27,528 results match your criteria Measles Rubeola


The Epidemiology of Otosclerosis in a British Cohort.

Otol Neurotol 2019 Jan;40(1):22-30

University College London Ear Institute, University College London.

Objective: To analyse the epidemiology of otosclerosis in a British cohort collected between 2011 and 2017.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Five UK ENT Departments. Read More

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January 2019

Impact of vaccine delays at the 2, 4, 6 and 12 month visits on incomplete vaccination status by 24 months of age in Quebec, Canada.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 11;18(1):1364. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institut national de santé publique du Quebec, 2400 d'Estimauville Avenue, Quebec, G1E 7G9, Canada.

Background: Timeliness in the administration of recommended vaccines is often evaluated using vaccine delays and provides more information regarding the susceptibility of children to vaccine-preventable diseases compared with vaccine coverage at a given age. The importance of on-time administration of vaccines scheduled at the first visit is well documented, but data are scarce about the impact of vaccine delays at other visits on vaccination status by 24 months of age. Using vaccine delays for the first three doses of DTaP-containing vaccines and for the first dose of measles-containing vaccines as markers of timeliness at the 2, 4, 6 and 12 month visits, we estimated the proportion of incomplete vaccination status by 24 months of age attributable to a vaccine delay at each of these visits. Read More

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December 2018

Outbreak of measles genotype H1 in Northern Italy originated from a case imported from South-East Asia, 2017.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

UOS Virologia Molecolare, UOC Microbiologia e Virologia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze Clinico-Chirurgiche, Diagnostiche e Pediatriche, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Longitudinal changes in measles antibody titers in plasma donors and minimum antibody levels of immunoglobulin products for treatment of primary immunodeficiency.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3065-3071

InflaRx, Jena, Germany.

Background: To ensure that immunoglobulin (Ig) products have adequate functional antibody, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that Ig lots contain minimum levels of measles neutralizing antibody; the current minimum is 0.48 x US Reference Ig 176.

Study Design And Methods: In the first part of the study, measles antibody titers were measured in donor plasma samples collected in 2007, 2011, and 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Immunoglobulins and virus antibody titers: of past needs, current requirements, and future options.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3090-3095

Global Pathogen Safety, Shire (previously Baxter BioScience, Baxalta), Vienna, Austria.

Background: Immunoglobulins (Igs) have been in clinical use for almost 70 years, and early on were also used in conjunction with exposure to the measles virus or polio virus. The US regulations that describe functional Ig lot release thus require the demonstration of minimum antibody titers against these two viruses, although the use of vaccines has now dramatically reduced their incidence. The lower clinical importance of these viruses raises the question of whether other virus antibodies might be more informative for patients with immunodeficiency. Read More

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December 2018

Childhood vaccination in Kenya: socioeconomic determinants and disparities among the Somali ethnic community.

Int J Public Health 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Objectives: Kenya has a significant refugee population, including large numbers of Somali migrants. This study examines the vaccination status of Kenyan children and sociodemographic predictors of vaccination, including Somali ethnicity.

Methods: Using the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey, we calculated the proportion of non-vaccinated, under-vaccinated, and fully vaccinated children, defining full vaccination as one dose Bacille Calmette-Guerin, three doses polio, three doses pentavalent, and one dose measles. Read More

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December 2018
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International Importations of Measles Virus into the United States during the Post-Elimination Era, 2001‒2016.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Although measles was declared eliminated from the United States in 2000, measles cases and outbreaks continue to occur, resulting from importations of the disease from countries where it remains endemic.

Methods: We describe the epidemiology of international importations of measles virus into the United States during the post-elimination era.

Results: From 2001 to 2016, 553 imported measles cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Read More

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December 2018

Development of real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for rapid detection of peste des petits ruminants virus in clinical samples and its comparison with real-time PCR test.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 10;8(1):17760. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Peste des Petits Ruminants, National Research Center for Exotic Animal Diseases, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, Shandong, P. R. China.

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), caused by small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), formerly called peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), is one of the most important pathogens in small ruminants, and has tremendous negative economic impact on the sheep industry worldwide. Current detection of PPRV in clinical samples mainly relies on real-time RT-PCR. Particularly, samples collected from rural area require highly equipped laboratories for screening. Read More

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December 2018

p53 regulates CD46 expression and measles virus infection in myeloma cells.

Blood Adv 2018 Dec;2(23):3492-3505

CRCINA, INSERM, CNRS, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of myeloma cells to the oncolytic measles virus (MV) in relation to p53 using 37 cell lines and 23 primary samples. We showed that infection and cell death were correlated with CD46 expression, which was associated with status; cell lines highly expressed CD46 and were preferentially infected by MV when compared with the cell lines ( = .046 and = . Read More

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December 2018

Global Dynamics of a Discrete Age-Structured SIR Epidemic Model with Applications to Measles Vaccination Strategies.

Math Biosci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G1 Canada. Electronic address:

We investigate an SIR epidemic model with discrete age groups to understand the transmission dynamics of an infectious disease in a host population with an age structure. We derive the basic reproduction number R and show that it is a sharp threshold parameter. If R≤1, the disease-free equilibrium E is globally stable. Read More

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December 2018

Workplace Vaccination Against Measles In a Teaching Hospital of Rome.

J Hosp Infect 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

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December 2018

Assessment of vaccination coverage of adolescents aged 16-18 years with an innovative electronic immunization record system.

Med Mal Infect 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Groupe d'études en préventologie (GEP), hôpital d'instruction des armées Robert-Picqué, 351, route de Toulouse, 33140 Villenave-d'Ornon, France.

Objectives: To measure vaccine coverage among adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region using the free electronic immunization record.

Patients And Methods: We considered adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region from April to October 2013. All participants received a letter explaining how to create an electronic immunization record. Read More

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December 2018

Measles outbreak in Brazil, 2018.

Braz J Infect Dis 2018 Sep - Oct;22(5):359

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Unidade de Doenças Infecciosas, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

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November 2018

Measles Status-Barriers to Vaccination and Strategies for Overcoming Them.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018 Oct;115(43):723-730

Institute of General Practice, Technische Universität München: The Max Planck Society's Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich; Institute of General Practice, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München; Department of Pediatric Infectiology and Vaccinology, Universitäts-Kinderspital beider Basel (UKBB); Institute of General Practice, Technische Universität München.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) set the year 2020 as a target date for the eradication of measles in Europe, yet Germany is still far away from this goal. In this article, we provide an overview of current vaccination gaps and barriers to vaccination among children and adults in Germany, as well as potential strategies for overcoming them.

Methods: This review is based on pertinent publications identified by a selective literature search in PubMed (Medline). Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Prevention of Infectious Diseases due to Immunosuppression and Vaccinations in Asian Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Intest Dis 2018 Nov 17;3(1):1-10. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Center for Advanced IBD Research and Treatment, Kitasato University Kitasato Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with immunocompromise have a high risk of developing complications related to viral infections. Western countries were the first to formulate vaccine guideline. Asian countries developed their national and international vaccine guidelines a little later in order to reduce the risk of mortality from viral infections. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Long-Lived Plasma Cells in Mice and Men.

Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2673. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Even though more than 30 years have passed since the eradication of smallpox, high titers of smallpox-specific antibodies are still detected in the blood of subjects vaccinated in childhood. In fact, smallpox-specific antibody levels are maintained in serum for more than 70 years. The generation of life-long immunity against infectious diseases such as smallpox and measles has been thoroughly documented. Read More

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November 2018

The comparative biochemistry of viruses and humans: an evolutionary path towards autoimmunity.

Authors:
Darja Kanduc

Biol Chem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70124 Bari, Italy.

Analyses of the peptide sharing between five common human viruses (Borna disease virus, influenza A virus, measles virus, mumps virus and rubella virus) and the human proteome highlight a massive viral vs. human peptide overlap that is mathematically unexpected. Evolutionarily, the data underscore a strict relationship between viruses and the origin of eukaryotic cells. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Causal relationship between immunological responses and adverse reactions following vaccination.

Authors:
Tetsuo Nakayama

Vaccine 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Laboratory of Viral Infection, 5-9-1 Shirokane Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan. Electronic address:

Vaccine adverse events and controversial safety issues have occurred in recent decades in Japan: aseptic meningitis following the measles-mumps-rubella combined vaccine (MMR), anaphylaxis after immunization with live virus vaccines and inactivated split influenza vaccine, an increased incidence of febrile illness following the simultaneous administration of inactivated vaccines, and chronic pain with neurological illness after immunization with the human papilloma virus vaccine (HPV). Vaccine adverse events are a matter of concern for the public as well as general practitioners; some are within the range of assumptions that adverse reactions after live attenuated vaccines are related to the nature of their parental wild-type viruses. Vaccines stimulate the innate immunity of host immunological defense mechanisms and induce the development of specific acquired immunity. Read More

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November 2018

Sera from different age cohorts in Belgium show limited cross-neutralisation between the mumps vaccine and outbreak strains.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Viral Diseases, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium;. Electronic address:

Objectives: Mumps used to affect children between two and 15 years old. The MMR (mumps-measles-rubella) vaccine is available with vaccine coverage rate of about 85% after two vaccine doses. Recently, new mumps outbreaks emerged in highly vaccinated populations and the causes for these new outbreaks are yet unknown. Read More

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November 2018
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Vaccination of healthcare workers: is mandatory vaccination needed?

Expert Rev Vaccines 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

d First Department of Pediatrics , National and Kapodistrian University of Athens , Athens , Greece.

Introduction: Vaccinations of healthcare workers (HCWs) aim to directly protect them from occupational acquisition of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and to indirectly protect their patients and the essential healthcare infrastructure. However, outbreaks due to VPDs continue to challenge healthcare facilities and HCWs are frequently traced as sources of VPDs to vulnerable patients. In addition, HCWs were disproportionately affected during the current measles outbreak in Europe. Read More

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December 2018

Sequence Analysis of the Fusion Protein Gene of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Circulating in China from 2003 to 2014.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 4;8(1):17618. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) fusion (F) protein is important for HRSV infection, but few studies have examined the genetic diversity of the F gene from Chinese samples. In this study, a total of 330 HRSV F sequences collected from different regions of China between 2003 and 2014 were analyzed to understand their genetic characteristics. In addition, these sequences were compared with 1150 HRSV F sequences in Genbank from 18 other countries. Read More

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December 2018

[State of immunization against measles among health professionals in at-risk units of the Caen University Hospital].

Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Normandie Université UNICAEN, GRAM EA 2656, 14032 Normandie, France; Service de virologie, centre national de référence (CNR) des virus de la rougeole, rubéole et oreillons, CHU de Caen, 14032 Caen, France.

Background: France is facing a new resurgence of measles. Since November 2017, the number of cases has been increasing sharply. Immunization coverage in the general population, all ages combined, is below the threshold required for a rapid decline of the virus propagation. Read More

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December 2018

Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D level and measles antibody titer: A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES, 2001-2004.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(11):e0207798. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Division of Family Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital; and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: In recent years, researchers have illuminated many non-skeletal actions of vitamin D including host defense against various pathogens and vaccine immunology. The purpose of our study was to explore the potential association between serum vitamin D levels and measles antibody titers.

Methods: The biochemical profiles and de-identified information were accessed from the 2001 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Importance of real-time RT-PCR to supplement the laboratory diagnosis in the measles elimination program in China.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(11):e0208161. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

WHO WPRO Regional Reference Laboratory of Measles/Rubella and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

In addition to high vaccination coverage, timely and accurate laboratory confirmation of measles cases is critical to interrupt measles transmission. To evaluate the role of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the diagnosis of measles cases, 46,363 suspected measles cases with rash and 395 suspected measles cases without rash were analyzed in this study; the cases were obtained from the Chinese measles surveillance system (MSS) during 2014-2017 and simultaneously detected by measles-specific IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time RT-PCR. However, some IgM-negative measles cases were identified by real-time RT-PCR. Read More

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November 2018

IgA targeting on the α-molecular recognition element (α-MoRE) of viral phosphoprotein inhibits measles virus replication by interrupting formation and function of P-N complex intracellularly.

Antiviral Res 2018 Nov 28;161:144-153. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Mucosal Immunity Research Group, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071, China. Electronic address:

Secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody is unique for its capability to transit through epithelial cells by transcytosis and thus has opportunities and probabilities to interact with all viral components during viral replication which may result in the inhibition of viral replication intracellularly. Here, we report a novel IgA mAb 1D11-IgA against phosphoprotein (P) of measles virus (MV), which is able to interact specifically with P in MV infected Vero-pIgR cells grown in a two-chamber transwell system. The binding epitope of 1D11-IgA involves a key residue proline 23 in P protein, which is among the α-molecular recognition element (α-MoRE) of P and critical for N-P complex. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Causes of blindness in children attending a school for the blind in Mali.

Med Sante Trop 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

CHU-IOTA, 91093 Bamako, Mali.

Introduction: Among the 1.4 million blind children in the world, 300,000 live in Africa. The causes of blindness vary from one country to another. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Herd immunity and primary immune deficiencies.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

This letter addresses the issues adjoining the article by Bernadou et al. Measles outbreak linked to insufficient vaccination coverage in Nouvelle-Aquitaine Region, France, October 2017 to July 2018. Euro Surveill. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Vaccine-preventable disease control in the People's Republic of China: 1949-2016.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 26;36(52):8131-8137. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: China's immunization program is one of the oldest and largest in the world. Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) are comparable to those in high-income countries. The program's evolution has been characterized by ambitious target setting and innovative strategies that have not been widely described. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Improving immunization capacity in Ethiopia through continuous quality improvement interventions: a prospective quasi-experimental study.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Nov 30;7(1):119. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Ethiopian Public Health Association, P.O. Box 7117, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Strong scientific evidence is needed to support low-income countries in building effective and sustainable immunization programs and proactively engaging in global vaccine development and implementation initiatives. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of system-wide continuous quality improvement (CQI) interventions to improve national immunization programme performance in Ethiopia.

Methods: The study used a prospective, quasi-experimental design with an interrupted time-series analysis to collect data from 781 government health sectors (556 healthcare facilities, 196 district health offices, and 29 zonal health departments) selected from developing and emerging regions in Ethiopia. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Extensive editing of cellular and viral double-stranded RNA structures accounts for innate immunity suppression and the proviral activity of ADAR1p150.

PLoS Biol 2018 Nov 29;16(11):e2006577. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America.

The interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune response is the first line of defense against viruses. However, an IFN-stimulated gene, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), favors the replication of several viruses. ADAR1 binds double-stranded RNA and converts adenosine to inosine by deamination. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Nov 30;67(47):1323-1329. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

In 2010, the World Health Assembly set three milestones for measles prevention to be achieved by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to less than five cases per million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1).* In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), with the objective of eliminating measles in four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015 and in five regions by 2020. Countries in all six WHO regions have adopted goals for measles elimination by 2020. Read More

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November 2018

Analysis of a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) Genotype B3 virus from the 2009/10 South African measles epidemic shows hyperfusogenic F proteins contribute to measles virus infection in the brain.

J Virol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service, Cape Town, South Africa.

During a measles virus (MeV) epidemic in 2009 in South Africa, measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE) was identified in several HIV-infected patients. Years later, children are presenting with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). To investigate the features of established MeV neuronal infections, viral sequences were analysed from brain tissue samples of a single SSPE case and compared with MIBE sequences previously obtained from patients infected during the same epidemic. Read More

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November 2018

Exploring the spatial heterogeneity in different doses of vaccination coverage in India.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0207209. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT), Bangalore, India.

Background: Despite the universalization of immunization against the six vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), the coverage of full immunization among the children under age five has remained a challenge globally. The 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) indicated large disparity in the coverage of different vaccination doses (BCG, Polio, DPT and Measles) including full immunization across the districts of India. The spatial distribution of poor performing districts in terms of vaccination and the district level spatial, contextual determinants contributing to the low coverage have been poorly studied. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Measles vaccination coverage, determinants of delayed vaccination and reasons for non-vaccination among children aged 24-35 months in Zhejiang province, China.

BMC Public Health 2018 Nov 27;18(1):1298. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Institute of Immunization and Prevention, Zhejiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 3399 Binsheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: This study was aimed to assess the coverage of two doses of measles vaccine and identify the determinants of the delayed vaccination.

Methods: A cluster survey among 1386 children aged 24-35 months was conducted. Characteristics on demographic and socio-economic and vaccination records was collected. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Immunogenicity and safety of intramuscular versus subcutaneous administration of a combined measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine to children 12 to 18 months of age.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

c Sanofi Pasteur MSD , Lyon , France.

This randomized trial conducted in France compared intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration of two doses of a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine (ProQuad®) administered one month apart to 405 children 12-18 months of age (NCT00402831). The 2-dose regimen of MMRV administered IM was shown to be as immunogenic as the 2-dose regimen administered SC for all antigens 6 weeks post-vaccination for the subjects who were initially seronegative for measles, mumps, rubella, or varicella (lower bounds of the two-sided 95% CIs for the difference in response rates for all antigens greater than -10% [range -2.1 for varicella to -3. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Communicable Diseases in the Mediterranean Region.

Authors:
Ghassan Shannan

EJIFCC 2018 Nov 7;29(3):164-170. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Medical Care Centre, Damascus, Syria.

Communicable diseases still pose a health hazard and are a major cause of death in many parts of the world. Tuberculosis is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide with an annual burden of 1.7 million. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Similar relative risks of seizures following measles containing vaccination in children born preterm compared to full-term without previous seizures or seizure-related disorders.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 23;37(1):76-79. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield, WI, USA.

Background: Febrile seizures are associated with the first dose of measles-containing vaccines and the risk increases with chronologic age during the second year of life. We used the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) to determine if the relative increase in risk of seizures following receipt of measles-containing vaccine differs by gestational age at birth.

Methods: Children were eligible if they received their first dose of measles-containing vaccine at age 12 through 23 months from January 2003 through September 2015. Read More

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January 2019
5 Reads

Post-exposure prophylaxis for measles with immunoglobulins revised recommendations of the standing committee on vaccination in Germany.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 23;36(52):7916-7922. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

University of Basel Children's Hospital, Spitalstrasse 33, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Passive immunisation with immunoglobulins as post-exposure prophylaxis after contact with measles is recommended by the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) particularly for unprotected individuals at high risk of complications for whom active immunization is contraindicated, such as infants <6 months of age, immunocompromised patients and pregnant women. The efficacy of passive immunisation in preventing measles depends on how soon after exposure it is administered, the concentration of measles antibodies in the immunoglobulin products and dosage. Since the global introduction of standard active immunisation against measles and the concomitant reduction in virus circulation, the levels of measles virus (MV)-specific IgG antibodies in the population have dropped. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Prevalence and factors associated with incomplete immunization of children (12-23 months) in Kwabre East District, Ashanti Region, Ghana.

Arch Public Health 2018 19;76:67. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

1Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.

Background: Childhood immunization is one of the most cost effective health interventions but its rate has been declining recently in Ghana. Information on immunization coverage and determinants is needed to improve immunization programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with incomplete immunization of children (12-23 months) in Kwabre East District, Ghana. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Longitudinal serological measures of common infection in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 23;3:49. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Antibodies against pathogens provide information on exposure to infectious agents and are meaningful measures of past and present infection. Antibodies were measured in the plasma of children that are the offspring in a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Plasma was collected during clinics at age 5, 7, 11 and 15 years. Read More

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July 2018
9 Reads

Studies into the mechanism of measles-associated immune suppression during a measles outbreak in the Netherlands.

Nat Commun 2018 11 23;9(1):4944. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Viroscience, Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Measles causes a transient immune suppression, leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In experimentally infected non-human primates (NHPs) measles virus (MV) infects and depletes pre-existing memory lymphocytes, causing immune amnesia. A measles outbreak in the Dutch Orthodox Protestant community provided a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of measles immune suppression in unvaccinated children. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Author's reply : "It could have been much worse: The Minnesota measles outbreak of 2017".

Vaccine 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Center for Health Policy and Media Engagement, George Washington University School of Nursing, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; Department of Health Policy and Management, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

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November 2018
1 Read

Vaccination Guidelines for Patients With Immune-Mediated Disorders on Immunosuppressive Therapies.

J Cutan Med Surg 2018 Nov 21:1203475418811335. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

9 Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background:: Patients with immune-mediated diseases on immunosuppressive therapies have more infectious episodes than healthy individuals, yet vaccination practices by physicians for this patient population remain suboptimal.

Objectives:: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of vaccines in individuals exposed to immunosuppressive therapies and provide evidence-based clinical practice recommendations.

Methods:: A literature search for vaccination safety and efficacy in patients on immunosuppressive therapies (2009-2017) was conducted. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Artificial Intelligence Based Skin Classification Using GMM.

J Med Syst 2018 Nov 20;43(1). Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Amrita School of Engineering, Bengaluru, India.

This study describes the usage of neural community based on the texture evaluation of pores and skin a variety of similarities in their signs, inclusive of Measles (rubella), German measles (rubella), and Chickenpox etc. In fashionable, these illnesses have similarities in sample of infection and symptoms along with redness and rash. Various skin problems have similar symptoms. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Measles Seroprevalence and Vaccine Responses in HIV-Infected Adolescents and Adults: A Systematic Review.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: The World Health Organization recommends an additional dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) for HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) following immune reconstitution. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize available evidence regarding measles seroprevalence and measles vaccine immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety in HIV-infected adolescents and adults to provide the evidence base for recommendations on the need for measles vaccination.

Methods: We conducted searches of Medline (Ovid), Embase, Cohrane Library, PubMed, LILACS, INDMED, AIM, and WHO Global Index Medicus databases. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Measuring Dengue Virus RNA in the Culture Supernatant of Infected Cells by Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 1(141). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Osaka Medical College.

At present, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is an indispensable tool for the detection and quantification of viral genomes in research laboratories, as well as for molecular diagnosis, because of its sensitivity, specificity, and convenience. However, in most cases, the quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay generally used to detect virus infection has relied on the purification of viral nucleic acid prior to the PCR step. In this study, the fluorescence-based reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) assay is developed through the combination of a processing buffer and a one-step RT-PCR reagent so that the whole process, from the harvest of the culture supernatant of virus-infected cells until real-time detection, can be performed without viral RNA purification. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Measles in Italy: viral strains and crossing borders.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

University Hospital of Palermo, Italy.

In 2017, Italy experienced one of the largest outbreaks of recent years with 5 404 notified and 4 347 confirmed cases [1]. Further 2 029 cases were notified during the first six months of 2018, and 1516 of them were laboratory confirmed. B3 and D8 genotypes were identified as the ones responsible of the outbreak. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Global Routine Vaccination Coverage - 2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Nov 16;67(45):1261-1264. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, the Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1) calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage with all vaccines in the country's national immunization schedule by 2020. This report updates previous reports (2,3) and presents global, regional, and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends as of 2017. It also describes the number of infants surviving to age 1 year (surviving infants) who did not receive the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), a key indicator of immunization program performance (4,5), with a focus on the countries with the highest number of children who did not receive DTP3 in 2017. Read More

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November 2018
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Measles antibody trough levels after treatment with immunoglobulin products and predicted levels assuming lower measles antibody specifications.

Transfusion 2018 Dec 15;58 Suppl 3:3072-3077. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Grifols Bioscience Research Group, Grifols, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Background: Widespread vaccination against measles has resulted in decreasing measles antibody levels in human immune globulin (IG) products. As levels continue to decline, it needs to be determined whether the release specifications for measles antibody levels in IG products can be lowered and still provide protection against infection for patients who receive IG treatment for primary immunodeficiency disease.

Study Design And Methods: Trough level measles neutralizing antibodies were measured in 10 pediatric patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (ages 2-16) treated with IG administered both by intravenous and subcutaneous infusion. Read More

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December 2018
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Determinants of low measles vaccination coverage in children living in an endemic area.

Eur J Pediatr 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Section of Pediatrics, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Measles outbreaks were recently reported in Europe due to low immunization rates. In this scenario, identifying the reasons of no vaccination is crucial to set up strategies to improve immunization rate. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the determinants of missed vaccination in children living in Southern Italy, during the 2016 outbreak. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads