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    Genotype-Specific Measles Transmissibility: A Branching Process Analysis.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA, USA.
    Background: Substantial heterogeneity in measles outbreak sizes may be due to genotype- specific transmissibility. Using a branching process analysis, we characterize differences in measles transmission by estimating the association between genotype and the reproduction num- ber R among post-elimination California measles cases from 2000-2015 (400 cases, 165 outbreaks).

    Methods: Assuming a negative binomial secondary case distribution, we fit a branching process model to the distribution of outbreak sizes using maximum likelihood and estimated the effective reproduction number R for a multi-genotype model. Read More

    Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia.
    BMJ Glob Health 2017 10;2(2):e000264. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Objectives: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) among students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia and to identify preventable and treatable causes.

    Method: Students attending nine schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia were examined and causes assigned using the standard WHO record form for children with blindness and low vision in May and June 2015.

    Results: 383 students were examined, 357 (93%) of whom were severely visually impaired or blind (<6/60 in their better eye). Read More

    One or two doses of live varicella virus-containing vaccines: Efficacy, persistence of immune responses, and safety six years after administration in healthy children during their second year of life.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Vaccine Discovery and Development, GSK, Philadelphia, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: This phase III B follow-up of an initial multicenter study (NCT00226499) will evaluate the ten-year efficacy of two doses of the combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) and one dose of the live attenuated varicella vaccine (V) versus a measles-mumps-rubella control group (MMR) for the prevention of clinical varicella disease. Here we present efficacy results for six years post-vaccination.

    Methods: In phase A of the study, healthy children aged 12-22 months from ten European countries were randomized (3:3:1) and received either two doses of MMRV, or one dose of combined MMR and one dose of monovalent varicella vaccine (MMR+V), or two doses of the MMR vaccine (control), 42 days apart. Read More

    Acute Malnutrition Among Children, Mortality, and Humanitarian Interventions in Conflict-Affected Regions - Nigeria, October 2016-March 2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Dec 8;66(48):1332-1335. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    A public health emergency was declared by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health in northeastern Nigeria in June 2016 and escalated by the United Nations to a Level 3 Emergency in August 2016, after confirmation of wild poliovirus and measles outbreaks and evidence that prevalence of acute malnutrition exceeded emergency thresholds in areas newly liberated from Boko Haram control (1,2). To monitor rates of mortality, acute malnutrition among children, infectious disease morbidity, and humanitarian interventions after the emergency declaration, a series of cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in fall 2016 and winter 2017 in the northeastern states of Borno and Yobe using a cluster methodology. All-cause mortality among all age groups (crude mortality) and among children aged <5 years (under-five mortality) were above emergency thresholds in 2017 and significantly increased from 2016, despite evidence of increased preventive public health interventions, including measles vaccination. Read More

    A Positive Control for Detection of Functional CD4 T Cells in PBMC: The CPI Pool.
    Cells 2017 Dec 7;6(4). Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Research&Development Department, Cellular Technology Limited, Shaker Heights, OH 44122, USA.
    Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool has become the gold standard for testing CD8 cell functionality, a positive control for CD4 cells is so far lacking. Read More

    Evolutionary analysis of mumps viruses of genotype F collected in mainland China in 2001-2015.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 7;7(1):17144. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 155, Changbai Road, Changping District, Beijing, 102206, People's Republic of China.
    Mumps incidence in mainland China remains at a high level. Genotype F has been the predominant genotype of mumps virus (MuV) in the last 20 years in mainland China. To better understand the genetic characteristics of MuV in China, the sequences of the Small Hydrophobic (SH), Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) genes of MuVs of genotype F collected during 2001-2015 were determined. Read More

    Do patients with schizophreniform and bipolar disorders show an intrathecal, polyspecific, antiviral immune response? A pilot study.
    Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Dec 7;14(1):34. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Section for Experimental Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: We previously described inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations in a subgroup of patients with schizophreniform disorders and the synthesis of polyspecific intrathecal antibodies against different neurotropic infectious pathogens in some patients with bipolar disorders. Consequently, we have measured the prevalence of a positive MRZ reaction (MRZR)-a marker for a polyspecific, antiviral, intrathecal, humoral immune response composed of three antibody indices for the neurotropic viruses of measles (M), rubella (R), and varicella zoster (Z)-in these patients.

    Methods: We analyzed paired CSF and serum samples of 39 schizophreniform and 39 bipolar patients. Read More

    Delayed measles vaccination of toddlers in Canada: associated socio-demographic factors and parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    a Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada , 130 Colonnade Road, AL6501A, Ottawa , Ontario K1A 0K9 , Canada.
    Delaying vaccination increases the period of vulnerability of children against vaccine-preventable diseases. We used a nationally representative sample of Canadian two-year-old children to explore factors associated with delays in the uptake of the first dose of measles-containing vaccine, recommended in Canada for children at 12 months of age. Distribution of delays was determined using data from the 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey. Read More

    Vaccination coverage according to doses received and timely administered based on an electronic immunization registry, Araraquara-SP, Brazil, 2012-2014.
    Epidemiol Serv Saude 2017 Oct-Dec;26(4):835-846
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, São Paulo-SP, Brasil.
    Objective: to describe vaccine coverage by type of vaccine at 12 and 24 months of age.

    Methods: descriptive cohort study with children born in 2012, living in Araraquara-SP, Brazil, recorded in the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc); a manual linkage of Sinasc data with an electronic immunization registry (EIR) was performed; the assessment was based on vaccination status according to São Paulo State recommendations, and on doses received and timely administered.

    Results: 2,740 children were registered on Sinasc and 99. Read More

    Report of a Myocarditis Outbreak among Pediatric Patients: Human Herpesvirus 7 as a Causative Agent?
    J Trop Pediatr 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Pediatrics, Dumlupinar University Kutahya Evliya Celebi Training and Research Hospital, Kutahya 43040, Turkey.
    Background: The etiology of myocarditis in children has not yet been completely elucidated.

    Objective: Medical records of eight pediatric patients diagnosed with acute myocarditis within a 41-day period in a small-town hospital were retrospectively analyzed.

    Methods: We examined antibody titers of adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood. Read More

    Antigen-specific oncolytic MV-based tumor vaccines through presentation of selected tumor-associated antigens on infected cells or virus-like particles.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 4;7(1):16892. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Section Product Testing of IVMPs, Division of Veterinary Medicine, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 51-59, D-63225, Langen, Germany.
    Recombinant vaccine strain-derived measles virus (MV) is clinically tested both as vaccine platform to protect against other pathogens and as oncolytic virus for tumor treatment. To investigate the potential synergism in anti-tumoral efficacy of oncolytic and vaccine properties, we chose Ovalbumin and an ideal tumor antigen, claudin-6, for pre-clinical proof of concept. To enhance immunogenicity, both antigens were presented by retroviral virus-like particle produced in situ during MV-infection. Read More

    Enrichment of Retroviral Sequences in Brain Tissue from Patients with Severe Demyelinating Diseases.
    J Emerg Dis Virol 2017 Aug 16;3(2). Epub 2017 Jul 16.
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    Background: Our group has used deep sequencing to identify viral RNA signatures in human brain specimens. We have previously used this method to detect HSV1, GBV-C, and measles virus sequence in brain tissue from deceased donors. Deep sequencing was performed on brain specimens from a cohort of patients who died with progressive forms of MS, revealing evidence of increased expression of some human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) domains. Read More

    Partner-mediated polymorphism of an intrinsically disordered protein.
    J Mol Biol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques (AFMB) UMR 7257, Marseille, France. Electronic address:
    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) recognize their partners through molecular recognition elements (MoREs). The MoRE of the C-terminal intrinsically disordered domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (NTAIL) is partly pre-configured as an α-helix in the free form and undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Beyond XD, NTAIL also binds the major inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). Read More

    Emergence of BA9 genotype of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B in China from 2006 to 2014.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 1;7(1):16765. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    A study was conducted to investigate the circulation of HRSV subgroup B (HRSVB) in China in recent years. HRSVB sequences from 365 samples collected in 1991, 2004 and 2008-2014 in China, together with 332 Chinese HRSVB sequences obtained from GenBank were analyzed to determine the geographic and yearly distribution of HRSVB. Phylogenetic analysis revealed these HRSVB sequences clustered into 4 genotypes with different frequencies: BA (83%), CB1 (11%), SAB (3. Read More

    Mountains, Melting Pot, and Microcosm: Health Care Delay and Dengue/Zika Interplay on Hawaii Island.
    Creat Nurs 2016 Nov;22(4):233-242
    Human history in the Hawaiian Islands offers a sobering study in the population dynamics of infectious disease. The indigenous population numbering an estimated half million people prior to Western contact in 1778 was reduced to less than 24,000 by 1920. Much of the decline occurred in the earliest decades after contact with Western diseases including measles, chicken pox, polio, tuberculosis, and venereal disease. Read More

    "One of the greatest medical success stories:" Physicians and nurses' small stories about vaccine knowledge and anxieties.
    Soc Sci Med 2017 Nov 20;196:182-189. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, 5-21 HM Tory Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Electronic address:
    In recent years, the Canadian province of Alberta experienced outbreaks of measles, mumps, pertussis, and influenza. Even so, the dominant cultural narrative maintains that vaccines are safe, effective, and necessary to maintain population health. Many vaccine supporters have expressed anxieties that stories contradicting this narrative have lowered herd immunity levels because they frighten the public into avoiding vaccination. Read More

    Immunogenicity of recombinant measles vaccine expressing fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus in cynomolgus monkeys.
    Microbiol Immunol 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Laboratory of Viral Infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Shirokane 5-9-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan.
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections in infants. Effective vaccines are now under investigation, but no vaccine is currently available. In our previous report, recombinant AIK-C measles vaccine expressing the RSV fusion protein (MVAIK/RSV/F) was developed, and protective immunity against RSV was demonstrated in cotton rats. Read More

    Measles vaccination status of nurses and associated factors during community measles outbreaks.
    Jpn J Nurs Sci 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    College of Nursing, Gachon University, Incheon, South Korea.
    Aim: To identify the measles vaccination status of nurses, their knowledge and health beliefs about measles, and the associated factors that influence their measles vaccination status during a community measles outbreak in South Korea.

    Methods: The participants were 156 nurses from four hospitals in a region where a community measles outbreak occurred.

    Results: The measles vaccination rate of the nurses was 73. Read More

    Neuronal and astrocytic involvement in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) with morbilliviral encephalitis.
    Acta Virol 2017 ;61(4):495-497
    Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), a highly pathogenic agent, may cause peculiar, "brain-only" forms of infection (BOFDI), in which viral antigen and/or genome is found exclusively in the brain from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). These BOFDIs show morphopathological similarities with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis (ODE) in measles virus-infected patients and in canine distemper virus-infected dogs, respectively. The brain tissue from 3 BOFDI-affected striped dolphins was investigated by means of double labelling-indirect immunofluorescence (DL-IIF) and ultrastructurally, in order to characterize the DMV-targeted neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations, along with the associated submicroscopic findings. Read More

    How viruses infiltrate the central nervous system.
    Acta Virol 2017 ;61(4):393-400
    Central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which represents a physical, metabolic and transport barrier and is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic system termed neurovascular unit. Several pathogens, among them viruses, are able to invade the brain. Traversal of viruses across the blood-brain barrier is an essential step for the invasion of the central nervous system and can occur by different mechanisms - by paracellular, transcellular and/or by "Trojan horse" pathway. Read More

    Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection.
    Viruses 2017 11 24;9(12). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    International Center for Infectiology Research (CIRI), Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon, France
    Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1) or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2), which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. Read More

    Vaccination coverage and factors associated with adherence to the vaccination schedule in young children of a rural area in Burkina Faso.
    Glob Health Action 2017 ;10(1):1399749
    d Research Centre for Vitamins and Vaccines , Bandim Health Project, Statens Serum Institut , Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Background: Vaccination is an important tool for reducing infectious disease morbidity and mortality. In the past, less than 80% of children 12-23 months of age were fully immunized in Burkina Faso.

    Objectives: To describe coverage and assess factors associated with adherence to the vaccination schedule in rural area Burkina Faso. Read More

    The burden of congenital rubella syndrome in the Philippines: results from a retrospective assessment.
    Western Pac Surveill Response J 2017 Apr-Jun;8(2):17-24. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Health, Philippines.
    Introduction: In line with the regional aim of eliminating rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), phased introduction of rubella-containing vaccines (RCV) in the Philippines' routine immunization programme began in 2010. We estimated the burden of CRS in the country before widespread nationwide programmatic RCV use.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review in four tertiary hospitals. Read More

    Measles and rubella eradication.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan 26;36(1):1-3. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Center for Vaccine Equity, Task Force for Global Health, 325 Swanton Way, Decatur, GA 30030, USA. Electronic address:
    This article discusses concepts of eradication, some issues relating to vertical and horizontal public health programs, some current issues relating to measles and rubella, and what we need to do about them. It concludes that measles and rubella/CRS can and should be eradicated. A target date should be established in 2020 (or before). Read More

    Mumps in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(3):327-331
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Background: Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children (1-3). Read More

    Rubella in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(3):319-326
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Background: In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella cases between children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Read More

    Measles in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(3):311-318
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Background: In 1998 Poland, along with all other Member States in the WHO European Region, implemented Measles Elimination Programme coordinated by WHO. It requires achieving and maintaining very high vaccine coverage (>95%), recording all cases and suspected cases of measles, and laboratory testing of all suspected measles cases in the WHO Reference Laboratory. In Poland it is a Laboratory of Department of Virology, NIPH-NIH. Read More

    Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(3):295-309
    National Institute of Public Health – National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, Department of Epidemiology
    Purpose Of The Study: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe.

    Material And Methods: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015. Read More

    A two-centre randomised trial of an additional early dose of measles vaccine: Effects on mortality and measles antibody levels.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Bandim Health Project, INDEPTH Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau.
    Background: Besides protecting against measles, measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects. We tested the effect of an additional early MV on mortality and measles antibody levels.

    Methods: Children aged 4-7 months in two rural health and demographic surveillance sites in Burkina Faso and Guinea-Bissau were randomised 1:1 to an extra early standard dose of MV (Edmonston-Zagreb strain) or no extra MV 4 weeks after the third diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus-influenzae-type-b vaccine. Read More

    Consequences of perinatal infections with rubella, measles, and mumps.
    Curr Opin Virol 2017 Dec 22;27:71-77. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Comparative, Diagnostic, and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, United States. Electronic address:
    Measles, mumps, and rubella have recently taken the stage as re-emerging diseases of public health importance-particularly in regards to the consequences seen with perinatal infections. Effective vaccination strategies have successfully reduced the spread of measles, mumps, and rubella in the United States, but a current trend of increased vaccination hesitancy, fear of vaccine safety, and spread of misconceptions surrounding the science of vaccines have led to a relative resurgence of these diseases in the developed world. This article aims to explore why measles, mumps, and rubella should continue to be on the radar of medical professionals, and why the study of these diseases is important for understanding other teratogenic viruses of public health importance. Read More

    Impact of measles supplementary immunization activities on reaching children missed by routine programs.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan 23;36(1):170-178. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Measles supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are vaccination campaigns that supplement routine vaccination programs with a recommended second dose opportunity to children of different ages regardless of their previous history of measles vaccination. They are conducted every 2-4 years and over a few weeks in many low- and middle-income countries. While SIAs have high vaccination coverage, it is unclear whether they reach the children who miss their routine measles vaccine dose. Read More

    Measles vaccination: Threat from related veterinary viruses and need for continued vaccination post measles eradication.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    b Queen's University Belfast, Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences Belfast, UK BT9, 7BL.
    Measles virus (MV) is the only human virus within the morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae. The veterinary members are canine distemper virus (CDV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Rinderpest Virus (RPV) as well as the marine morbilliviruses phocine distemper virus (PDV), dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV). Morbilliviruses have a severe impact on humans and animal species. Read More

    Reporting of adverse events following immunizations in Ghana - Using disproportionality analysis reporting ratios.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Nov 27:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    b Division of Pharmacoepidemiology & Clinical Pharmacology , Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS) , Utrecht , the Netherlands.
    Background: Timely reporting of safety information post vaccination is pivotal for the success of any vaccination program. Reports of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of 6 different vaccinations from Ghana were analysed for signals.

    Methods: De-identified data from active surveillance for AEFIs after 2009 AH1N1 influenza, yellow fever, meningitis, measles-rubella, pneumococcal-rotavirus and human papilloma virus vaccinations were used. Read More

    An effective and doable interventional strategy to enhance vaccination coverage - are we ready to change?
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Nov;67(11):1719-1722
    Department of Paediatrics, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of patient reminder calls on improvement of routine vaccination coverage.

    Methods: This prospective, interventional study was conducted at Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan, from December 2014 to August 2016, and comprised babies enrolled at the time of 1st vaccination. Babies who were given bacillus Calmette-Guérin, oral polio vaccine were included. Read More

    Potential for a booster dose of rotavirus vaccine to further reduce diarrhea mortality.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 20;35(51):7198-7203. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Division of Viral Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States.
    Concern has grown that children vaccinated against rotavirus in developing countries may be vulnerable to rotavirus diarrhea in the second year of life due to waning immunity. Adding a booster dose of rotavirus vaccine at 9 or 12 months of age with measles vaccine has been suggested as a strategy to address this. We evaluated the hypothetical potential benefits of a booster dose on reduction of rotavirus mortality. Read More

    Drivers of measles mortality: the historic fatality burden of famine in Bangladesh.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Nov 23:1-9. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Office of Population Research, Princeton University,Princeton,USA.
    Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Estimates of the case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles have varied widely from place to place, as well as in the same location over time. Amongst populations that have experienced famine or armed conflict, measles CFR can be especially high, although past work has mostly focused on refugee populations. Read More

    Early vaccination protects against childhood leukemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 22;7(1):15986. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Evidence Based Medicine Research Group & Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Leukemia is the most commonly diagnosed childhood cancer, although its etiology is still largely unknown. Growing evidence supports a role for infection in the etiology of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the involvement of the immune system suggests that vaccination may also play a role. However, the findings presented in the published literature are inconsistent. Read More

    Long-term sex-differential effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on in vitro cytokine responses.
    Br J Nutr 2017 Dec 23;118(11):942-948. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    1Research Center for Vitamins and Vaccines,Bandim Health Project,Statens Serum Institut,DK-2300 Copenhagen,Denmark.
    High-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may affect mortality to infectious diseases in a sex-differential manner. Here, we analysed the long-term immunological effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in 247 children, who had been randomly allocated to 50 000 or 25 000 IU vitamin A (15mg and 7·5mg retinol equivalents, respectively) or placebo at birth. At 4-6 months of age, we assessed bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scarification, and we analysed in vitro responses of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ in whole blood stimulations to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide. Read More

    Public Health Economic Burden Associated with Two Single Measles Case Investigations - Colorado, 2016-2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Nov 24;66(46):1272-1275. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    During July 2016-January 2017, two unrelated measles cases were identified in the Denver, Colorado area after patients traveled to countries with endemic measles transmission. Each case resulted in multiple exposures at health care facilities and public venues, and activated an immediate and complex response by local and state public health agencies, with activities led by the Tri-County Health Department (TCHD), which serves Adams, Arapahoe, and Douglas counties. To track the economic burden associated with investigating and responding to single measles cases, personnel hours and supply costs incurred during each investigation were tracked prospectively. Read More

    Optimal time to intervene: The case of measles child immunization.
    Math Biosci Eng 2018 Feb;15(1):323-335
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava, Slovakia email:
    The recent measles outbreaks in US and Germany emphasize the importance of sustaining and increasing vaccination rates. In Slovakia, despite mandatory vaccination scheme, decrease in the vaccination rates against measles has been observed in recent years. Different kinds of intervention at the state level, like a law making vaccination a requirement for school entry or education and advertising seem to be the only strategies to improve vaccination coverage. Read More

    Use of a Diagonal Approach to Health System Strengthening and Measles Elimination after a Large Nationwide Outbreak in Mongolia.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Dec;23(13)
    Measles is a highly transmissible infectious disease that causes serious illness and death worldwide. Efforts to eliminate measles through achieving high immunization coverage, well-performing surveillance systems, and rapid and effective outbreak response mechanisms while strategically engaging and strengthening health systems have been termed a diagonal approach. In March 2015, a large nationwide measles epidemic occurred in Mongolia, 1 year after verification of measles elimination in this country. Read More

    Assessment of National Public Health and Reference Laboratory, Accra, Ghana, within Framework of Global Health Security.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Dec;23(13)
    The Second Year of Life project of the Global Health Security Agenda aims to improve immunization systems and strengthen measles and rubella surveillance, including building laboratory capacity. A new laboratory assessment tool was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess the national laboratory in Ghana to improve molecular surveillance for measles and rubella. Results for the tool showed that the laboratory is well organized, has a good capacity for handling specimens, has a good biosafety system, and is proficient for diagnosis of measles and rubella by serologic analysis. Read More

    Non-specific effects of childhood vaccinations - A case control study nested into a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 15;35(51):7114-7120. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Institute of Public Health, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, Germany.
    Introduction: Previous studies in African countries have been suggestive of non-specific effects (NSE) of vaccination on child survival. Live vaccines (e.g. Read More

    Identify the susceptibility profile to measles in the general population: Serological survey of measles antibodies in Shaanxi province, China, in 2016.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 15;35(52):7250-7255. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China. Electronic address:
    The reported coverage with two doses of the measles vaccine (MCV) in Shaanxi Province, China, is greater than 95%, but the measles incidence over the whole province remains high. Cross-sectional serological surveys of measles antibodies in Shaanxi Province were conducted in 2016 to assess the population's immunity. The measles IgG levels were measured in serum samples using ELISA. Read More

    Enforcement Associated With Higher School-Reported Immunization Rates.
    Am J Prev Med 2017 Dec;53(6):892-897
    Center for Immunization Research and Education, Department of Public Health, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota.
    Introduction: North Dakota's school-reported kindergarten immunization rates were among the lowest in the U.S. during the 2015-2016 school year. Read More

    Vaccine-associated measles in an immunocompetent child.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 Nov 12;5(11):1765-1767. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of PediatricsSchool of Community MedicineThe University of OklahomaTulsaOklahoma.
    We present a rare case of vaccine-associated measles infection in an immunocompetent, HIV-negative patient in the United States. This case depicts the impressive rash our patient manifested and highlights the importance of reviewing public health interventions to determine epidemiological links in geographical areas with low incidence of measles. Read More

    Live-attenuated vaccines in a cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome patient receiving canakinumab treatment during infancy.
    Clin Case Rep 2017 Nov 12;5(11):1750-1755. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Advanced and Integrated Cardiovascular Research Course in the Young and AdolescenceTokyoJapan.
    We successfully immunized the neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) patient with live-attenuated vaccines for measles, rubella, varicella, and mumps and achieved sufficient antibody titer under canakinumab therapy without complications. Read More

    Facebook and Twitter vaccine sentiment in response to measles outbreaks.
    Health Informatics J 2017 Nov 1:1460458217740723. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    University of California, San Francisco, USA.
    Social media posts regarding measles vaccination were classified as pro-vaccination, expressing vaccine hesitancy, uncertain, or irrelevant. Spearman correlations with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-reported measles cases and differenced smoothed cumulative case counts over this period were reported (using time series bootstrap confidence intervals). A total of 58,078 Facebook posts and 82,993 tweets were identified from 4 January 2009 to 27 August 2016. Read More

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