30,147 results match your criteria Measles Rubeola


Estimating ventilation rates in rooms with varying occupancy levels: Relevance for reducing transmission risk of airborne pathogens.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(6):e0253096. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, TB Centre, The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: In light of the role that airborne transmission plays in the spread of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the ongoing high global mortality from well-known airborne diseases such as tuberculosis and measles, there is an urgent need for practical ways of identifying congregate spaces where low ventilation levels contribute to high transmission risk. Poorly ventilated clinic spaces in particular may be high risk, due to the presence of both infectious and susceptible people. While relatively simple approaches to estimating ventilation rates exist, the approaches most frequently used in epidemiology cannot be used where occupancy varies, and so cannot be reliably applied in many of the types of spaces where they are most needed. Read More

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Screening and Vaccination Against Measles and Varicella Among Health Care Workers: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2021 Jun 24:10105395211026468. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Nursing, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

The aim of this study was to examine the most cost-effective strategy of screening and vaccinating measles- and varicella-susceptible health care workers (HCWs). A retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Korea with 300 HCWs who were at high risk of infection. Self-reported histories of vaccinations, infectious diseases, and contact with such cases were collected. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19-related disruptions to measles, meningococcal A, and yellow fever vaccination in 10 countries.

Elife 2021 Jun 24;10. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Childhood immunisation services have been disrupted by COVID-19. WHO recommends considering outbreak risk using epidemiological criteria when deciding whether to conduct preventive vaccination campaigns during the pandemic.

We used 2-3 models per infection to estimate the health impact of 50% reduced routine vaccination coverage and delaying campaign vaccination for measles, meningococcal A and yellow fever vaccination in 3-6 high burden countries per infection. Read More

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An update of the aetiological factors involved in molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Private Paediatric Dental Clinic, 2 Papadiamantopoulou Street, 11528, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: To systematically review the aetiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). To this day, the aetiology remains unknown. Determining risk factors would allow risk assessment and enhance early diagnosis of MIH in young patients. Read More

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A Rare Case of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting As Generalized Seizure.

Cureus 2021 May 18;13(5):e15100. Epub 2021 May 18.

Internal Medicine, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, NPL.

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late complication of childhood measles. It is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive and motor functions, seizures, and eventually death. Although a combination of intrathecal interferon alpha (IFN-α) and daily oral isoprinosine has been reported to have a good outcome, there is no cure for this condition. Read More

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Measles outbreak in Western Uganda: a case-control study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 22;21(1):596. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science & Technology, P.O. BOX 1410, Mbarara, Uganda.

Background: Measles outbreaks are prevalent throughout sub-Saharan Africa despite the preventive measures like vaccination that target under five-year-old children and health systems strengthening efforts like prioritizing the supply chain for supplies. Measles immunization coverage for Kasese district and Bugoye HC III in 2018 was 72 and 69%, respectively. This coverage has been very low and always marked red in the Red categorization (below the national target/poor performing) on the national league table indicators. Read More

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Change in children's perception of cancer in the last 10 years in Japan.

Pediatr Int 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Medical Education, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174, Edobashi, Tsu-shi, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.

Background: Social awareness on cancer can be changed with cancer education and proper distribution of cancer information. This study addressed the current situation and historical change of children's perception of cancer.

Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted among healthy school children aged 10 to 15 years in 2008 and 2018. Read More

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Tracking immunization coverage, dropout and equity gaps among children ages 12-23 months in Malawi - bottleneck analysis of the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey.

Int Health 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Malaria Alert Centre, College of Medicine, Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, Private Bag 360, Chichiri, Blantyre 3, Malawi.

Background: Between 2010 and 2016, the proportion of children 12-23 months of age who received full immunization in Malawi decreased from 81% to 76%. Most studies on immunization have mainly focused on the risk factors of vaccination coverage while data on dropouts and equity gaps is very scanty. Thus the aim of the present study was to describe the trend in immunization coverage, dropout rates and effective immunization coverage (EIC) among children ages 12-23 months in Malawi. Read More

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Novel Morbillivirus as Putative Cause of Fetal Death and Encephalitis among Swine.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Jul;27(7):1858-1866

Morbilliviruses are highly contagious pathogens. The Morbillivirus genus includes measles virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV), peste des petits ruminants virus, rinderpest virus, and feline morbillivirus. We detected a novel porcine morbillivirus (PoMV) as a putative cause of fetal death, encephalitis, and placentitis among swine by using histopathology, metagenomic sequencing, and in situ hybridization. Read More

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Temporal Trends in Undervaccination: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Am J Prev Med 2021 07 30;61(1):64-72. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Aurora, Colorado; Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado.

Introduction: Monitoring the trends in undervaccination, including that because of parental vaccine refusal or delay, can inform public health responses directed at improving vaccine confidence and vaccination coverage.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. The cohort included all children born in 2004-2017 with ≥3 well-child visits between ages 2 and 23 months. Read More

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Measles epidemiology and vaccination coverage in Oromia Region, Ethiopia: Evidence from surveillance, 2011-2018.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Fenot Project, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Global Health and Population, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Despite a reported high coverage of measles-containing vaccine (MCV), low-income countries including, Ethiopia, have sustained high measles transmission with frequent outbreaks. We investigated the distribution of measles infection and vaccination in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ethiopian measles case classification guidelines, measles cases were classified as laboratory-confirmed, clinically compatible, and epidemiologically linked. Read More

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Live Virus Vaccination of Pediatric Solid-Organ Transplant Candidates Within One Month Prior to Transplantation: A Multi-Center Experience.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Jun 18:e13667. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at increased risk of vaccine preventable illness due to the high degree of immunosuppression required following transplantation. The current recommendation is to vaccinate with live attenuated vaccines, including Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) and Varicella (VAR) vaccines, at least 4 weeks prior to transplant. However, data to support the time interval between vaccine and transplant is limited. Read More

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Small molecules baicalein and cinnamaldehyde are potentiators of measles virus-induced breast cancer oncolysis.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 27;89:153611. Epub 2021 May 27.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Although the breast cancer mortality has slowed down from 2008 to 2017, breast cancer incidence rate continues to rise and thus, new and/or improved treatments are highly needed. Among them, oncolytic virotherapy which has the ability of facilitating the antitumor adaptive immunity, appears as a promising anticancer therapy. Oncolytic measles virus (MV) is particularly suitable for targeting breast cancer due to the upregulation of MV's receptor nectin-4. Read More

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Measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and influenza vaccination in children with acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome triggered by egg.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Allergy Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy characterized by the onset of delayed repetitive and projectile vomiting accompanied by other clinical manifestations such as pallor, hypotonia, lethargy, hypothermia and/or diarrhea (1). Acute FPIES can be classified as classic or atypical based on the absence or presence of sensitization to the trigger food (2). Read More

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Activation of cGAS/STING pathway upon paramyxovirus infection.

iScience 2021 Jun 7;24(6):102519. Epub 2021 May 7.

CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, INSERM U1111, CNRS, UMR5308, Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 21 Avenue Tony Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France.

During inflammatory diseases, cancer, and infection, the cGAS/STING pathway is known to recognize foreign or self-DNA in the cytosol and activate an innate immune response. Here, we report that negative-strand RNA paramyxoviruses, Nipah virus (NiV), and measles virus (MeV), can also trigger the cGAS/STING axis. Although mice deficient for MyD88, TRIF, and MAVS still moderately control NiV infection when compared with wild-type mice, additional STING deficiency resulted in 100% lethality, suggesting synergistic roles of these pathways in host protection. Read More

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MicroRNA-sensitive oncolytic measles virus for chemovirotherapy of pancreatic cancer.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2021 Jun 5;21:340-355. Epub 2021 May 5.

Clinical Cooperation Unit Virotherapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Advanced pancreatic cancer is characterized by few treatment options and poor outcomes. Oncolytic virotherapy and chemotherapy involve complementary pharmacodynamics and could synergize to improve therapeutic efficacy. Likewise, multimodality treatment may cause additional toxicity, and new agents have to be safe. Read More

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Diagnostic strategies for oral manifestations of infectious diseases.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Apr;50(2):141-147

Department. of Oral Medicine.

Infectious diseases are caused by infection of organism with pathogenic agents, which may lead to epidemics. Many infectious diseases such as syphilis, diphtheria, measles, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have specific and non-specific manifestations in the oral cavity. However, the same disease may have different oral manifestations in different patients clinically. Read More

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Vaccine completion and infectious diseases screening in a cohort of adult refugees following resettlement in the U.S.: 2013-2015.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 16;21(1):582. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Refugees are frequently not immune to vaccine-preventable infections. Adherence to consensus guidelines on vaccination and infectious diseases screening among refugees resettling in the U.S. Read More

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Measles vaccination elicits a polyfunctional antibody response, which decays more rapidly in early vaccinated children.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Center for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Background: Measles outbreaks are reported worldwide posing a serious threat, especially to young unvaccinated infants. Early measles vaccination under 12 months of age can induce protective antibody levels, but the long-term antibody functionalities are unknown.

Methods: Measles-specific antibody-functionality was tested by systems serology, in children receiving an early measles vaccination at 6-8 or 9-12 months, followed by a regular dose at 14 months of age, and children only receiving the vaccination at 14 months. Read More

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Review of the measles epidemic in children from Central Eastern Europe in the third millennium.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 2;22(2):816. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Paediatrics, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

Measles is an extremely contagious viral disease. Even though a safe vaccine exists for this disease, it remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in infants and young children. We aimed to create a retrospective descriptive study in which to analyze the evolution of the measles epidemic at the European level. Read More

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Immune amnesia induced by measles and its effects on concurrent epidemics.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jun 16;18(179):20210153. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, e Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain.

It has been recently discovered that the measles virus can damage pre-existing immunological memory, destroying B lymphocytes and reducing the diversity of non-specific B cells of the infected host. In particular, this implies that previously acquired immunization from vaccination or direct exposition to other pathogens could be partially erased in a phenomenon named 'immune amnesia', whose effects can become particularly worrisome given the actual rise of anti-vaccination movements. Here, we present the first attempt to incorporate immune amnesia into standard models of epidemic spreading by proposing a simple model for the spreading of two concurrent pathogens causing measles and another generic disease. Read More

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Effect of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminders on the Completion and Timely Receipt of Routine Childhood Vaccinations: Superiority Randomized Controlled Trial in Northwest Ethiopia.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Jun 15;9(6):e27603. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Health Informatics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Nonattendance at vaccination appointments is a big challenge for health workers as it is difficult to track routine vaccination schedules. In Ethiopia, 3 out of 10 children have incomplete vaccination and the timely receipt of the recommended vaccines is low. Thus, innovative strategies are required to reach the last mile where mobile technology can be effectively utilized to achieve better compliance. Read More

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A case control study to assess effectiveness of measles containing vaccines in preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 15:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Serum Institute of India Pvt Ltd, Pune, India.

Currently, most licensed vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection are approved for adults and not for children. We conducted a test negative case-control study to assess the effectiveness of Measles Containing Vaccines (MCVs) against SARS-CoV-2 infection in Pune, India, in children who were ≥1 year and <18 years of age and were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The enrolled participants included 274 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases (216 vaccinated and 58 unvaccinated) along with 274 SARS-CoV-2 negative controls (265 vaccinated and 9 unvaccinated). Read More

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Use of M-M-R II outside of the routinely recommended age range - a systematic literature review.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jun 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Former Employee of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

M-M-R® (M-M-R II) is routinely used in many countries at 12-15 months with a second dose at 4 to 6 years of age. However, the vaccine may need to be administered at other ages due to delays in the immunization schedule or in certain situations such as outbreaks or international travel. A systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of M-M-R II among 6- to 11-month-olds and persons ≥7 years of age. Read More

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National Health Spending, Healthcare Resources, Service Utilization, and Health Outcomes.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, United States.

Cross-national studies of the linkages of spending with population health have found surprisingly limited evidence of benefits. This study investigates associations between national health spending and key health resources -the number of hospital beds, doctors, and nurses- and utilization of cost-effective health services -antenatal care, attendance of trained staff at childbirth, and measles vaccination-, sometimes in ways that curtail the benefits of that expenditure. Using annual panel data from 1990 to 2014 covering 140 countries, we show that a variation in health spending as a share of gross domestic product is not associated with decreased mortality rates. Read More

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[Genotype and genetic characteristics of human respiratory syncytial virus circulating in Quanzhou, 2018-2019].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;101(22):1695-1699

WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.

To study the prevalence and genetic characteristics of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in Quanzhou city, from 2018 to 2019. A total of 141 throat swabs were collected from children patients of lower respiratory tract infection in Quanzhou children Hospital, Fujian Province from November 2018 to May 2019. RT-PCR was used to amplify the 3 'end of G gene HRSV. Read More

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Mandatory Infant Vaccinations in France During the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020.

Front Pediatr 2021 28;9:666848. Epub 2021 May 28.

EPI-PHARE (French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety, ANSM; and French National Health Insurance, CNAM), Saint-Denis, France.

To describe changes in the dispensation of 11 mandatory vaccines to infants in France during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, considering the priming doses and boosters separately. With data from the French national health database, all dispensations of priming doses and boosters of 11 mandatory vaccines [penta/hexavalent, measles mumps rubella (MMR), meningococcal conjugate type-C (Men-C-C), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13)] for infants ≤24 months old were aggregated by 4-week periods in 2020. Expected counts in 2020 were estimated according to counts in 2019 weighted by a ratio considering the level of vaccine dispensation before the pandemic onset in 2020. Read More

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Attenuation of antibody titer of measles and rubella virus among university students of department of healthcare providers during 2015-2018 in Japan.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Center for Medical Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: In Japan, measles elimination was confirmed in March 2015. Nevertheless, some outbreaks with cases imported from abroad were reported even after certification. A large rubella outbreak has been occurring since 2017. Read More

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Seroprevalence of measles and rubella antibodies in vaccinated and unvaccinated infants in the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Lao-Lux Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Laos, Vientiane, Lao Democratic People's Republic. Electronic address:

Introduction: Even though measles vaccination was introduced in the Lao PDR in 1984, coverage rates remain consistently low and outbreaks continue to occur frequently. We investigated the seroprevalence of measles and rubella antibodies in vaccinated and unvaccinated children from Central Lao PDR.

Methods: Antibody titers of 1090 children aged 8-29 months who were vaccinated at different levels of the health care system were assessed by ELISA. Read More

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