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    Marked increase in measles vaccination coverage among young adults in Switzerland: a campaign or cohort effect?
    Int J Public Health 2018 Apr 19. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Division of Communicable Diseases, Federal Office of Public Health, Berne, Switzerland.
    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the Swiss measles elimination strategy-including a mass media campaign-on vaccination coverage and awareness among young adults aged 20-29 years.

    Methods: Comparison of the results of two cross-sectional population surveys in 2012 and 2015.

    Results: Documented vaccination coverage increased from 77 to 88% for two doses of measles vaccine. Read More

    The new Italian mandatory vaccine Law as a health policy instrument against the anti-vaccination movement.
    Ann Ig 2018 May-Jun;30(3):251-256
    Health Service Department, State Police, Ministry of Interior, Italy.
    In Italy, the Parliament granted recently the final approval to a law introducing a long list of childhood vaccinations mandatory for preschool and school-age children. Before the approval, a vibrant public debate took place on the traditional media, in the social networks and among policymakers because of the so called "anti-vaccination movement". In this paper, we discuss about ethical aspects and relationship between individual rights and public health. Read More

    Adherence and immune response to revaccination following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at a pediatric onco-hematology reference center.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Apr 18:e12903. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients.

    Methods: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. Read More

    Mass gathering enhanced syndromic surveillance for the 8th Micronesian Games in 2014, Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia.
    Western Pac Surveill Response J 2018 Jan-Mar;9(1):1-7. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Research Evidence and Information Programme, Public Health Division, the Pacific Community.
    Pohnpei State's Division of Primary Health Care implemented enhanced surveillance for early warning and detection of disease to support the 8th Micronesian Games (the Games) in July 2014. The surveillance comprised 11 point-of-care sentinel sites around Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, collecting data daily for eight syndromes using standard case definitions. Each sentinel site reported total acute care encounters, total syndrome cases and the total for each syndrome. Read More

    Poverty reduction and equity benefits of introducing or scaling up measles, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines in low-income and middle-income countries: a modelling study.
    BMJ Glob Health 2018 9;3(2):e000613. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Introduction: Beyond their impact on health, vaccines can lead to large economic benefits. While most economic evaluations of vaccines have focused on the health impact of vaccines at a national scale, it is critical to understand how their impact is distributed along population subgroups.

    Methods: We build a financial risk protection model to evaluate the impact of immunisation against measles, severe pneumococcal disease and severe rotavirus for birth cohorts vaccinated over 2016-2030 for three scenarios in 41 Gavi-eligible countries: no immunisation, current immunisation coverage forecasts and the current immunisation coverage enhanced with funding support. Read More

    Australian rubella serosurvey 2012-2013: On track for elimination?
    Vaccine 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: The World Health Organization has targeted rubella virus for elimination regionally. Australia was one of the first countries to implement a nationally funded rubella immunisation program, in 1971, and conducts regular national rubella serosurveillance studies. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the Australian population by age and sex in 2012-2013, to compare the results with three previous serosurveys conducted in 1996-1999, 2002 and 2007 and to estimate the effective reproduction numbers (R). Read More

    Evaluation of a Booster Dose of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Co-Administered with Measles, Yellow Fever and Meningitis A Vaccines in 9-month-old Malian Infants.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Background: Rotavirus vaccines given to infants are safe and efficacious. A booster dose of rotavirus vaccine could extend protection into the second year of life in low resource countries.

    Methods: We conducted an open-label, individual-randomized trial in Bamako, Mali. Read More

    Good practices and challenges in addressing poliomyelitis and measles in the European Union.
    Eur J Public Health 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Crisis Management and Preparedness in Health Unit, Public Health Directorate, Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE), European Commission, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Background: All European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) Member States have pledged to ensure political commitment towards sustaining the region's poliomyelitis-free status and eliminating measles. However, there remain significant gaps between policy and practice in many countries. This article reports on an assessment conducted for the European Commission that aimed to support improvements in preparedness and response to poliomyelitis and measles in Europe. Read More

    Vaccination status and needs of asylum-seeking children in Denmark: a retrospective data analysis.
    Public Health 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Danish Research Center for Migration, Ethnicity and Health, Section for Health Services Research, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1353, Copenhagen K, Denmark; Section of Immigrant Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Objectives: Asylum seekers to Europe may come from war-torn countries where health systems have broken down, and there is evidence that asylum-seeking children have low coverage of childhood vaccinations, as well as uptake of immunisations in host countries. Such gaps in immunisation have important implications for effective national vaccination programmes. How we approach vaccination in children and adults entering Western Europe, where as a group they face barriers to health services and screening, is a growing debate; however, there are limited data on the vaccination status of these hard-to-reach communities, and robust evidence is needed to inform immunisation strategies. Read More

    Labyrinthitis Ossificans in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis).
    Comp Med 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the membranous and bony labyrinth of the inner ear. Typical portals of entry includehematogenous spread from the cochlear vasculature, passage of otitis media pathogens through the round window, and mostcommonly, meningogenic spread from the subarachnoid space. The sequela of chronic inner ear inflammation is labyrinthitisossificans, in which inner ear structures are replaced by fibrous and osseous tissues. Read More

    Identifying risk factors associated with acquiring measles in an outbreak among age-appropriately vaccinated school children: a cohort analysis.
    Ir J Med Sci 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Public Health, Health Service Executive South East, Lacken, Dublin Road, Kilkenny, R95 P231, Ireland.
    Background: A measles outbreak occurred in age-appropriately vaccinated children in a school in a town in the South East of Ireland in September-November 2013.

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with catching measles during the outbreak.

    Methods: Ninety-five children (4-5 years) in three classes, in the first year of primary school, were included in the study. Read More

    Impact of public health responses during a measles outbreak in an Amish community in Ohio: modelling the dynamics of transmission.
    Am J Epidemiol 2018 Apr 7. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.
    We quantified measles transmissibility during a measles outbreak in Ohio in 2014 to evaluate the impact of public health responses. Case incidence and the serial interval (time between symptom onset in primary and secondary cases) were used to assess trends in the effective reproduction number R (average number of secondary cases generated per case). A mathematical model was parameterized by early R values to determine outbreak size and duration if containment measures had not been initiated, and the impact of vaccination. Read More

    The reduction of measles transmission during school vacations.
    Epidemiology 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Netherlands Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Background: Historically, measles incidence has shown clear seasonal patterns driven by the school calendar, but since the start of mass vaccination in developed countries there are only occasional outbreaks, which may have changed the effect of school vacations on transmission. In 2013-2014 a large measles epidemic took place in a low vaccination coverage area in The Netherlands, allowing us to quantify current-day measles transmission and the effect of school vacations.

    Methods: We fitted a dynamic transmission model to notification and hospitalization time series data of the Dutch 2013-2014 measles epidemic. Read More

    Evaluating the effect of ward-based outreach teams on primary healthcare performance in North West Province, South Africa: A plausibility design using routine data.
    S Afr Med J 2018 Mar 28;108(4):329-335. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: North West Province (NWP), South Africa, was an early adopter of the primary healthcare (PHC) ward-based outreach team (WBOT) strategy and has made considerable progress in implementing it. Given the interest in and expectations of greater investment in WBOTs, assessing their impact on and contribution to PHC outputs and health outcomes is becoming increasingly important.

    Objectives: To describe the application of a plausibility evaluation design for assessing the contribution of WBOTs to PHC performance in NWP, comparing changes in coverage, utilisation and outcome indicators in facilities with and without WBOTs. Read More

    Suppression of Melatonin Secretion in Totally Visually Blind People by Ocular Exposure to White Light: Clinical Characteristics.
    Ophthalmology 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Although most totally visually blind individuals exhibit nonentrained circadian rhythms due to an inability of light to entrain the circadian pacemaker, a small proportion retain photic circadian entrainment, melatonin suppression, and other nonimage-forming responses to light. It is thought that these responses to light persist because of the survival of melanospin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which project primarily to the circadian pacemaker and are functionally distinct from the rod and cone photoreceptors that mediate vision. We aimed to assess the integrity of nonimage-forming photoreception in totally visually blind patients with a range of ocular disorders. Read More

    The immunization status of children with chronic neurological disease and serological assessment of vaccine-preventable diseases.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Apr 6:1-17. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    d Pediatric Intensive Care Unit , Eskisehir , Turkey.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the age-appropriate immunization coverage in 366 children with chronic neurological disease (CND), to evaluate the use of vaccines not included in routine program, to evaluate serological tests for vaccine-preventable diseases and to describe the related factors in unvaccinated children. 95.6% of all children with had received age-appropriate vaccinations according to the actual National Immunization Program (NIP) during childhood. Read More

    How often do children receive their vaccinations late, and why?
    Saudi Med J 2018 Apr;39(4):347-353
    Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.
    Objectives: To assess vaccination timeliness, risk factors associated with delays and the reasons for delayed vaccinations among children below the age of 3 years in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during the period of May 2016 to August 2017. Data were obtained from parents of children under the age of 3 years using a structured questionnaire comprised of questions about sociodemographics, physical well-being of the child and the reasons that are used to justify delayed vaccinations. Read More

    Assessment of children immunization pattern in Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan.
    Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Mar;31(2):537-543
    Department of Public Health, MPH, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
    The basic aim is to assess immunization pattern of children up to 15 months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 immunized children in Children hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Single dose 0. Read More

    Case-based surveillance of measles in Sicily during 2012-2017: The changing molecular epidemiology and implications for vaccine strategies.
    PLoS One 2018 4;13(4):e0195256. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Health Promotion Sciences and Mother-Child Care "G. D'Alessandro" - Hygiene section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Following the indication of the World Health Organization, a national plan for the elimination of measles was approved in Italy and this included the improvement of the molecular surveillance of measles viruses and the interruption of indigenous transmission of the disease. Nevertheless, large outbreaks continue to occur in almost all regions of the country, including Sicily. Here we describe the epidemiology and molecular dynamics of measles viruses as a result of the measles surveillance activity carried out by the "Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella" in Sicily over a 5-year period. Read More

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids from Phyllocaulis boraceiensis mucus block the replication of influenza virus.
    Arch Microbiol 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Adolfo Lutz Institute, 355th, Doutor Arnaldo Ave, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Influenza viruses cause worldwide outbreaks and pandemics in humans and animals every year with considerable morbidity and mortality. The molecular diversity of secondary metabolites extracted from mollusks is a good alternative for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds with unique structures and diverse biological activities. Phyllocaulis boraceiensis is a hermaphroditic slug that exudes mucus, in which was detected hydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids that exhibited potent antiviral activity against measles virus. Read More

    Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6-35 Months in Guinea-Bissau: A Time for Reflection?
    Front Public Health 2018 19;6:79. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Research Centre for Vitamins and Vaccines (CVIVA), Bandim Health Project, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: Whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) were introduced to children in Guinea-Bissau in 1981. We previously reported that DTP in the target age group from 3 to 5 months of age was associated with higher overall mortality. DTP and OPV were also given to older children and in this study we tested the effect on mortality in children aged 6-35 months. Read More

    Humoral immune response of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors against the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.
    Hematology 2018 Apr 3:1-6. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    d Oncology Center Jeddah , King Abdullah Medical City , Makkah , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    Background: There is a great risk of infection with viral-vaccine-preventable diseases like measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) infections after the end of chemotherapy treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which could have been prevented with MMR vaccination. Previous studies reported widely variable rates of seropositivity (seroprotection) for MMR after ALL treatment ends. Also, few studies evaluated the response to MMR booster vaccinations after the end of ALL treatment and reported unclear and difficult to interpret results. Read More

    [Investigation of a measles outbreak caused by genotype D8 virus in Pinghu city of Zhejiang province, 2017].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 Mar;39(3):333-336
    Department of Immunization Program, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China.
    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of measles outbreak caused by genotype D8 virus in Pinghu city of Zhejiang province, and provide evidence for the control of the outbreak. The measles outbreak data were collected through National Measles Surveillance System. The outpatient records and admission records were checked, field investigation and outbreak response were conducted. Read More

    Factors associated with routine immunization coverage of children under one year old in Lao People's Democratic Republic.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Healthcare Administration, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
    Background: Routine vaccination is administered free of charge to all children under one year old in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and the national goal is to achieve at least 95% coverage with all vaccines included in the national immunization program by 2025. In this study, factors related to the immunization system and characteristics of provinces and districts in Lao PDR were examined to evaluate the association with routine immunization coverage.

    Methods: Coverage rates for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Hepatitis B (DTP-HepB), DTP-HepB-Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), polio (OPV), and measles (MCV1) vaccines from 2002 to 2014 collected through regular reporting system, were used to identify the immunization coverage trends in Lao PDR. Read More

    Susceptibility of paramyxoviruses and filoviruses to inhibition by 2'-monofluoro- and 2'-difluoro-4'-azidocytidine analogs.
    Antiviral Res 2018 May 27;153:101-113. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:
    Ebolaviruses, marburgviruses, and henipaviruses are zoonotic pathogens belonging to the Filoviridae and Paramyxoviridae families. They exemplify viruses that continue to spill over into the human population, causing outbreaks characterized by high mortality and significant clinical sequelae in survivors of infection. There are currently no approved small molecule therapeutics for use in humans against these viruses. Read More

    The new WHO decision-making framework on vaccine use in acute humanitarian emergencies: MSF experience in Minkaman, South Sudan.
    Confl Health 2018 26;12:11. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    1Medecins Sans Frontieres Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Introduction: The main causes of death during population movements can be prevented by addressing the population's basic needs. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a framework for decision making to help prioritize vaccinations in acute humanitarian emergencies. This article describes MSF's experience of applying this framework in addition to addressing key population needs in a displacement setting in Minkaman, South Sudan. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequences of Six Measles Virus Strains.
    Genome Announc 2018 Mar 29;6(13). Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus (MV) strains is a critical component of measles surveillance and molecular epidemiology. We have obtained complete genome sequences of six MV strains belonging to different genotypes, using random-primed next generation sequencing. Read More

    A single vaccination with non-replicating MVA at birth induces both immediate and long-term protective immune responses.
    Vaccine 2018 Apr 27;36(18):2427-2434. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Fraunhoferstrasse 13, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address:
    Newborns are considered difficult to protect against infections shortly after birth, due to their ineffective immune system that shows quantitative and qualitative differences compared to adults. However, here we show that a single vaccination of mice at birth with a replication-deficient live vaccine Modified Vaccinia Ankara [MVA] efficiently induces antigen-specific B- and T-cells that fully protect against a lethal Ectromelia virus challenge. Protection was induced within 2 weeks and using genetically modified mice we show that this protection was mainly T-cell dependent. Read More

    Evaluation of nationwide supplementary immunization in Lao People's Democratic Republic: Population-based seroprevalence survey of anti-measles and anti-rubella IgG in children and adults, mathematical modelling and a stability testing of the vaccine.
    PLoS One 2018 29;13(3):e0194931. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Measles outbreaks have occurred in some countries despite supplementary immunization activities (SIA) using measles-containing vaccine with high vaccination coverage. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey to estimate population immunity in Lao People's Democratic Republic where repeated mass immunization has failed to eliminate measles.

    Methods And Findings: In this nationwide multistage cluster sampling survey conducted in 2014 based on probability proportionate to size sampling, blood samples were collected from 2,135 children and adults living in 52 randomly selected villages. Read More

    Emergence of Orientia tsutsugamushi as an important cause of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in India.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Mar 28;12(3):e0006346. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.
    Background: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) is a major seasonal public health problem in Bihar, India. Despite efforts of the Bihar health department and the Government of India, burden and mortality of AES cases have not decreased, and definitive etiologies for the illness have yet to be identified.

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the specific etiology of AES in Bihar. Read More

    Socioeconomic inequalities in child vaccination in low/middle-income countries: what accounts for the differences?
    J Epidemiol Community Health 2018 Mar 26. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    School of Health Administration, Faculty of Health, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in child vaccination continue to be a global public health concern. This study aimed to measure and identify factors associated with socioeconomic inequalities in full immunisation coverage against the four core vaccine-preventable diseases (ie, bacille Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (three doses), polio (three doses) and measles vaccines) in 46 low/middle-income countries.

    Methods: The most recent nationally representative samples of children (aged 10-59 months, n=372 499) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys were used to measure vaccination rates. Read More

    Cavitating Leukoencephalopathy With Posterior Predominance Caused by a Deletion in the APOPT1 Gene in an Indian Boy.
    J Child Neurol 2018 May 26;33(6):428-431. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    4 Department of Pathology, G.B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    A 5-year-old Indian boy presented with subacute onset regression of milestones associated with seizures and spasticity. The symptoms started after an attack of measles. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed cavitating leukodystrophy with posterior predominance. Read More

    A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in 3 and 4-year-old healthy children in the UK.
    Vaccine 2018 04 22;36(17):2300-2306. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Bristol Children's Vaccine Centre, University of Bristol, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol BS2 8AE, UK.
    Aim: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus (dTap-IPV) vaccine (Boostrix-IPV, GSK) as a pre-school booster in 3-4 year old children as compared to dTap-IPV (Repevax, Sanofi Pasteur), when co-administered with mumps-measles-rubella vaccine (MMRV).

    Methods: This phase III, open label, randomised study was conducted in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Children due their pre-school dTap-IPV booster vaccination were randomised 2:1 to receive one of two different dTap-IPV vaccines (dTap-IPV or dTap-IPV) with blood sample for immunogenicity assessment just prior and one month after vaccination. Read More

    Prevalence and risk factors of measles seronegativity in a cohort of HIV-positive subjects: a retrospective study.
    HIV Med 2018 Mar 24. Epub 2018 Mar 24.
    Infectious Diseases Department, CHU Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Objectives: Measles infection is a vaccine-preventable disease currently resurging in Europe. HIV-infected subjects are at higher risk of complications following measles infection. We investigated the risk factors associated with being seronegative in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects. Read More

    [Incidence of biological accidents at work and immune status for vaccine-preventable diseases among resident physicians in specialist training at Ferrara University Hospital].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Nov-Dec;73(6):633-648
    Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Italia.
    The hospital as a work environment is particularly characterized by various risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). The main risk is represented by biological accidents, associated with the parenteral transmission of pathogens. Biological injuries can occur during the care service and the manipulation of biological fluids. Read More

    Robust qualitative estimation of time-varying contact rates in uncertain epidemics.
    Epidemics 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Institute of Mathematics, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Juriquilla 76230, Mexico.
    We will inevitably face new epidemics where the lack of long time-series data and the uncertainty about the outbreak dynamics make difficult to obtain quantitative predictions. Here we present an algorithm to qualitatively infer time-varying contact rates from short time-series data, letting us predict the start, relative magnitude and decline of epidemic outbreaks. Using real time-series data of measles, dengue, and the current zika outbreak, we demonstrate our algorithm can outperform existing algorithms based on estimating reproductive numbers. Read More

    Imported case of measles in a university setting leading to an outbreak of measles in Edinburgh, Scotland from September to December 2016.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Apr 22;146(6):741-746. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    National Health Service,Lothian,Directorate of Public Health and Health Policy,Edinburgh,UK.
    In September 2016, an imported case of measles in Edinburgh in a university student resulted in a further 17 confirmed cases during October and November 2016. All cases were genotype D8 and were associated with a virus strain most commonly seen in South East Asia. Twelve of the 18 cases were staff or students at a university in Edinburgh and 17 cases had incomplete or unknown measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccination status. Read More

    Measles outbreak response decision-making under uncertainty: a retrospective analysis.
    J R Soc Interface 2018 Mar;15(140)
    Department of Biology and Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, 208 Mueller Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
    Resurgent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases that have previously been controlled or eliminated have been observed in many settings. Reactive vaccination campaigns may successfully control outbreaks but must necessarily be implemented in the face of considerable uncertainty. Real-time surveillance may provide critical information about at-risk population and optimal vaccination targets, but may itself be limited by the specificity of disease confirmation. Read More

    Benefits and challenges in using sero-prevalence data to inform models for measles and rubella elimination.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Mar 19. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, USA.
    Control efforts for measles and rubella are intensifying globally. It becomes increasingly important to identify and reach remaining susceptible populations as elimination is approached. Serological surveys for measles and rubella can potentially measure susceptibility directly, but their use remains rare. Read More

    Childhood measles contributes to post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults: A cohort study.
    Respirology 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Background And Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has potential origins in childhood but an association between childhood measles and post-bronchodilator (BD) airflow obstruction (AO) has not yet been shown. We investigated whether childhood measles contributed to post-BD AO through interactions with asthma and/or smoking in a non-immunized middle-aged population.

    Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort born in 1961 (n = 8583) underwent spirometry in 1968 before immunization was introduced. Read More

    Understanding the causes and consequences of measles virus persistence.
    F1000Res 2018 28;7:237. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
    Measles is an acute systemic viral disease with initial amplification of infection in lymphoid tissue and subsequent spread over 10-14 days to multiple organs. Failure of the innate response to control initial measles virus (MeV) replication is associated with the ability of MeV to inhibit the induction of type I interferon and interferon-stimulated antiviral genes. Rather, the innate response is characterized by the expression of proteins regulated by nuclear factor kappa B and the inflammasome. Read More

    CD30-targeted oncolytic viruses as novel therapeutic approach against classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
    Oncotarget 2018 Feb 12;9(16):12971-12981. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Molecular Biotechnology and Gene Therapy, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany.
    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a hematopoietic malignancy with a characteristic cellular composition. The tumor mass is made up of infiltrated lymphocytes and other cells of hematologic origin but only very few neoplastic cells that are mainly identified by the diagnostic marker CD30. While most patients with early stage cHL can be cured by standard therapy, treatment options for relapsed or refractory cHL are still not sufficient, although immunotherapy-based approaches for the treatment of cHL patients have gained ground in the last decade. Read More

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