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    Comparison of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
    Ear Nose Throat J 2017 Feb;96(2):69-74
    Tanner Clinic, 2121 N. 1700 W., Layton, UT 84041, USA.
    We conducted a retrospective study of the use of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccineas adjunctive treatments to lesion debridement in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Our study population was made up of 15 children-7 boys and 8 girls, aged 1 to 16 years at diagnosis (mean: 6.2)-with pathologically confirmed RRP who had been followed for at least 1 year. Read More

    Clinical Trials with Oncolytic Measles Virus: Current Status and Future Prospects.
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Molecular Medicine; Division of Medical Oncology 200 First Street SW Rochester, United States.
    Attenuated Edmonston lineage measles virus (MV-Edm) vaccine strains can preferentially infect and lyse a wide variety of cancer cells. Oncolytic MV-Edm derivatives genetically engineered to expressed the human carcinoembryonic antigen (MV-CEA virus) or the human sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS virus) and are currently being tested in clinical trials against ovarian cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple myeloma, mesothelioma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. This review describes the basic and preclinical data that facilitated the clinical translation of MV-Edm strains, and summarizes the clinical results of this oncolytic platform to date. Read More

    Demographics, epidemiology and the impact of vaccination campaigns in a measles-free world - Can elimination be maintained?
    Vaccine 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Pennsylvania State University, USA.
    Introduction: All six WHO regions currently have goals for measles elimination by 2020. Measles vaccination is delivered via routine immunization programmes, which in most sub-Saharan African countries reach children around 9months of age, and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), which target a wider age range at multi-annual intervals. In the absence of endemic measles circulation, the proportion of individuals susceptible to measles will gradually increase through accumulation of new unvaccinated individuals in each birth cohort, increasing the risk of an epidemic. Read More

    Sensitization to bovine serum albumin as a possible cause of allergic reactions to vaccines.
    Vaccine 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenapura, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Immediate type hypersensitivity to vaccines containing bovine/porcine excipients, such as the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is probably due to sensitization to bovine/porcine gelatin. Most patients with such reactions in Sri Lanka have cow's milk (CM) or beef allergy.

    Objectives: We investigated whether those who had beef and CM allergy had a higher incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to vaccines and the possible trigger of such reactions. Read More

    [The active offering of measles, rubella and mumps vaccine in new mothers: the experience of health facilities in one of the Local Health Unit of Rome, Lazio, Italy].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2016 Nov-Dec;72(6):589-597
    Dipartimento di Biomedicina e Prevenzione, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Roma, Italia.
    Rubella is a contagious disease that can be very serious, especially in unvaccinated pregnant women. The best way to be protected is getting vaccinated: MMR vaccine is very effective at protecting people against measles, mumps, and rubella, and preventing the complications caused by these diseases. According to PASSI 2012-2015 (the Italian behavioral risk factor surveillance system) in the territory of ex ASL Roma C only 56% of women between 18 and 49 years were immunized against rubella, thanks to vaccination (34%) or past infection detected by rubeotest (22%); 2% was susceptible and 42% of respondents did not know their immune status against rubella. Read More

    Problem of rubella in Poland after compensatory outbreak in 2013
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016 ;70(4):549-554
    Department of Virology, National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland
    The attempt to estimate the real number of rubella cases in the years 2015-2016 in Poland was presented in this paper. The relations between number of reported cases of measles in 2006-2015y., the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of rubella among cases suspected of measles and the proportion of rubella among patients suspected of measles in the last 10 years as well as the results of serological examination in samples from 74 patients suspected of rubella collected in the first half of 2016 year were analysed. Read More

    Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).
    Online J Public Health Inform 2016 28;8(3):e206. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.
    Objective: To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation.

    Introduction: In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. Read More

    Prophylactic antipyretics for prevention of febrile seizures following vaccination.
    Can Fam Physician 2017 Feb;63(2):128-130
    Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinations associated with increased risk of febrile seizure include the following: the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine; the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; the whole-cell pertussis vaccine; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; and concomitant administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with either the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Read More

    Is Colombia reaching the goals on infant immunization coverage? A quantitative survey from 80 municipalities.
    Vaccine 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 # 45 - 03, Edificio 471, Oficina 150, Bogotá D.C., Colombia; Instituto Nacional de Salud, Avenida Calle 26 # 51 - 20, Centro Administrativo Nacional, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia. Electronic address:
    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the coverage of the Colombian Expanded Program on Immunization among children less than 6years old, to evaluate the timeliness of immunization, to assess the coverage of newly introduced vaccines, and to identify factors associated with lack of immunization.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 80 municipalities of Colombia, using a two-stage cluster random sampling. We attempted to contact all children less than 6years old living in the sampled blocks, and asked their caregivers to provide immunization record cards. Read More

    Sustained Responses to Measles Revaccination at 24 Months in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    aDepartment of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA bDepartment of Research and Programs, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya cDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA dDepartment of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA eFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA fDepartment of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA gDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA hDepartment of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations.

    Methods: We administered an additional measles vaccine to HIV-infected children 15 months to 12 years of age receiving ART in Nairobi, Kenya. Measles antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at enrollment, one month, 12 months, and 24 months post revaccination. Read More

    Beware of 'lookalikes'.
    Nurs Stand 2017 Feb;31(25):28
    Birmingham City University.
    In 2014, health staff who were vaccinating children in rebel-held northern Syria accidentally administered a muscle relaxant, atracurium, to up to 75 children, killing 15 of them. An investigation found that the drug was given to the children instead of a solution used to mix measles vaccines because the packaging was similar. Read More

    Oncolytic measles virus induces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated cytotoxicity by human myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
    Oncoimmunology 2017 18;6(1):e1261240. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    INSERM, UMR892, Institut de Recherche en Santé de l'Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; CNRS, UMR6299, Institut de Recherche en Santé de l'Université de Nantes, Nantes, France; Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Attenuated measles virus (MV) is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as an oncolytic therapeutic agent. Originally used for its lytic activity against tumor cells, it is now admitted that the effectiveness of MV also lies in its ability to initiate antitumor immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we investigated the capacity of oncolytic MV to convert human blood myeloid CD1c(+) DCs and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) into cytotoxic effectors. Read More

    Prophylactic vaccination targeting ERBB3 decreases polyp burden in a mouse model of human colorectal cancer.
    Oncoimmunology 2017 7;6(1):e1255395. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University , College Station, TX, USA.
    Prophylactic vaccination is typically utilized for the prevention of communicable diseases such as measles and influenza but, with the exception of vaccines to prevent cervical cancer, is not widely used as a means of preventing or reducing the incidence of cancer. Here, we utilize a peptide-based immunotherapeutic approach targeting ERBB3, a pseudo-kinase member of the EGFR/ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, as a means of preventing occurrence of colon polyps. Administration of the peptide resulted in a significant decrease in the development of intestinal polyps in C57BL/6J-Apc(Min) mice, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Read More

    Common Skin Conditions in Children: Skin Infections.
    FP Essent 2017 Feb;453:26-32
    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Medicine Dermatology Residency Program, 410 Market St. Suite 400 CB#7715, Chapel Hill, NC 27516.
    Skin infections account for a significant subset of dermatologic conditions of childhood. Common cutaneous viral infections in children include warts, molluscum contagiosum, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpes simplex. Although viral infections are self-limited and often only mildly symptomatic, they can cause anxiety, embarrassment, and health care use. Read More

    Safety of measles-containing vaccines in post-marketing surveillance in Anhui, China.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0172108. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.
    The safety of measles vaccination is of great interest and importance to public health practice and the general society. We have analyzed the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of currently used measles-containing vaccines (including live attenuated measles vaccine, live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine, live attenuated measles and mumps combined vaccine, live attenuated Measles, Mumps and Rubella Combined Vaccine) in Anhui Province, China. From 2009 to 2014, 9. Read More

    Heritability of vaccine-induced measles neutralizing antibody titers.
    Vaccine 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:
    Understanding how genetics influences inter-individual variation of antibody titers in response to measles vaccination is vital to understanding possible sources of vaccine failure as well as improved vaccine development. Although it is recognized that both the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and the immunoglobulin allotype genes play significant roles in immune response, there is significant variation in antibody titers that is not explained by these genes. To obtain a more complete estimate of the role of the entire genome, we used a large panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms to estimate the heritability of antibody response to measles vaccine. Read More

    The Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an Urban African Community: A Natural Experiment.
    EBioMedicine 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Bandim Health Project, Indepth Network, Apartado 861, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau; Research Centre for Vitamins and Vaccines (CVIVA), Bandim Health Project, Statens Serum Institute, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Background: We examined the introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in the early 1980s.

    Methods: The child population had been followed with 3-monthly nutritional weighing sessions since 1978. From June 1981 DTP and OPV were offered from 3months of age at these sessions. Read More

    Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey.
    J Epidemiol 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Institute of Vaccination, Guangxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
    Background: Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18-54 months in rural Guangxi.

    Methods: Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011-2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Read More

    What Kaplan-Meier survival curves don't tell us about CNS disease.
    J Neuroimmunol 2017 Feb 3. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Program in Blood Cell Development and Function, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:
    Central nervous system consequences of viral infections are rare, but when they do occur, they are often serious and clinically challenging to manage. Our awareness of the perils of neuroinvasion by viruses is growing: the recently appreciated impact of Ebola and Zika virus infections on CNS integrity, decreases in vaccination coverage for potentially neurotropic viruses such as measles, and increased neurovirulence of some influenza strains collectively highlight the need for a better understanding of the viral-neural interaction. Defining these interactions and how they result in neuropathogenesis is paramount for the development of better clinical strategies, especially given the limited treatment options that are available due to the unique physiology of the brain that limits migration of blood-borne molecules into the CNS parenchyma. Read More

    Respiratory virus infection up-regulates TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 receptors on airway cells.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(2):e0171681. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Queen's University Belfast, Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Medical Biology Centre, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Receptors implicated in cough hypersensitivity are transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential cation channel, Subfamily A, Member 1 (TRPA1) and acid sensing ion channel receptor 3 (ASIC3). Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) may interact directly and/or indirectly with these receptors on sensory nerves and epithelial cells in the airways. We used in vitro models of sensory neurones (SHSY5Y or differentiated IMR-32 cells) and human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cells) as well as primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to study the effect of MV and RSV infection on receptor expression. Read More

    Vaccine adverse events in a safety net healthcare system and a managed care organization.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 6;35(9):1335-1340. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, United States; Ambulatory Care Services, Denver Health, United States; Pediatrics and Epidemiology, University of Colorado, United States.
    Background: The Institute of Medicine, in a 2013 report, recommended that the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) expand collaborations to include more diversity in the study population. Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), an established VSD site, partnered with Denver Health (DH), an integrated safety net healthcare system, to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating DH data within the VSD. Prior to incorporating the data, we examined the identification of specific vaccine associated adverse events (VAEs) in these two distinct healthcare systems. Read More

    Does Zika virus infection induce prolonged remissions in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome?
    Pediatr Nephrol 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Pediatric Nephrology Service, Hospital Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Background: Zika is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. We report two pediatric patients diagnosed with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome who achieved complete remission of the disease after suffering Zika virus (ZIKV) infection.

    Case Diagnosis/treatment: The first patient was a young girl aged 2. Read More

    Parents' and informal caregivers' views and experiences of communication about routine childhood vaccination: a synthesis of qualitative evidence.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Feb 7;2:CD011787. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, Oslo, Norway, 0403.
    Background: Childhood vaccination is an effective way to prevent serious childhood illnesses, but many children do not receive all the recommended vaccines. There are various reasons for this; some parents lack access because of poor quality health services, long distances or lack of money. Other parents may not trust vaccines or the healthcare workers who provide them, or they may not see the need for vaccination due to a lack of information or misinformation about how vaccinations work and the diseases they can prevent. Read More

    The structurally disordered paramyxovirus nucleocapsid protein tail domain is a regulator of the mRNA transcription gradient.
    Sci Adv 2017 Feb 3;3(2):e1602350. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.; Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
    The paramyxovirus RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) complex loads onto the nucleocapsid protein (N)-encapsidated viral N:RNA genome for RNA synthesis. Binding of the RdRp of measles virus (MeV), a paramyxovirus archetype, is mediated through interaction with a molecular recognition element (MoRE) located near the end of the carboxyl-terminal Ntail domain. The structurally disordered central Ntail section is thought to add positional flexibility to MoRE, but the functional importance of this Ntail region for RNA polymerization is unclear. Read More

    The Need to Optimize Adolescent Immunization.
    Pediatrics 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana.
    The adolescent period heralds the pediatric patient's transition into adulthood. It is a time of dynamic development during which effective preventive care measures can promote safe behaviors and the development of lifelong health habits. One of the foundations of preventive adolescent health care is timely vaccination, and every visit can be viewed as an opportunity to update and complete an adolescent's immunizations. Read More

    The MRZ reaction in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
    Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Feb 7;14(1). Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse 64, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three antibody indices (AI) against measles, rubella and varicella zoster virus and found positive in the majority of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients, is absent in other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND). So far, it has been uncertain whether its differential diagnostic promise extends to patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS).

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of MRZR in PPMS compared to RRMS and OIND patients. Read More

    Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Feb 6:1-10. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    b Department of Infectious Diseases , Istituto Superiore di Sanità , Rome , Italy.
    The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. Read More

    Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(9):1216-1226. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases/Travel Clinic, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice.

    Objectives: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). Read More

    Infectious disease exposures and outbreaks at a South African neonatal unit with review of neonatal outbreak epidemiology in Africa.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Academic Unit for Infection Prevention and Control, Division of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum, and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing, and shared equipment.

    Methods: Neonatal outbreaks attended by the paediatric infectious diseases and infection prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (May 1, 2008 to April 30, 2016) are described, and the pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source, and outbreak control measures are reported. Read More

    Antiviral Treatments.
    Clin Chest Med 2017 Mar 13;38(1):139-153. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 645 North Michigan Avenue Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:
    Most viral respiratory tract infections are caused by classic respiratory viruses, including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, and adenovirus, whereas other viruses, such as herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, and measles virus, can opportunistically affect the respiratory tract. The M2 inhibitors, amantadine and rimantadine, were historically effective for the prevention and treatment of influenza A but all circulating strains are currently resistant to these drugs. Neuraminidase inhibitors are the sole approved class of antivirals to treat influenza. Read More

    A large population-based association study between HLA and KIR genotypes and measles vaccine antibody responses.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(2):e0171261. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States of America.
    Human antibody response to measles vaccine is highly variable in the population. Host genes contribute to inter-individual antibody response variation. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are recognized to interact with HLA molecules and possibly influence humoral immune response to viral antigens. Read More

    Danish MMR vaccination coverage is considerably higher than reported.
    Dan Med J 2017 Feb;64(2)
    Introduction: The Danish childhood vaccination programme offers protection against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). Nevertheless, many children appear to be unvaccinated according to the national registers. The aim of this study was to estimate the MMR1 vaccination coverage based on a medical record review of children whose vaccination status is negative according to the register-based data. Read More

    Exploring models for the roles of health systems' responsiveness and social determinants in explaining universal health coverage and health outcomes.
    Glob Health Action 2016 Jan;9(1):29329
    b Department of Public Health Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam , The Netherlands.
    Background Intersectoral perspectives of health are present in the rhetoric of the sustainable development goals. Yet its descriptions of systematic approaches for an intersectoral monitoring vision, joining determinants of health, and barriers or facilitators to accessing healthcare services are lacking. Objective To explore models of associations between health outcomes and health service coverage, and health determinants and health systems responsiveness, and thereby to contribute to monitoring, analysis, and assessment approaches informed by an intersectoral vision of health. Read More

    Timely immunization completion among children in Vietnam from 2000 to 2011: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors.
    Glob Health Action 2016 Jan;9(1):29189
    d University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City , Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam.
    Background Since the beginning of 2014, there have been nearly 6,000 confirmed measles cases in northern Vietnam. Of these, more than 86% had neither been immunized nor was their vaccination status confirmed. Objective To establish the likelihood that children under five in Vietnam had 'timely immunization completion' (2000-2011) and identify factors that account for variations in timely immunization completion. Read More

    Missed opportunities in full immunization coverage: findings from low- and lower-middle-income countries.
    Glob Health Action 2016 Jan;9(1):30963
    b International Center for Equity in Health, Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology , Federal University of Pelotas , Pelotas , Brazil.
    Background An estimated 23 million infants are still not being benefitted from routine immunization services. We assessed how many children failed to be fully immunized even though they or their mothers were in contact with health services to receive other interventions. Design Fourteen countries with Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys carried out after 2000 and with coverage for DPT (Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis) vaccine below 70% were selected. Read More

    Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case-Control Study.
    Front Psychiatry 2017 19;8. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine , New Haven, CT , USA.
    Background: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children.

    Methods: Using claims data, we compared the prior year's occurrence of vaccinations in children and adolescents aged 6-15 years with the above neuropsychiatric disorders that were newly diagnosed between January 2002 and December 2007, as well as two control conditions, broken bones and open wounds. Read More

    Paramyxovirus Glycoproteins and the Membrane Fusion Process.
    Curr Clin Microbiol Rep 2016 Sep 5;3(3):142-154. Epub 2016 Jul 5.
    School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164.
    The family Paramyxoviridae includes many viruses that significantly affect human and animal health. An essential step in the paramyxovirus life cycle is viral entry into host cells, mediated by virus-cell membrane fusion. Upon viral entry, infection results in expression of the paramyxoviral glycoproteins on the infected cell surface. Read More

    An expensive adult measles outbreak and response in office buildings during the era of accelerated measles elimination, Beijing, China.
    Vaccine 2017 Feb 26;35(8):1117-1123. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    EPI Department, Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100013, PR China.
    Background: Few measles outbreaks among adults are reported in China, and outbreak response costs are seldom documented. We report an adult measles outbreak and response in 4 linked office buildings in Beijing and its associated costs.

    Method: The World Health Organization measles case definitions were used to determine suspected and confirmed measles cases. Read More

    Potential and clinical translation of oncolytic measles viruses.
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 2017 Mar;17(3):353-363
    a Division of Medical Oncology , Mayo Clinic , Rochester , MN , USA.
    Introduction: Oncolytic viruses represent a novel treatment modality that is unencumbered by the standard resistance mechanisms limiting the therapeutic efficacy of conventional antineoplastic agents. Attenuated engineered measles virus strains derived from the Edmonston vaccine lineage have undergone extensive preclinical evaluation with significant antitumor activity observed in a broad range of preclinical tumoral models. These have laid the foundation for several clinical trials in both solid and hematologic malignancies, which have demonstrated safety, biologic activity and the ability to elicit antitumor immune responses. Read More

    Determinants of non-vaccination and incomplete vaccination in Canadian toddlers.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jan 27. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    a Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada , Ottawa , Ontario , Canada.
    Vaccination coverage remains suboptimal in Canada and sporadic outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis continue to occur. This study was undertaken to identify sociodemographic determinants of total non-vaccination (having never received any vaccine), non-vaccination for measles (0 doses) and incomplete vaccination for pertussis (<4 doses) among 2-year-old Canadian children. Data from the 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) were used. Read More

    Large measles epidemic in the Netherlands, May 2013 to March 2014: changing epidemiology.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Jan;22(3)
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    Since the early 1990s, the Netherlands has experienced several large measles epidemics, in 1992-94, 1999-2000 and in 2013-14. These outbreaks mainly affected orthodox Protestants, a geographically clustered population with overall lower measles-mumps-rubella first dose (MMR-1) vaccination coverage (60%) than the rest of the country (> 95%). In the 2013-14 epidemic described here, which occurred between 27 May 2013 and 12 March 2014, 2,700 cases were reported. Read More

    [Serological diagnosis of mumps: Value of the titration of specific IgG].
    Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2017 Jan 23. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Parotiditis, Centro Nacional de Microbiología (CNM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, España; Programa de Prevención, Vigilancia y control de las Enfermedades Transmisibles (PREVICET), Consorcio de Investigación Biomédica de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, España.
    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate a cut-off point of the titration of IgG by ELISA in the diagnosis of mumps.

    Methods: A study was made of serum samples from 85 mumps cases (confirmed by PCR in saliva) and 2,351 controls of the general population of the Region of Madrid.

    Results: The IgM detection was positive in 21 cases (sensitivity of 24. Read More

    [A case of bronchiolitis obliterans secondary to human metapneumovirus bronchiolitis].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2016 Oct;50(4):606-612
    Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Read More

    Plasma cytokines and chemokines in Zambian children with measles: innate responses and association with HIV-1 co-infection and in-hospital mortality.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
    To identify immune factors present during the acute rash phase of measles and associations with outcome and HIV-1 co-infection, we measured the plasma levels of 22 cytokines and chemokines in Zambian children hospitalized with measles (N=148) and control children (N=44). Children with measles had higher levels of innate cytokines TNF-α , IL-1β , IL-18 and IL-6; chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL22, CXCL8 and CXCL10; and T cell cytokines IFN-γ , IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17. Children who died in-hospital had higher levels of TNF-α , IL-1β , IL-12p70; CCL2, CCL4, CCL13, CCL17, CXCL8, CXCL10; IL-2 and IFN-γ and lower levels of IL-4, than children who survived. Read More

    Ophthalmic examination as a means to diagnose Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: an optical coherence tomography and ultrawide field imaging evaluation.
    Eye Vis (Lond) 2017 19;4. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    0000 0004 1767 6103grid.413618.9Department of Pediatric Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, 110029 India.
    Background: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a potentially fatal complication of measles. The authors report a case of recurrent myoclonic jerks under investigation, whose ophthalmic examination pointed to the diagnosis.

    Case Presentation: A 12-year-old boy with recurrent episodes of myoclonic jerks was found to have optic disc pallor and an irregular macular scar with pigmentation in the left eye. Read More

    Large T antigen variants of human polyomaviruses 9 and 12 and seroreactivity against their N-terminus.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jan 22. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    5Robert Koch-Institut.
    The tumor antigens (TAgs) of mammalian polyomaviruses (PyVs) are key proteins responsible for modulating the host cell cycle and involved in virus replication as well as cell transformation and tumor formation. Here we aimed at identifying mRNA sequences of known and novel TAgs encoded by the recently discovered human polyomaviruses 9 and 12 (HPyV9 and HPyV12) in cell culture. Synthetic viral genomes were transfected into human and animal cell lines. Read More

    Immunisation coverage in the rural Eastern Cape - are we getting the basics of primary care right? Results from a longitudinal prospective cohort study.
    S Afr Med J 2016 Dec 21;107(1):52-55. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Visiting research scholar, Center for Health and Wellbeing, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, New Jersey, USA; Primary Healthcare Directorate, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Zithulele Hospital, Eastern Cape, South Africa.
    Background: Immunisations are one of the most cost-effective public health interventions available and South Africa (SA) has implemented a comprehensive immunisation schedule. However, there is disagreement about the level of immunisation coverage in the country and few studies document the immunisation coverage in rural areas.

    Objective: To examine the successful and timely delivery of immunisations to children during the first 2 years of life in a deeply rural part of the Eastern Cape Province of SA. Read More

    Measles and rubella elimination in the WHO Region for Europe: progress and challenges.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Jan 19. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Vaccine-preventable Diseases and Immunization.
    Globally measles remains one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. The World Health Organization (WHO) European Region has seen a decline in measles and rubella cases in recent years. The recent outbreaks have primarily affected adolescents and young adults with no vaccination or an incomplete vaccination history. Read More

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