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    Hemagglutinin-specific neutralization of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis viruses.
    PLoS One 2018 21;13(2):e0192245. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America.
    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal complication of measles caused by particular mutants of measles virus (MeV) that persist in the brain despite high levels of neutralizing antibodies. We addressed the hypothesis that antigenic drift is involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of SSPE by analyzing antigenic alterations in the MeV envelope hemagglutinin protein (MeV-H) found in patients with SSPE in relation to major circulating MeV genotypes. To this aim, we obtained cDNA for the MeV-H gene from tissue taken at brain autopsy from 3 deceased persons with SSPE who had short (3-4 months, SMa79), average (3. Read More

    Peripheral whole blood lncRNA expression analysis in patients with eosinophilic asthma.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Feb;97(8):e9817
    Respiratory Department, Chinese PLA General Hospital, FuXing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China.
    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays roles in many diseases including asthma. Several lncRNAs function in the early differentiation of T-helper cells. lncRNA controls gene transcription, protein expression, and epigenetic regulation. Read More

    Correlation between measles vaccine doses: implications for the maintenance of elimination.
    Epidemiol Infect 2018 Feb 21:1-8. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Biology,The Pennsylvania State University,208 Mueller Laboratory,University Park,PA 16802,USA.
    Measles eradication efforts have been successful at achieving elimination in many countries worldwide. Such countries actively work to maintain this elimination by continuing to improve coverage of two routine doses of measles vaccine following measles elimination. While improving measles vaccine coverage is always beneficial, we show, using a steady-state analysis of a dynamical model, that the correlation between populations receiving the first and second routine dose also has a significant impact on the population immunity achieved by a specified combination of first and second dose coverage. Read More

    Structures of the prefusion form of measles virus fusion protein in complex with inhibitors.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, 812-8582 Fukuoka, Japan;
    Measles virus (MeV), a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, is highly immunotropic and one of the most contagious pathogens. MeV may establish, albeit rarely, persistent infection in the central nervous system, causing fatal and intractable neurodegenerative diseases such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and measles inclusion body encephalitis. Recent studies have suggested that particular substitutions in the MeV fusion (F) protein are involved in the pathogenesis by destabilizing the F protein and endowing it with hyperfusogenicity. Read More

    The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak and primary healthcare delivery in Liberia: Time-series analyses for 2010-2016.
    PLoS Med 2018 Feb 20;15(2):e1002508. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Ministry of Health, Monrovia, Liberia.
    Background: The aim of this study is to estimate the immediate and lasting effects of the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak on public-sector primary healthcare delivery in Liberia using 7 years of comprehensive routine health information system data.

    Methods And Findings: We analyzed 10 key primary healthcare indicators before, during, and after the EVD outbreak using 31,836 facility-month service outputs from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016 across a census of 379 public-sector health facilities in Liberia (excluding Montserrado County). All indicators had statistically significant decreases during the first 4 months of the EVD outbreak, with all indicators having their lowest raw mean outputs in August 2014. Read More

    Characterization of Cotton Rat () Eosinophils, Including Their Response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.
    Comp Med 2018 Feb;68(1):31-40
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio;, Email:
    Eosinophils have been postulated to play a protective role against infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), increase the severity of allergic asthma during respiratory viral infection, and drive vaccine-enhanced disease. To address these questions in the cotton rat model of RSV infection, we characterized cotton rat eosinophils by electron microscopy as well as by bronchoalveolar lavage and histology of lung sections. Using these methods, we demonstrated that eosinophils comprise approximately half of all cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from cotton rats. Read More

    ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies: an infectious diseases perspective (Soluble immune effector molecules [I]: anti-tumour necrosis factor-α agents).
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Clinical Unit of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital 'Reina Sofía', Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), School of Medicine, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI RD16/0016), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies.

    Aims: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and to suggest preventive recommendations.

    Sources: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family. Read More

    Role of health determinants in a measles outbreak in Ecuador: a case-control study with aggregated data.
    BMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20;18(1):269. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Background: In 2011-2012, an outbreak of measles occurred in Ecuador. This study sought to ascertain which population characteristics were associated.

    Methods: Case-control study of aggregate data. Read More

    National Immunization Campaigns with Oral Polio Vaccine Reduce All-Cause Mortality: A Natural Experiment within Seven Randomized Trials.
    Front Public Health 2018 2;6:13. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Research Centre for Vitamins and Vaccines (CVIVA), Bandim Health Project, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: A recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV) were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate, it would suggest beneficial NSEs. Read More

    High resolution age-structured mapping of childhood vaccination coverage in low and middle income countries.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK; Flowminder Foundation, Stockholm SE-11355, Sweden.
    Background: The expansion of childhood vaccination programs in low and middle income countries has been a substantial public health success story. Indicators of the performance of intervention programmes such as coverage levels and numbers covered are typically measured through national statistics or at the scale of large regions due to survey design, administrative convenience or operational limitations. These mask heterogeneities and 'coldspots' of low coverage that may allow diseases to persist, even if overall coverage is high. Read More

    Immunity against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis A and hepatitis B among adult asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2016.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Antonie van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Asylum seekers are a vulnerable population for contracting infectious diseases. Outbreaks occur among children and adults. In the Netherlands, asylum seeker children are offered vaccination according to the National Immunization Program. Read More

    Humoral response to John Cunningham virus during pregnancy in multiple sclerosis.
    Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Feb 9;21:11-18. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Background: Pregnancy induces an immunosuppressive state in the mother to ensure immunological acceptance of the foetus. Impairment of cell-mediated immune responses may render the mother susceptible to intracellular pathogens. It is not presently known whether pregnancy alters the immunosurveillance for John Cunningham virus (JCV), an opportunistic pathogen associated with natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). Read More

    Occurrence of measles in a country with elimination status: Amplifying measles infection in hospitalized children due to imported virus.
    PLoS One 2018 15;13(2):e0188957. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Division of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Control and National Immunization Program, Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea.
    The Republic of Korea declared measles elimination in 2006. However, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics of the sources of infection and the pattern of measles transmission in 2013 in South Korea. Read More

    Constrained minimization problems for the reproduction number in meta-population models.
    J Math Biol 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    The basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) can be considerably higher in an SIR model with heterogeneous mixing compared to that from a corresponding model with homogeneous mixing. For example, in the case of measles, mumps and rubella in San Diego, CA, Glasser et al. (Lancet Infect Dis 16(5):599-605, 2016. Read More

    Methods for addressing "innocent bystanders" when evaluating safety of concomitant vaccines.
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Purpose: The need to develop methods for studying the safety of childhood immunization schedules has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services. The recommended childhood immunization schedule includes multiple vaccines in a visit. A key concern is safety of concomitant (same day) versus separate day vaccination. Read More

    measles virus infection of human lymphocyte subsets demonstrates high susceptibility and permissiveness of both naive and memory B-cells.
    J Virol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Viroscience, Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
    Measles is characterised by a transient immune suppression, leading to an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Measles virus (MV) infection of immune cells is mediated by the cellular receptor CD150, expressed by subsets of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and thymocytes. Previous studies showed that human and non-human primate memory T-cells express higher levels of CD150 than naive cells and are more susceptible to MV infection. Read More

    The Unstructured Paramyxovirus Nucleocapsid Protein Tail Domain Modulates Viral Pathogenesis through Regulation of Transcriptase Activity.
    J Virol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA
    The paramyxovirus replication machinery comprises the viral large (L) and phospho-(P) proteins in addition to the nucleocapsid (N) protein that encapsidates the single-stranded RNA genome. Common to paramyxovirus N proteins is a C-terminal tail (Ntail). The mechanistic role and relevance for virus replication of the structurally disordered central Ntail section are unknown. Read More

    Superinfection Exclusion between Two High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types During a Co-Infection.
    J Virol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, The United States of America.
    Superinfection exclusion is a common phenomenon whereby a single cell is unable to be infected by two types of the same pathogen. Superinfection exclusion has been described for various viruses including vaccinia virus, measles virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Additionally, the mechanism of exclusion has been observed at various steps in the viral life cycle including attachment, entry, viral genomic replication, transcription, and exocytosis. Read More

    Targeted BiTE expression by an oncolytic vector augments therapeutic efficacy against solid tumors.
    Clin Cancer Res 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Translational Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases
    Purpose: Immunotherapy with bispecific T cell engagers has achieved striking success against hematological malignancies, but efficacy against solid tumors has been limited. We hypothesized that oncolytic measles viruses encoding bispecific T cell engagers (MV-BiTEs) represent a safe and effective treatment against solid tumors through local BiTE expression, direct tumor cell lysis and in situ tumor vaccination.

    Experimental Design: To test this hypothesis, we generated MV-BiTEs from the Edmonston B vaccine strain to target two model antigens. Read More

    Global disability-adjusted life-year estimates of long-term health burden and undernutrition attributable to diarrhoeal diseases in children younger than 5 years.
    Lancet Glob Health 2018 Mar;6(3):e255-e269
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the true effect of diarrhoea on population health. This underestimation is because diarrhoeal diseases can negatively affect early childhood growth, probably through enteric dysfunction and impaired uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Read More

    Poor quality data challenges conclusion and decision making: timely analysis of measles confirmed and suspected cases line list in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region, Ethiopia.
    BMC Infect Dis 2018 02 12;18(1):77. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Health research and technology transfer support process, Southern nations nationalities and people's regional health bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
    Background: Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. Timely analysis of measles surveillance data is crucial for epidemic control and can show disease control program status. Therefore, this study aimed to show vaccination status and delay in seeking health care using surveillance data. Read More

    [The economic value of vaccinations: a systematic review of Italian economic evaluations and HTA reports].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Sep-Oct;73(5):453-471
    Istituto di Sanità Pubblica, Sezione di Igiene, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italia.
    Introduction: Decision-making in healthcare should rely on evidence-based approaches able to make possible a transparent and robust assessment of all the aspects related to health technologies. One of the assessment elements is represented by the efficiency that is the specific objective of economic evaluations and also of Health Technology Assessment (HTA). The collection and synthesis of evidence is the first indispensable step in order to foster a proper convey of scientific knowledge to the decision-makers. Read More

    [Vaccination in childhood: how to protect the "unprotectable"?]
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Sep-Oct;73(5):443-452
    Centro vaccinale ASL Benevento, Italia.
    The failure of immunization coverage is the primary reason for the transmission and the spread of the diseases in young infants not eligible for vaccination because of age and in immunocompromised individuals. In both these categories measles, pertussis and varicella could be devastating. Pertussis, measles and varicella in the first year of life are responsible to the ED admission, the hospitalization and, exceptionally, the death. Read More

    [The elimination of measles and rubella in Italy].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Sep-Oct;73(5):429-442
    Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica e Malattie Infettive, Sapienza Università di Roma, Italia.
    Despite the WHO target for measles and rubella elimination in 2015, outbreaks still occur in all WHO Regions. After a description of the epidemiological situation of measles and rubella worldwide and especially in Europe, this paper aims to provide a detailed analysis of the current epidemiological context of Italy. The surge in the number of measles cases since the beginning of 2017, together with vaccination coverage still far from the 95% target, requires priority actions to be taken to achieve the elimination goals. Read More

    [The new National Immunization Program 2017-2019 and the Essential Care Levels: what is going to change?]
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 Sep-Oct;73(5):405-418
    Istituto di Sanità Pubblica, Sezione di Igiene, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italia.
    Italy is witnessing relevant challenges in the field of prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. The worrying and growing phenomenon of "vaccine-hesitancy" has contributed to the reduction of vaccination coverage, undermining goals reached thanks to vaccines introduction. The new Italian National Immunization Plan (NIP) 2017-2019 and the update of the list of Essential Care Levels (LEA), approved in the current year, extend the vaccination offer based on the latest scientific evidence with the introduction of new vaccines and the enlargement of target population. Read More

    Routine immunization in Pakistan: comparison of multiple data sources and identification of factors associated with vaccination.
    Int Health 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Background: Within Pakistan, estimates of vaccination coverage with the pentavalent vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV) and measles vaccine (MV) in 2011 were reported to be 74%, 75% and 53%, respectively. These national estimates may mask regional variation. The reasons for this variation have not been explored. Read More

    Safety and Immunogenicity of Seven Dosing Regimens of the Candidate RTS,S/AS01E Malaria Vaccine Integrated within an Expanded Program on Immunization Regimen: A Phase II, Single-Center, Open, Controlled Trial in Infants in Malawi.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    GSK, Rixensart, Belgium.
    Background: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated.

    Methods: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Read More

    Vaccination timeliness and co-administration among Kenyan children.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar;36(11):1353-1360
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Michigan Medical School, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
    Background: Timely administration of recommended vaccines requires children to have multiple vaccines co-administered in the first year of life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the proportion of timely vaccinations and the proportion of co-administered vaccines, and to assess the relationship between vaccine co-administration and vaccine timeliness in Kenyan children.

    Methods: Using the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we calculated the proportion of children who received co-administered and timely vaccine doses. Read More

    Long-term Seroprotection Rates Following One-dose Measles (9-month) and One-dose MMR Vaccination (15 months) in Indian Children.
    Indian Pediatr 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatric Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Objective: To find out seropositivity rates at 4-6 and 9-12 years of age; among those who received one-dose measles at 9 months and one-dose MMR at 15 months of age.

    Methods: 80 healthy children (53 males) at 4-6 or 9-12 years of age, attending outpatient department for vaccination were enrolled. Antibody titers were estimated using commercially available quantitative-IgG ELISA kits. Read More

    The impact of immunization programs on 10 vaccine preventable diseases in Italy: 1900-2015.
    Vaccine 2018 Mar 7;36(11):1435-1443. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Italian National Institute of Health), Rome, Italy.
    Background: Vaccination has determined a dramatic decline in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases over the last century. However, low perceived risk of the infectious threat and increased concern about vaccines' safety led to a reduction in vaccine coverage, with increased risk of disease outbreaks.

    Methods: Annual surveillance data of nationally communicable infectious diseases in Italy between 1900 and 2015 were used to derive trends in morbidity and mortality rates before and after vaccine introduction, focusing particularly on the effect of vaccination programs. Read More

    Safety of live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella and herpes zoster vaccination in multiple myeloma patients on maintenance lenalidomide or bortezomib after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.
    Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.
    Attenuated live virus vaccinations are generally recommended 24 months following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. To date, there are no data regarding the safety of live-attenuated herpes zoster or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations in multiple myeloma patients on maintenance lenalidomide or bortezomib following autologous HCT. One hundred thirty-seven multiple myeloma patients on maintenance lenalidomide or bortezomib post-auto-HCT who received either MMR or herpes zoster vaccine were analyzed and any adverse events documented in the medical record in the 42 days following vaccination were recorded. Read More

    National immunization strategies targeting migrants in six European countries.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:
    Over the last three years an unprecedented flow of migrants arrived in Europe. There is evidence that vaccine preventable diseases have caused outbreaks in migrant holding centres. These outbreaks can be favored by a combination of factors including low immunization coverage, bad conditions that migrants face during their exhausting journey and overcrowding within holding facilities. Read More

    First report of Taenia ovis infection in Danish sheep (Ovis aries).
    Vet Parasitol 2018 Feb 14;251:3-6. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Section for Diagnostics and Scientific Advice, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800 Kgs., Lyngby, Denmark.
    We report Taenia ovis infection in Danish sheep for the first time. In spring 2016, the metacestode stage of T. ovis was at slaughter observed in heart muscles, diaphragm and skeletal muscles from approx. Read More

    Initiation, extension, and termination of RNA synthesis by a paramyxovirus polymerase.
    PLoS Pathog 2018 Feb 9;14(2):e1006889. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Alios BioPharma, Inc. a Janssen Pharmaceutical Company of Johnson & Johnson, South San Francisco, California, United States of America.
    Paramyxoviruses represent a family of RNA viruses causing significant human diseases. These include measles virus, the most infectious virus ever reported, in addition to parainfluenza virus, and other emerging viruses. Paramyxoviruses likely share common replication machinery but their mechanisms of RNA biosynthesis activities and details of their complex polymerase structures are unknown. Read More

    Safety and Immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine in 4-6 Year-Old Girls: Results to Month 12 from a Randomized Trial.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    GSK, Wavre, Belgium.
    Background: The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls aged <9 years. Read More

    Seroprevalence of antibodies to measles and rubella eight months after a vaccination campaign in the southeast of Iran.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    c National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella , School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Eight months after the mass immunization campaign of November 2015 against measles and rubella in the southeast of Iran, in order to evaluate the sero-immunity level of the people living in the mentioned region, a serosurvey study was performed. Using a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling, the sera of 1,056 participants, ranging from 15 months to 20 years old, were tested for measles and rubella IgG antibodies in the National Reference Laboratory at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The seroprevalence rates of antibodies against measles and rubella in the age groups below 16 years were respectively 98. Read More

    What mother know about vaccine preventable diseases?
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(4):595-602
    Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow
    Introduction And Objective: The improving epidemiological situation of the most of communicable diseases causes, that the real and potential risks attributable to them have been forgotten. The aim of study was to determine the mothers knowledge about vaccine preventable diseases

    Materials And Methods: A survey was conducted among 177 randomly selected mothers. The interviews with mothers hospitalized after childbearing in two hospitals in Krakow and Myslenice were conducted at the end of 2014 and in 2015

    Results: The assessment of risk to develop an infectious diseases in unvaccinated children significantly varied among mothers. Read More

    Laboratory findings in Zika infection: The experience of a reference centre in North-West Italy.
    J Clin Virol 2018 Jan 30;101:18-22. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy.
    Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) remains a public health concern due to its association with fetal malformation and neurologic disease.

    Objective: To report a reference centre experience on ZIKA virus (ZIKV) infection in travelers from epidemic countries from January 1 to September, 30, 2016 in Italy North-West (a geographic area covering 4.424 million inhabitants, corresponding to almost 73% of Italy North-West area). Read More

    Measles Virus Persistent Infection of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
    Cell Reprogram 2018 Feb;20(1):17-26
    1 The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev , Beer Sheva, Israel .
    In this study, we found that the measles virus (MV) can infect human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Wild-type MV strains generally use human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) as a cellular receptor, while vaccine strains such as the Edmonston strain can use both CD150 and CD46 as receptors. It is not yet known how early in the embryonal differentiation stages these receptors are expressed. Read More

    Use of electronic immunization registry in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization.
    Rev Saude Publica 2018 Feb 5;52. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública. Departamento de Epidemiologia. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.
    Objective: To describe adverse events following vaccination (AEFV) of children under two years old and analyze trend of this events from 2000 to 2013, in the city of Araraquara (SP), Brazil.

    Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted with data of the passive surveillance system of AEFV that is available in the electronic immunization registry (EIR) of the computerized medical record of the municipal health service (Juarez System). The study variables were: age, gender, vaccine, dose, clinical manifestations and hospitalization. Read More

    Vaccination strategies and results for tackling the measles outbreak in Ceará State, Brazil, 2013-2015.
    Epidemiol Serv Saude 2018 Feb 1;27(1):e201634310. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, Unidade de Imunizações, Tegucigalpa, Francisco Morazan, Honduras.
    This study describes the experience and results of the vaccination strategies developed for tackling the measles outbreak in Ceará State, Brazil, from December 2013 to September 2015. Strategies of routine vaccination, community immunity, and vaccination campaigns were conducted, along with searching of unvaccinated people, through rapid monitoring of immunization coverage and scanning. To describe the results, primary data collected in field activities and secondary data on vaccination in a population aged from six months to 49 years, available at the Information System of the National Immunization Program (IS-NIP), were used. Read More

    Measles-derived vaccines to prevent emerging viral diseases.
    Microbes Infect 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Viral Genomics and Vaccination Unit, Department of Virology, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR-3965, Paris, France.
    Infectious disease epidemics match wars and natural disasters in their capacity to threaten lives and damage economies. Like SARS previously and Zika recently, the Ebola crisis in 2015 showed how vulnerable the world is to these epidemics, with over 11,000 people dying in the outbreak. In addition to causing immense human suffering, these epidemics particularly affect low- and middle-income countries. Read More

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and immune thrombocytopenia: More than a coincidence?
    Med Hypotheses 2018 Feb 29;111:70-72. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Pediatric Neurology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.; Department of Pediatric Neurology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive disease caused by persistent measles virus (MV). It has an incidence of 0.4-2. Read More

    Aetiological study of viruses causing acute encephalitis syndrome in North West India.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2017 Oct-Dec;35(4):529-534
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Advanced Basic Sciences and Clinical Research Laboratory, ICMR Grade 1/ DHR State, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Context: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a serious public health problem, caused mainly by viruses. However, the profile of viruses causing AES in Rajasthan is not well characterised.

    Aims: The present study was undertaken to identify the viruses causing AES and develop diagnostic algorithm so as to help in improved diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. Read More

    Oncolytic viruses sensitize human tumor cells for NY-ESO-1 tumor antigen recognition by CD4+ effector T cells.
    Oncoimmunology 2018 26;7(3):e1407897. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    CRCINA, INSERM, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Oncolytic immunotherapy using oncolytic viruses (OV) has been shown to stimulate the antitumor immune response by inducing the release of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and danger signals from the dying infected tumor cells. In this study, we sought to determine if the lysis of tumor cells induced by different OV: measles virus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex type I virus, adenovirus or enterovirus, has consequences on the capacity of tumor cells to present TAA, such as NY-ESO-1. We show that the co-culture of NY-ESO-1/HLA-DP4melanoma cells with NY-ESO-1/HLA-DP4melanoma cells infected and killed by different OV induces an intercellular transfer of NY-ESO-1 that allows the recognition of NY-ESO-1/HLA-DP4tumor cells by an HLA-DP4/NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ cytotoxic T cell clone, NY67. Read More

    Waning of measles maternal antibody in infants in measles elimination settings - A systematic literature review.
    Vaccine 2018 Feb 2;36(10):1248-1255. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Public Health Ontario, 480 University Avenue, Suite 300, Toronto, ON M5G 1V2, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College St, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Most infants are born with immunity to measles through maternal antibodies transferred in pregnancy, which decay over time. However, in measles elimination settings, where measles does not circulate endemically and most immunity is from immunization rather than infection, maternal antibody levels are lower. This results in infant immunity that wanes earlier, and a wider susceptibility gap between maternal antibody decay and infant immunization than in non-eliminated settings. Read More

    Compliance to timely vaccination in an Expanded Program on Immunization center of Pakistan.
    Vaccine 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Prime Institute of Public Health, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Peshawar Medical College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    The importance of childhood immunization in prevention of highly fatal diseases and disability cannot be overemphasized. Pakistan has a national Expanded Program on Immunization but the compliance is far below the international benchmark for achieving a herd immunity. Monitoring the compliance to timely receipt of vaccinations is crucial to establishing and preventing disease and disability associated risk in children. Read More

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