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    Higher Transplacental Pathogen-Specific Antibody Transfer Among Pregnant Women Randomized to Triple Antiretroviral Treatment Versus Short Course Zidovudine.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Aug 19. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    1Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Centre for Public Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Departments of 3Medicine, 4Epidemiology, and 5Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; 6Department of Pediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 7Department of Medicine Solna, Unit of Infectious Diseases, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 8International Centre for Reproductive Health / Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ghent University, Belgium; current affiliation Burnet Institute, Australia; 9INSERM UMR 1058 (INSERM/University Montpellier/EFS) and CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France; 10WHO, Reproductive Health and Research, Geneva, Switzerland (affiliation at the time of the study); 11Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; 12Institute for Immunology and Informatics and Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island.
    Background: HIV-1 infection may impair transplacental antibody transfer to infants. The impact of highly active antiretroviral treatment (ART) given during pregnancy on transplacental antibody transport is unknown.

    Methods: HIV-1 infected pregnant women with CD4 counts between 200 - 500 were randomized to short-course zidovudine (ZDV) or triple ART at 32 weeks gestation for prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Read More

    Examining changes in maternal and child health inequalities in Ethiopia.
    Int J Equity Health 2017 Aug 22;16(1):152. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    The World Bank, 1818 H Street, Washington, DC, 20046, USA.
    Background: Ethiopia has made considerable progress in maternal, newborn, and child health in terms of health outcomes and health services coverage. This study examined how different groups have fared in the process. It also looked at possible factors behind the inequalities. Read More

    Digital immunization registry: evidence for the impact of mHealth on enhancing the immunization system and improving immunization coverage for children under one year old in Vietnam.
    Mhealth 2017 19;3:26. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    PATH Mekong Regional Program, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Background: The Vietnam National Expanded Program on Immunization (NEPI) has been successfully implementing a nationwide immunization system since 1985. From the start, the program has increased the immunization coverage rate; however, data on immunization coverage in Vietnam are gathered and aggregated from commune health centers in routine, paper-based reports, which have shortcomings. Also, calculations of coverage are inconsistent at subnational levels, which lead to uncertainty about the size of the target population used as the denominator in coverage calculations. Read More

    Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the genus Cimicifuga: A review.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Aug 4. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, P. R. China. Electronic address:
    Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Plants of the genus Cimicifuga have long been used as an ethnomedicine in China, Europe, and North America for its high medicinal value and health benefits. Their dried rhizomes are widely used for treating wind-heat headache, toothache, aphtha, sore throat, measles, spot poison, archoptosis, and uterine prolapse. In addition, it is used as a dietary supplement for preventing women menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. Read More

    Pediatric Resident Education and Preparedness Regarding Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2017 Aug 1:9922817727465. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1 Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, Lake Success, NY, USA.
    This study assessed pediatric residents' reported knowledge of and self-confidence in identifying/treating 8 vaccine-preventable diseases. Pediatric residents nationwide (n = 385) reported (1) if they had previously diagnosed measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, varicella, and/or polio; (2) their comfort level in treating these diseases; (3) the likelihood of identifying symptoms; and (4) 16 disease-related statements as true/false. More than 25% of residents were not comfortable treating 5 of the 8 diseases. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequences of Mumps and Measles Virus Isolates from Three States in the United States.
    Genome Announc 2017 Aug 17;5(33). Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    We report here the full coding sequence of nine paramyxovirus genomes, including two full-length mumps virus genomes (genotypes G and H) and seven measles virus genomes (genotypes B3 and D4, D8, and D9), from respiratory samples of patients from California, Virginia, and Alabama obtained between 2010 and 2014. Read More

    Measles Vaccination is Best for Children: The Argument for Relying on Herd Immunity Fails.
    J Bioeth Inq 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) School of Medicine, 2040 W Charleston Blvd, Las Vegas, Nevada, 89102 and Center for Applied Ethics, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    This article examines an argument which may negatively influence measles vaccination uptake. According to the argument, an individual child in a highly vaccinated society may be better off by being non-vaccinated; the child does not risk vaccine adverse effects and is protected against measles through herd immunity. Firstly, the conclusion of the argument is challenged by showing that herd immunity's protection is unreliable and inferior to vaccination. Read More

    Polyspecific antibodies without persisting antigen in multiple sclerosis, neurolupus and Guillain-Barré syndrome: immune network connectivity in chronic diseases.
    Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Aug;75(8):580-588
    CSF and Complexity Studies, São Paulo SP, Brasil.
    The polyspecific antibody synthesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) gained diagnostic relevance with the frequent combination of measles-, rubella- and varicella zoster antibodies (MRZ-antibody reaction) but their pathophysiological role remains unknown. This review connects the data for intrathecal polyspecific antibody synthesis in MS and neurolupus with observations in the blood of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Simultaneously increased antibody and autoantibody titers in GBS blood samples indicate that the polyspecific antibodies are based on a general property of an immune network, supported by the deterministic day-to-day concentration variation of antibodies in normal blood. Read More

    Impact of Health Research Systems on Under-5 Mortality Rate: A Trend Analysis.
    Int J Health Policy Manag 2016 Nov 26;6(7):395-402. Epub 2016 Nov 26.
    Knowledge Utilization Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Between 1990 and 2015, under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) declined by 53%, from an estimated rate of 91 deaths per 1000 live births to 43, globally. The aim of this study was to determine the share of health research systems in this decrease alongside other influential factors.

    Methods: We used random effect regression models including the 'random intercept' and 'random intercept and random slope' models to analyze the panel data from 1990 to 2010. Read More

    [Recall system for vaccinations in preschool children in a Local Health Unit in Rome, Italy].
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 2017 May-Jun;73(3):275-282
    Dipartimento Biomedicina e Prevenzione, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata", Italia.
    In Italy, in this period, much attention is dedicated to reach adequate vaccination coverage in children and adolescents. In this study, Vaccination Registry was checked in a Local Health Unit in Rome, Italy, to identify children born in 2007 and 2008 who had not completed the vaccination schedule. Coverage for booster doses of measles, mumps, rubella and for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio vaccines in the 2213 children was around 70%. Read More

    Burden of disease attributable to vitamin A deficiency in Iranian population aged less than five years: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.
    J Diabetes Metab Disord 2017 9;16:32. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjerib Ave, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is considered as one of the most serious public health concerns in developing countriesand the leading cause of mortality in under-five-year-old children.A large number of young children and pregnant women especially in low-income, non-industrialized communities are more susceptible to VAD. This study aims to report the burden of disease (BOD) attributable to VAD in Iranian population aged less than 5 years by using data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2010. Read More

    Measles immunity gaps and the progress towards elimination: a multi-country modelling analysis.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    DONDENA Centre for Research on Social Dynamics, Università Commerciale L Bocconi, Milan, Italy; Department of Policy Analysis and Public Management, Università Commerciale L Bocconi, Milan, Italy.
    Background: The persistent circulation of measles in both low-income and high-income countries requires a better characterisation of present epidemiological trends and existing immunity gaps across different sociodemographic settings. Serological surveys, which provide direct measures of population protection against the infection, are underexploited and often supply fragmentary estimates of population immunity. This study aims to investigate how measles immunity has changed over time across different socioeconomic settings, as a result of demographic changes and past immunisation policies. Read More

    Focusing on the implementation of 21st century vaccines for adults.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Viale GB Morgagni, 48, 50134 Florence, Italy. Electronic address:
    Adult immunization is a priority for public health, particularly in countries where an aging population has become increasingly more numerous. Protection against diseases which typically affect adults (like flu, pneumococcal diseases and Herpes zoster), the shift of age of infections which originally affected children (like measles), the decreasing protection with time for infections which need periodical booster doses of vaccines (Tdap), the availability of vaccines which can also impact on adult health (HPV) are only some examples of the importance of implementing targeted vaccination strategies. The possibility to reach high coverage with immunizations that can guarantee a fundamental improvement of health for adults and the elderly can only be achieved through a coordinated effort where all stakeholders, under the coordination of public health, contribute to issue recommendations; create a functioning database for vaccine coverage registration; promote formative courses for healthcare workers and continuous information for the public; increase vaccines uptake among healthcare workers, who need to give the first testimony on the relevance of immunization. Read More

    Local measles vaccination gaps in Germany and the role of vaccination providers.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Aug 14;17(1):656. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biometrics, University Tübingen, Silcherstraße 5, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.
    Background: Measles elimination in Europe is an urgent public health goal, yet despite the efforts of its member states, vaccination gaps and outbreaks occur. This study explores local vaccination heterogeneity in kindergartens and municipalities of a German county.

    Methods: Data on children from mandatory school enrolment examinations in 2014/15 in Reutlingen county were used. Read More

    Evaluation of Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine Introduction in Australia.
    JAMA Pediatr 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, Sydney, Australia.
    Importance: Incorporating combination vaccines, such as the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine, into immunization schedules should be evaluated from a benefit-risk perspective. Use of MMRV vaccine poses challenges due to a recognized increased risk of febrile seizures (FSs) when used as the first dose in the second year of life. Conversely, completion by age 2 years of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella immunization may offer improved disease control. Read More

    Challenges in Estimating Vaccine Coverage in Refugee and Displaced Populations: Results From Household Surveys in Jordan and Lebanon.
    Vaccines (Basel) 2017 Aug 12;5(3). Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
    Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country's vaccine schedule. Read More

    Building capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas: A hospital-based multi-country network.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Unit of Medicines and Health Technologies, Department of Health Systems and Services, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), Washington DC, DC, United States.
    New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries are being introduced without prior utilization in countries with robust vaccine pharmacovigilance systems. Our aim was to build capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas. We describe the implementation of a proof-of-concept study for the feasibility of an international collaborative hospital-based active surveillance system for vaccine safety. Read More

    A measles outbreak in Sindh, Pakistan caused by a genotype B3 virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 12. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Virology, National Institute of Health, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad, 45500, Pakistan.
    Measles continues to be a major public health issue causing substantial outbreaks worldwide, mostly affecting young children. Molecular analysis of measles viruses provides important information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can be helpful towards implementation of appropriate control programs. In Pakistan, the control of measles is still tenuous, and progress towards elimination has been irregular and challenging. Read More

    Cost-benefit analyses of supplementary measles immunisation in the highly immunized population of New Zealand.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Ministry of Health, Wellington, New Zealand.
    As endemic measles is eliminated from countries through increased immunisation, the economic benefits of enhanced immunisation programs may come into question. New Zealand has suffered from outbreaks after measles introductions from abroad and we use it as a model system to understand the benefits of catch up immunisation in highly immunised populations. We provide cost-benefit analyses for measles supplementary immunisation in New Zealand. Read More

    Multiple sclerosis and environmental risk factors: a case-control study in Iran.
    Neurol Sci 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Neurology Department, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.
    Studies have shown an increase in the incidence of MS in Iran. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental exposure and MS in Iran. This case-control study was conducted on 660 MS patients and 421 controls. Read More

    Utilization and impact of European immunization week to increase measles, mumps, rubella vaccine uptake in Austria in 2016.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    This paper describes engagement in European Immunization Week (EIW) in Tyrol, Austria in April 2016 and an assessment of its possible impact on demand for measles, mumps, rubella vaccination (MMR). It further describes the output of a knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) survey conducted during EIW, showing that 93% (188/202) of respondents were in favor of vaccination in general and 90% (192/214) perceived MMR vaccination to be important. MMR vaccination was perceived as important by more participants than other vaccinations. Read More

    Systemic virotherapy for multiple myeloma.
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 2017 Aug 10:1-13. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    a Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology , University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino , Torino , Italy.
    Introduction: The multiple myeloma (MM) treatment scenario has changed considerably over the past few years. Several novel targeted therapies are currently under consideration including oncolytic virotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an analysis of the mechanisms of action of virotherapy, and summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies of systemic virotherapy developed for the treatment of MM. Read More

    Characterizing measles transmission in India: a dynamic modeling study using verbal autopsy data.
    BMC Med 2017 Aug 10;15(1):151. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Background: Decreasing trends in measles mortality have been reported in recent years. However, such estimates of measles mortality have depended heavily on assumed regional measles case fatality risks (CFRs) and made little use of mortality data from low- and middle-income countries in general and India, the country with the highest measles burden globally, in particular.

    Methods: We constructed a dynamic model of measles transmission in India with parameters that were empirically inferred using spectral analysis from a time series of measles mortality extracted from the Million Death Study, an ongoing longitudinal study recording deaths across 2. Read More

    Co-administration of BCG and Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) Vaccinations May Reduce Infant Mortality More Than the WHO-schedule of BCG First and Then DTP. A Re-analysis of Demographic Surveillance Data From Rural Bangladesh.
    EBioMedicine 2017 Aug 14;22:173-180. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Background: WHO recommends BCG at birth and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-containing vaccine at 6, 10 and 14weeks of age. However, BCG and DTP are often co-administered in low-income countries. The health implications have not been examined. Read More

    Risk factors for measles among infants in Tianjin, China.
    Public Health 2017 Aug 3;151:114-117. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Objectives: Infants aged <8 months are ineligible for measles vaccination in China but represent a disproportionate number of cases. We examined the risk factors for measles among infants in Tianjin, China.

    Study Design: Case-control study. Read More

    Non-encapsidated 5' copy-back defective-interfering genomes produced by recombinant measles viruses are recognized by RIG-I and LGP2 but not MDA5.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Unité de Génomique Virale et Vaccination, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR-3569, Paris, France.
    Attenuated Measles virus (MV) is one of the most effective and safe vaccine available, making it an attractive candidate vector to prevent other infectious diseases. Yet the great capacity of this vaccine still needs to be understood at the molecular level. MV vaccine strains have different type-I interferon-inducing abilities, that partially depend on the presence of 5' copy-back defective interfering genomes (DI-RNAs). Read More

    Major Birth Defects after Vaccination Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990 to 2014.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Jul;109(13):1057-1062
    Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Major birth defects are important infant outcomes that have not been well studied in the postmarketing surveillance of vaccines given to pregnant women. We assessed the presence of major birth defects following vaccination in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system used to monitor the safety of vaccines in the United States.

    Methods: We searched VAERS for reports of major birth defects during January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2014. Read More

    Challenges of Empirical Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children.
    Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2017 16;84:e7-e11. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides.

    Objectives: This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria. Read More

    Measles vaccines: WHO position paper, April 2017 - Recommendations.
    Vaccine 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of measles vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Measles vaccines: WHO position paper - April 2017, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper replaces the 2009 WHO position paper on measles vaccines [2]. The position paper summarizes the most recent developments in the field of measles and includes removal of introduction criteria for the routine second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2), guidance on when to vaccinate infants from 6months of age, and guidance on re-vaccination of HIV-infected children receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Read More

    Chronically ill adolescents are also incompletely vaccinated: A cross-sectional study in France.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 29;35(36):4707-4712. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Nantes, Nantes, France; National Institutes of Health and Medical Research, CIC 1413, University Hospital of Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Background: Adolescent vaccination coverage tends to be suboptimal, leading to resurgent infectious pathologies and vulnerability to various pathogens. The low frequency of medical consultations and missed opportunities for vaccination are often used to explain the low rate of vaccination. The aim of this study was to assess if the vaccination coverage rate is higher in chronically ill adolescents (CIA) who require a close pediatric specialized follow-up versus the rate in healthy adolescents (HA). Read More

    Survival of iPSC-derived grafts within the striatum of immunodeficient mice: Importance of developmental stage of both transplant and host recipient.
    Exp Neurol 2017 Jul 29;297:118-128. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. Electronic address:
    Degeneration of the striatum can occur in multiple disorders with devastating consequences for the patients. Infantile infections with streptococcus, measles, or herpes can cause striatal necrosis associated with dystonia or dyskinesia; and in patients with Huntington's disease the striatum undergoes massive degeneration, leading to behavioral, psychological and movement issues, ultimately resulting in death. Currently, only supportive therapies are available for striatal degeneration. Read More

    Maternal HIV infection associated with reduced transplacental transfer of measles antibodies and increased susceptibility to disease.
    J Clin Virol 2017 Jul 20;94:50-56. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Centre for Vaccines and Immunology, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Background: Transplacental transfer of measles antibodies from mother to fetus is important in protecting against measles during early infancy. Changes in population immunity against measles in adults, including waning of immunity among HIV-infected pregnant women, could affect passive immunity acquired in utero by newborns.

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of maternal HIV infection on transplacental transfer of measles antibody in mother-newborn dyads in a setting of high maternal HIV prevalence. Read More

    The basic reproduction number (R0) of measles: a systematic review.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    The basic reproduction number, R nought (R0), is defined as the average number of secondary cases of an infectious disease arising from a typical case in a totally susceptible population, and can be estimated in populations if pre-existing immunity can be accounted for in the calculation. R0 determines the herd immunity threshold and therefore the immunisation coverage required to achieve elimination of an infectious disease. As R0 increases, higher immunisation coverage is required to achieve herd immunity. Read More

    MMR and MMRV vaccines.
    Vaccine 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Children's Hospital, Dr. Horst Schmidt Klinik, Ludwig-Erhard-Strasse 100, 65199 Wiesbaden, Germany. Electronic address:
    Measles, mumps, rubella and varicella are viral infections which can implicate seriously long-term sequelae of infected individuals or even the unborn child. Vaccines against the individual diseases have long been available. Global measles vaccination is estimated to have prevented more than 20million deaths during 2000-2015. Read More

    Socioeconomic factors influencing childhood vaccination in two northern Italian regions.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 27;35(36):4673-4680. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Molecular Medicine of the University of Padova, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: Infant vaccination rates have been declining in Italy over the past 5-7years. The aims of this study were to assess the trend in the proportions of children unvaccinated at 24months old, to identify sociodemographic factors associated with non-vaccination; and to examine changes in parental attitudes to vaccination over time.

    Methods: We conducted a population-based birth cohort study by combining existing electronic data sets. Read More

    Self-reported infections during international travel and notifiable infections among returning international travellers, Sweden, 2009-2013.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(7):e0181625. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera), STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B), VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria) acquired abroad 2009-2013. We obtained number and duration of trips to each country from a database that monthly collects travel data from a randomly selected proportion of the Swedish population. Read More

    The importance of immunization in cancer prevention, treatment, and survivorship.
    CA Cancer J Clin 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Assistant Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE A measles outbreak originating in California during 2014 and 2015 called attention to the potential for infectious disease outbreaks related to underimmunized populations in the United States and the potential risk to pediatric patients with cancer attending school when such outbreaks occur. Compliance with vaccine recommendations is important for the prevention of hepatitis B-related and human papillomavirus-related cancers and for protecting immunocompromised patients with cancer, and these points are often overlooked, resulting in the continued occurrence of vaccine-preventable neoplastic and infectious diseases and complications. This article provides an overview of the importance of vaccines in the context of cancer and encourages clinician, health system, and public policy efforts to promote adherence to immunization recommendations in the United States. Read More

    A Comprehensive Review of Immunization Practices in Solid Organ Transplant and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.
    Clin Ther 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases, especially influenza, varicella, herpes zoster, and invasive pneumococcal infections, continue to lead to significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients.

    Methods: We highlight guideline recommendations for the use of key vaccines in SOT and HSCT recipients and to review the latest evidence and developments in the field.

    Results: Physicians should vaccinate individuals with end-stage organ disease, as vaccine seroresponse rates are higher pretransplantation. Read More

    Coverage of childhood vaccination among children aged 12-23 months, Tamil Nadu, 2015, India.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Mar;145(3):377-386
    Department of Epidemiology, ICMR-National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, India.
    Background & Objectives: District-Level Household Survey-4 (DLHS-4) indicated that during 2012-2013, only 56 per cent of children aged 12-23 months in Tamil Nadu were fully vaccinated, which were lesser than those reported in earlier national surveys. We, therefore, conducted cluster surveys to estimate coverage of childhood vaccination in the State, and also to identify the factors associated with low coverage.

    Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 15 strata [municipal corporation non-slum (n=1), municipal corporation slum (n=1), hilly (n=1), rural (n=6) and urban (n=6)]. Read More

    Vaccine-preventable diseases in pediatric patients: a review of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella [digest].
    Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2016 Dec 22;13(12 Suppl Points & Pearls):S1-S2. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Chief Fellow, Emergency & Transport Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine/University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.
    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Read More

    Did the Ebola outbreak disrupt immunisation services? A case study from Liberia.
    Public Health Action 2017 Jun;7(Suppl 1):S82-S87
    Ministry of Health, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore, India.
    Setting: All health facilities providing routine immunisation services in Liberia. Objective: To compare the number of routine facility-based and outreach immunisations and measles cases before, during and after the Ebola outbreak. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Read More

    Paediatric care in relation to the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak and general reporting of deaths in Sierra Leone.
    Public Health Action 2017 Jun;7(Suppl 1):S34-S39
    Operational Research Unit, Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels Operational Centre, Luxembourg.
    Setting: All peripheral health units countrywide in Sierra Leone and one hospital in Port Loko. Objectives: Sierra Leone was severely affected by the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak, whose impact on paediatric care and mortality reports merits assessment. We sought to compare the periods before, during and after the Ebola outbreak, the countrywide trend in morbidities in children aged < 5 years and exit outcomes in one district hospital (Port Loko). Read More

    Public Health and Economic Consequences of Vaccine Hesitancy for Measles in the United States.
    JAMA Pediatr 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston3Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas4James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas5Scowcroft Institute of International Affairs, The Bush School of Government and Public Service, Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Importance: Routine childhood vaccination is declining in some regions of the United States due to vaccine hesitancy, which risks the resurgence of many infectious diseases with public health and economic consequences. There are ongoing policy debates on the state and national level, including legislation around nonmedical (personal-belief) exemptions for childhood vaccination and possibly a special government commission on vaccine safety, which may affect vaccine coverage.

    Objective: To estimate the number of measles cases in US children and the associated economic costs under scenarios of different levels of vaccine hesitancy, using the case example of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination and measles. Read More

    Vaccine-Preventable Admissions to an Irish Paediatric Intensive Care.
    Ir Med J 2017 May 10;110(5):560. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin 12.
    In the Republic of Ireland, the schedule of state-funded immunisation for children is comprehensive and includes diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, meningococcus C, haemophilus B, polio, measles, rubella and mumps. Varicella and meningococcal B vaccines are commercially available but are not currently funded by the government. Each of the illnesses preventable by these vaccines can cause substantial morbidity, and rarely mortality, in infants and children. Read More

    National disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 257 diseases and injuries in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: findings from the global burden of disease study 2015.
    Popul Health Metr 2017 21;15:28. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Background: Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) provide a summary measure of health and can be a critical input to guide health systems, investments, and priority-setting in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the leading causes of premature mortality and disability using DALYs and describe the relative burden of disease and injuries in Ethiopia.

    Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for non-fatal disease burden, cause-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality to derive age-standardized DALYs by sex for Ethiopia for each year. Read More

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