilling (KES) incentive, and SMS plus 200 KES (85 KES = USD$1). Read More

    Impact of Non-Medical Vaccine Exemption Policies on the Health and Economic Burden of Measles.
    Acad Pediatr 2017 Mar 9. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 12850 E. Montview Blvd, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
    Objective: Despite relatively high national vaccination coverage for measles, geographic vaccination variation exists resulting in clusters of susceptibility. A portion of this geographic variation can be explained by differences in state policies related to non-medical vaccine exemptions. The objective of this analysis was to determine the magnitude, likelihood, and cost of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies. Read More

    Analysis of the effects of individual and community level factors on childhood immunization in Malawi.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 8. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wuhsing St, Taipei City 110, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background: Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between childhood immunization and individual- and community-level factors in low-income countries has received little attention. We compared the trends and the effects of a wide range of individual- and community-level socioeconomic factors on the likelihood of a child being immunized between 2004 and 2010 in Malawi.

    Methods: We used data from the 2004 and 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and applied generalized estimating logistic regression equation to analyze data respectively on 2042 and 3496 children aged 12-23months. Read More

    Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from six months to five years of age.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Mar 11;3:CD008524. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G A04.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, affecting 190 million children under five years of age and leading to many adverse health consequences, including death. Based on prior evidence and a previous version of this review, the World Health Organization has continued to recommend vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 to 59 months. There are new data available from recently published randomised trials since the previous publication of this review in 2010, and this update incorporates this information and reviews the evidence. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of a Wild-Type Measles Virus Isolated during a 2016 Winter Outbreak in a Refugee Settlement in Calais, France.
    Genome Announc 2017 Mar 9;5(10). Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    CHU de Caen, Department of Virology, Caen, France.
    Measles outbreaks are regularly reported in European countries despite efforts to improve vaccination coverage. In January 2016, an outbreak occurred in a refugee settlement in Calais, France. We report here the complete genome sequence of a wild-type measles virus isolated from a health care worker (MVi/Calais. Read More

    Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance inaugural annual report, 2014.
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2016 Sep 30;40(3):E391-E400. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Deputy Director, National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Kids Research Institute, The Children's Hospital at Westmead; New South Wales.
    Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child.

    Methods: Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. Read More

    Immunoglobulin GM and KM genes and measles vaccine-induced humoral immunity.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 6. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:
    Identifying genetic polymorphisms that explain variations in humoral immunity to live measles virus vaccine is of great interest. Immunoglobulin GM (heavy chain) and KM (light chain) allotypes are genetic markers known to be associated with susceptibility to several infectious diseases. We assessed associations between GM and KM genotypes and measles vaccine humoral immunity (neutralizing antibody titers) in a combined cohort (n=1796) of racially diverse healthy individuals (age 18-41years). Read More

    Accuracy of parent-reported measles-containing vaccination status of children with measles.
    Public Health 2017 Mar 11;144:92-95. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, China. Electronic address:
    Objectives: The validity of parent-reported measles-containing vaccination history in children with measles has not been assessed. This study evaluated the accuracy of parental recall of measles-containing vaccination histories in Shenzhen, China.

    Study Design: A retrospective study was performed to compare the data from the electronic records with parental recall. Read More

    Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviours towards Recommended Vaccinations among Healthcare Workers.
    Healthcare (Basel) 2017 Mar 7;5(1). Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy.
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group of professionals exposed to biological risk during their work activities. So, the aim of this study is to perform a survey on the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of Italian HCWs towards the vaccinations recommended by the Ministry of Health. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period September 2014-August 2015 in the Lazio region. Read More

    Factors influencing uptake of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization in site-dwelling Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (G&T) communities: a qualitative study of G&T parents' beliefs and experiences.
    Child Care Health Dev 2017 Mar 7. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Psychology, Social Work and Counselling, University of Greenwich, London, UK.
    Background: Increasing immunization in the Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (G&T) community is a key priority for improving health outcomes in this community. This study aimed to explore G&T parents: (1) beliefs about childhood immunization; (2) beliefs about the risks of immunization and non-immunization; (3) perceived obstacles to, and facilitators of, immunization and (4) views on increasing immunization levels.

    Method: A cross-sectional, qualitative study was conducted comprising of five focus groups with 16 site-dwelling G&T women with pre-school aged children. Read More

    Lack of immunity against rubella among Italian young adults.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Mar 7;17(1):199. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.
    Background: To support the evaluation of the 2010-15 National Plan for Measles and Congenital Rubella Elimination, the authors designed and performed a serosurveillance survey to verify the immunity/susceptibility rate against rubella among Apulian young adults.

    Methods: The study was carried out from May 2011 to June 2012 in the Department of Transfusion Medicine/Blood Bank of Policlinico General Hospital in Bari. Subjects were enrolled by a convenience sampling. Read More

    Vaccinations in early life are not associated with development of islet autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes high-risk children: Results from prospective cohort data.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(14):1735-1741. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany; Forschergruppe Diabetes der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Aims/hypothesis: Vaccinations in early childhood potentially stimulate the immune system and may thus be relevant for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). We determined the association of vaccination burden with T1D-associated islet autoimmunity in children with high familial risk followed prospectively from birth.

    Methods: A total of 20,570 certified vaccination records from 1918 children were correlated with time to onset of T1D-associated islet autoimmunity using Cox regression, considering multiple time periods up until age two years and vaccination types, and adjusting for HLA genotype, sex, delivery mode, season of birth, preterm delivery and maternal T1D status. Read More

    30-year trends in admission rates for encephalitis in children in England and effect of improved diagnostics and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: a population-based observational study.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Background: Encephalitis is a serious neurological disorder, yet data on admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are scarce. We aimed to estimate admission rates for childhood encephalitis in England over 33 years (1979-2011), to describe trends in admission rates, and to observe how these rates have varied with the introduction of vaccines and improved diagnostics.

    Methods: We did a retrospective analysis of hospital admission statistics for encephalitis for individuals aged 0-19 years using national data from the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE, 1979-85) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES, 1990-2011). Read More

    Measles epidemic in Brazil in the post-elimination period: Coordinated response and containment strategies.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 27;35(13):1721-1728. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Departamento de Saúde Comunitária da Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The measles virus circulation was halted in Brazil in 2001 and the country has a routine vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella higher than 95%. In Ceará, the last confirmed case was in 1999. This article describes the strategies adopted and the effectiveness of surveillance and control measures implemented during a measles epidemic in the post-elimination period. Read More

    Epidemiological characteristics of measles from 2000 to 2014: Results of a measles catch-up vaccination campaign in Xianyang, China.
    J Infect Public Health 2017 Feb 18. Epub 2017 Feb 18.
    Institute of Endemic Diseases of School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University; Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases of Ministry of Education; Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of Ministry of Health, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, PR China. Electronic address:
    This study was a cross-sectional case-control study aimed at (1) identifying risk factors contributing to the measles epidemic and (2) evaluating the impacts of measles-containing vaccines (MCVs), with the goal of providing evidence-based recommendations for measles elimination strategies in China. Data on measles cases from 2000 to 2014 were obtained from a passive surveillance system at the Center for Diseases Prevention and Control in Xianyang. The effectiveness of MCVs was evaluated in 357 patients with a vaccination history and 503 healthy randomly selected controls. Read More

    Adapting Nepal's polio eradication programme.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Mar 25;95(3):227-232. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States of America (USA).
    Problem: Many countries have weak disease surveillance and immunization systems. The elimination of polio creates an opportunity to use staff and assets from the polio eradication programme to control other vaccine-preventable diseases and improve disease surveillance and immunization systems.

    Approach: In 2003, the active surveillance system of Nepal's polio eradication programme began to report on measles and neonatal tetanus cases. Read More

    Measles virus enters breast and colon cancer cell lines through a PVRL4-mediated macropinocytosis pathway.
    J Virol 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4R2
    Measles virus (MeV) is a member of the family Paramixoviridae that causes a highly contagious respiratory disease, but has emerged as a promising oncolytic platform. Previous studies of MeV entry have focused on the identification of cellular receptors. However, the endocytic and trafficking pathways utilized during MeV entry remain poorly described. Read More

    The changing epidemiology of measles in an era of elimination: lessons from health-care-setting transmissions of measles during an outbreak in New South Wales, Australia, 2012.
    Western Pac Surveill Response J 2016 Oct-Dec;7(4):12-20. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Diseases (NCIRS), The Children's Hospital at Westmead and the University of Sydney, New South Wales.; Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Sydney, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales.
    Introduction: In countries where measles is rare, health-care-setting transmissions remain problematic. Australia experienced its largest measles outbreak in 15 years in 2012 with 199 cases reported nationally; 170 cases occurred in the state of New South Wales (NSW) with symptom onset between 7 April and 29 November 2012.

    Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using measles case data obtained from metropolitan Sydney local health districts in NSW in 2012. Read More

    Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency.
    Nutrients 2017 Feb 24;9(3). Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland.
    Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programs targeted at children aged 6-59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA) reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. Read More

    Vaccines: Shaping global health.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 23;35(12):1579-1585. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Sinergium Biotech, Ruta Panamericana, km 38.7, Garín, Buenos Aires P1619IEA, Argentina. Electronic address:
    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. Read More

    Viral co-infections among children with confirmed measles at hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, 2014.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 Feb 20;10(2):171-174. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, No 1-Yesrsin Street, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Electronic address:
    Objective: To characterize viral co-infections among representative hospitalized measles cases during the 2014 Hanoi outbreak.

    Methods: Throat swabs were collected from 54 pediatric patients with confirmed measles, and molecular diagnostics performed for 10 additional viral respiratory pathogens (Influenza A/H1N1pdm09; A/H3N2 and influenza B; Parainfluenza 1, 2, 3; Respiratory Synctial Virus, RSV; human Metapneumovirus, hMPV; Adenovirus and Picornavirus).

    Results: Twenty-one cases (38. Read More

    Effect of Ebola virus disease on maternal and child health services in Guinea: a retrospective observational cohort study.
    Lancet Glob Health 2017 Apr 23;5(4):e448-e457. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Woman and Child Health Research Centre, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: The 2014 west African epidemic of Ebola virus disease posed a major threat to the health systems of the countries affected. We sought to quantify the consequences of Ebola virus disease on maternal and child health services in the highly-affected Forest region of Guinea.

    Methods: We did a retrospective, observational cohort study of women and children attending public health facilities for antenatal care, institutional delivery, and immunisation services in six of seven health districts in the Forest region (Beyla, Guéckédou, Kissidougou, Lola, Macenta, and N'Zérékoré). Read More

    Immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in Finnish pediatric healthcare workers in 2015.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 21;35(12):1608-1614. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Children's Hospital, Pediatric Research Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) pose a risk to themselves and their patients if not protected against vaccine-preventable diseases. Alarmingly, lacking immunity has been reported in several studies. We assessed the immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in 157 pediatric HCWs in Helsinki Children's Hospital. Read More

    Risk factors and familial clustering for fever 7-10days after the first dose of measles vaccines.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 21;35(12):1615-1621. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, CA, United States.
    Background: Seven to ten days after a first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV; i.e., MMR or MMRV), children have elevated fever risk which can be associated with febrile seizures. Read More

    Measles virus infection of human keratinocytes: Possible link between measles and atopic dermatitis.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Feb 10. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    CIRI, International Centre for Infectiology Research (Immunobiology of Viral Infections team), Inserm, U1111, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Measles virus (MV) infection is marked with a skin rash in the acute phase of the disease, which pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Moreover, the association between measles and progression of skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), is still elusive.

    Objective: We have thus analysed the susceptibility of human keratinocytes to MV infection and explore the potential relationship between MV vaccination and the pathogenesis the AD. Read More

    Comparison of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
    Ear Nose Throat J 2017 Feb;96(2):69-74
    Tanner Clinic, 2121 N. 1700 W., Layton, UT 84041, USA.
    We conducted a retrospective study of the use of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccineas adjunctive treatments to lesion debridement in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Our study population was made up of 15 children-7 boys and 8 girls, aged 1 to 16 years at diagnosis (mean: 6.2)-with pathologically confirmed RRP who had been followed for at least 1 year. Read More

    Clinical Trials with Oncolytic Measles Virus: Current Status and Future Prospects.
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Molecular Medicine; Division of Medical Oncology 200 First Street SW Rochester, United States.
    Attenuated Edmonston lineage measles virus (MV-Edm) vaccine strains can preferentially infect and lyse a wide variety of cancer cells. Oncolytic MV-Edm derivatives genetically engineered to expressed the human carcinoembryonic antigen (MV-CEA virus) or the human sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS virus) and are currently being tested in clinical trials against ovarian cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple myeloma, mesothelioma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. This review describes the basic and preclinical data that facilitated the clinical translation of MV-Edm strains, and summarizes the clinical results of this oncolytic platform to date. Read More

    Demographics, epidemiology and the impact of vaccination campaigns in a measles-free world - Can elimination be maintained?
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 16;35(11):1488-1493. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Pennsylvania State University, USA.
    Introduction: All six WHO regions currently have goals for measles elimination by 2020. Measles vaccination is delivered via routine immunization programmes, which in most sub-Saharan African countries reach children around 9months of age, and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), which target a wider age range at multi-annual intervals. In the absence of endemic measles circulation, the proportion of individuals susceptible to measles will gradually increase through accumulation of new unvaccinated individuals in each birth cohort, increasing the risk of an epidemic. Read More

    Sensitization to bovine serum albumin as a possible cause of allergic reactions to vaccines.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 16;35(11):1494-1500. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenapura, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Immediate type hypersensitivity to vaccines containing bovine/porcine excipients, such as the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is probably due to sensitization to bovine/porcine gelatin. Most patients with such reactions in Sri Lanka have cow's milk (CM) or beef allergy.

    Objectives: We investigated whether those who had beef and CM allergy had a higher incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to vaccines and the possible trigger of such reactions. Read More

    [The active offering of measles, rubella and mumps vaccine in new mothers: the experience of health facilities in one of the Local Health Unit of Rome, Lazio, Italy].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2016 Nov-Dec;72(6):589-597
    Dipartimento di Biomedicina e Prevenzione, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Roma, Italia.
    Rubella is a contagious disease that can be very serious, especially in unvaccinated pregnant women. The best way to be protected is getting vaccinated: MMR vaccine is very effective at protecting people against measles, mumps, and rubella, and preventing the complications caused by these diseases. According to PASSI 2012-2015 (the Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system) in the territory of ex ASL Roma C only 56% of women between 18 and 49 years were immunized against rubella, thanks to vaccination (34%) or past infection detected by rubeotest (22%); 2% was susceptible and 42% of respondents did not know their immune status against rubella. Read More

    Problem of rubella in Poland after compensatory outbreak in 2013
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016 ;70(4):549-554
    Department of Virology, National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
    The attempt to estimate the real number of rubella cases in the years 2015-2016 in Poland was presented in this paper. The relations between number of reported cases of measles in 2006-2015y., the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of rubella among cases suspected of measles and the proportion of rubella among patients suspected of measles in the last 10 years as well as the results of serological examination in samples from 74 patients suspected of rubella collected in the first half of 2016 year were analysed. Read More

    Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).
    Online J Public Health Inform 2016 28;8(3):e206. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.
    Objective: To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation.

    Introduction: In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. Read More

    Prophylactic antipyretics for prevention of febrile seizures following vaccination.
    Can Fam Physician 2017 Feb;63(2):128-130
    Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinations associated with increased risk of febrile seizure include the following: the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine; the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; the whole-cell pertussis vaccine; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; and concomitant administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with either the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Read More

    Is Colombia reaching the goals on infant immunization coverage? A quantitative survey from 80 municipalities.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 13;35(11):1501-1508. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 # 45 - 03, Edificio 471, Oficina 150, Bogotá D.C., Colombia; Instituto Nacional de Salud, Avenida Calle 26 # 51 - 20, Centro Administrativo Nacional, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. Electronic address:
    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the coverage of the Colombian Expanded Program on Immunization among children less than 6years old, to evaluate the timeliness of immunization, to assess the coverage of newly introduced vaccines, and to identify factors associated with lack of immunization.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 80 municipalities of Colombia, using a two-stage cluster random sampling. We attempted to contact all children less than 6years old living in the sampled blocks, and asked their caregivers to provide immunization record cards. Read More

    Sustained Responses to Measles Revaccination at 24 Months in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    aDepartment of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA bDepartment of Research and Programs, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya cDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA dDepartment of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA eFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA fDepartment of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA gDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA hDepartment of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations.

    Methods: We administered an additional measles vaccine to HIV-infected children 15 months to 12 years of age receiving ART in Nairobi, Kenya. Measles antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at enrollment, one month, 12 months, and 24 months post revaccination. Read More

    Beware of 'lookalikes'.
    Nurs Stand 2017 Feb;31(25):28
    Birmingham City University.
    In 2014, health staff who were vaccinating children in rebel-held northern Syria accidentally administered a muscle relaxant, atracurium, to up to 75 children, killing 15 of them. An investigation found that the drug was given to the children instead of a solution used to mix measles vaccines because the packaging was similar. Read More

    Oncolytic measles virus induces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated cytotoxicity by human myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
    Oncoimmunology 2017 18;6(1):e1261240. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    INSERM, UMR892, Institut de Recherche en Santé de l'Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; CNRS, UMR6299, Institut de Recherche en Santé de l'Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Attenuated measles virus (MV) is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as an oncolytic therapeutic agent. Originally used for its lytic activity against tumor cells, it is now admitted that the effectiveness of MV also lies in its ability to initiate antitumor immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we investigated the capacity of oncolytic MV to convert human blood myeloid CD1c(+) DCs and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) into cytotoxic effectors. Read More

    Prophylactic vaccination targeting ERBB3 decreases polyp burden in a mouse model of human colorectal cancer.
    Oncoimmunology 2017 7;6(1):e1255395. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University , College Station, TX, USA.
    Prophylactic vaccination is typically utilized for the prevention of communicable diseases such as measles and influenza but, with the exception of vaccines to prevent cervical cancer, is not widely used as a means of preventing or reducing the incidence of cancer. Here, we utilize a peptide-based immunotherapeutic approach targeting ERBB3, a pseudo-kinase member of the EGFR/ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, as a means of preventing occurrence of colon polyps. Administration of the peptide resulted in a significant decrease in the development of intestinal polyps in C57BL/6J-Apc(Min) mice, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Read More

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