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    Clinical spectrum of KIAA2022 pathogenic variants in males: Case report of two boys with kiaa2022 pathogenic variants and review of the literature.
    Am J Med Genet A 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
    KIAA2022 is an X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndrome affecting males more severely than females. Few males with KIAA2022 variants and XLID have been reported. We present a clinical report of two unrelated males, with two nonsense KIAA2022 pathogenic variants, with profound intellectual disabilities, limited language development, strikingly similar autistic behavior, delay in motor milestones, and postnatal growth restriction. Read More

    Preliminary in vitro and in vivo investigation of a potent platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) family kinase inhibitor.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Pharmaceutics and Medicinal Chemistry, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA 95211, USA.
    Aberrant expression of wild-type and mutant forms of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases has been implicated in various oncologic indications such as leukemias, gliomas, and soft tissue sarcomas. Clinically used kinase inhibitors imatinib and sunitinib are potent inhibitors of wild-type PDGFR family members, but show reduced binding to mutant forms. Here we describe compound 5 which binds to both wild-type and oncogenic mutant forms of PDGFR family members, and demonstrates both cellular and in vivo activity. Read More

    Can H -receptor upregulation and raised histamine explain an anaphylactoid reaction on cessation of ranitidine in a 19-year-old female? A case report.
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Apr 18. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Pharmacology, Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    The anaphylactoid reaction described follows cessation of ranitidine in a 19-year-old female with the disease cluster: mast cell activation syndrome, hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and postural tachycardia syndrome. Anaphylaxis can give wide-ranging symptoms from rhinorrhoea and urticaria to tachycardia and system-wide, life-threatening, anaphylactic shock. Individuals with a disorder of mast cell activation can experience many such symptoms. Read More

    Flushing Disorders Associated with Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Part 1, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Mast Cell Disorders and Hyperbasophila.
    Clin Med Res 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    University of Central Florida College of Medicine/HCA Consortium Graduate Medical Education, North Florida Regional Medical Center, 6500 W Newberry Rd, Gainesville, FL 32605
    Flushing is the subjective sensation of warmth accompanied by visible cutaneous erythema occurring throughout the body with a predilection for the face, neck, pinnae, and upper trunk where the skin is thinnest and cutaneous vessels are superficially located and in greatest numbers. Flushing can be present in either a wet or dry form depending upon whether neural-mediated mechanisms are involved. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in wet flushing, accompanied by diaphoresis, due to concomitant stimulation of eccrine sweat glands. Read More

    Targeting Sphingosine Kinase Isoforms Effectively Reduces Growth and Survival of Neoplastic Mast Cells With D816V-KIT.
    Front Immunol 2018 28;9:631. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Mast Cell Biology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.
    Mastocytosis is a disorder resulting from an abnormal mast cell (MC) accumulation in tissues that is often associated with the D816V mutation in KIT, the tyrosine kinase receptor for stem cell factor. Therapies available to treat aggressive presentations of mastocytosis are limited, thus exploration of novel pharmacological targets that reduce MC burden is desirable. Since increased generation of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by sphingosine kinase (SPHK) has been linked to oncogenesis, we studied the involvement of the two SPHK isoforms (SPHK1 and SPHK2) in the regulation of neoplastic human MC growth. Read More

    Idiopathic Mast Cell Activation Syndrome With Associated Salicylate Intolerance.
    Front Pediatr 2018 27;6:73. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Idiopathic mast cell activation syndrome can be a rare cause for chronic abdominal pain in children. It remains a diagnosis by exclusion that can be particularly challenging due to the vast variety of possible clinical manifestations. We present a 13-year-old boy who suffered from a multitude of unspecific complaints over a long period of time. Read More

    A new role for mast cells as scavengers for clearance of erythrocytes damaged due to oxidative stress.
    Immunol Lett 2018 Apr 7. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India. Electronic address:
    Anemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress are interconnected. Erythrocytes are continuously exposed to oxidative stress, normally and during inflammatory diseases. Systemic mastocytosis and genetic depletion of mast cells affect anemia. Read More

    Systemic mastocytosis identified in two women developing fragility fractures during lactation.
    Osteoporos Int 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Endocrine Centre of Excellence, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia.
    Two women presenting with fragility fractures during lactation had bone mineral density (BMD) reduced more greatly than usually associated with lactation. The first woman was 29 years old with a BMD T-score of - 3.2 SD at the spine and- 2. Read More

    Tryptase increase on the first day of hymenoptera venom immunotherapy might be a predictor of future systemic reactions during treatment.
    J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Allergy Service, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain.
    Background And Objective: Serum tryptase (ST) decreases in long-term venom immunotherapy (VIT). A circadian tryptase variation with a small decrease has been found after sting challenge. Both findings have been related to successful VIT. Read More

    Low frequency of acetyl salicylic acid hypersensitivity in mastocytosis: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge study.
    Allergy 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of internal medicine, section of Clinical Immunology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Patients with mastocytosis are at increased risk of anaphylaxis. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is often discouraged because of this reason. However, the actual prevalence and severity of NSAID-related hypersensitivity among patients with mastocytosis is unknown. Read More

    Anaphylactic reaction to an ultrasound contrast agent (Lumason) in a patient with systemic mastocytosis.
    J Clin Ultrasound 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Mayo Clinic-Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota.
    Severe adverse reactions to ultrasound (US) contrast agents are rare, and only a few cases of anaphylaxis following the administration of US contrast agents have been reported, often without a defined etiology. We present a case of anaphylactic reaction to the injection of an US contrast agent in a patient with systemic mastocytosis, which highlights the disorder as a possible risk factor warranting additional consideration prior to performing a contrast-enhanced US examination. Read More

    [Xanthelasmoid mastocytosis: a rare form of cutaneous mastocytosis].
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 4;28:104. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Service de Dermatologie et de Vénérologie du CHU Ibn Rochd, Casablanca, Maroc.
    Mastocytosis is a rare disease characterized by the abnormal accumulation of mast cells in the skin and possibly in other organs. It can occur in a variety of forms; xanthelasmoid mastocytosis(XM) is a very rare form classified as papulo-nodular. Clinically, it appears as buff-yellow soft papules or nodules of variable size. Read More

    Venom anaphylaxis can mimic other serious conditions and disclose important underlying disease.
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Mar;120(3):338-339
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Center, Odense Research Center for Anaphylaxis, Odense, Denmark; Mastocytosis Center Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

    The role of regulatory T cells and genes involved in their differentiation in pathogenesis of selected inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases. Part II: The Treg role in skin diseases pathogenesis.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Oct 31;34(5):405-417. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Regulatory FOXP3+ T cells (Tregs) constitute 5% to 10% of T cells in the normal human skin. They play an important role in the induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance. The suppressive effects of these cells are exerted by various mechanisms including the direct cytotoxic effect, anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic disruption, and modulation of the dendritic cells function. Read More

    SLAM family member 8 is involved in oncogenic KIT-mediated signaling in human mastocytosis.
    Exp Dermatol 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan.
    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 8 (SLAMF8)/CD353 is a member of the CD2 family of proteins. Its ligand has not been identified. SLAMF8 is expressed by macrophages and suppresses cellular functions. Read More

    Interleukin 33 and interleukin 4 regulate interleukin 31 gene expression and secretion from human laboratory of allergic diseases 2 mast cells stimulated by substance P and/or immunoglobulin E.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2018 Mar;39(2):153-160
    From the Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology and Drug Discovery, Department of Integrative Physiology and Pathobiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston. Massachusetts.
    Background: Cytokine interleukin (IL) 31 has emerged as an important component of allergic and inflammatory diseases associated with pruritus, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and mastocytosis. Mast cells (MC) are stimulated by allergic and nonallergic triggers, and play a critical role in such diseases by secreting histamine and tryptase as well as cytokines and chemokines. IL-33 has been reported to augment MC responses, but its effect on secretion of IL-31 is not known. Read More

    Midostaurin: its odyssey from discovery to approval for treating acute myeloid leukemia and advanced systemic mastocytosis.
    Blood Adv 2018 Feb;2(4):444-453
    Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; and.
    Midostaurin was a prototype kinase inhibitor, originally developed as a protein kinase C inhibitor and subsequently as an angiogenesis inhibitor, based on its inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Despite promising preclinical data, early clinical trials in multiple diseases showed only modest efficacy. In 1996, the relatively frequent occurrence of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 () activating mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was first recognized. Read More

    Telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans associated with a sicca complex.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Oct 15;23(10). Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Division of Dermatology, Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center.
    We present the case of woman in her 50s who developed numerous red-brown telangiectatic macules on her trunk and extremities, as well as persistent dry eyes and dry mouth. Skin biopsy was consistent with telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP). Serum tryptase was elevated suggesting systemic involvement. Read More

    Telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans: an old terminology, still frequently used.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Aug 15;23(8). Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    John P. and Kathrine G. McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
    The term telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP) was originally used to describe a rare form of cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) that was limited to the skin with lesions consisting of irregular, telangiectatic macules ranging in color from red to brown. Recent guidelines, however, recommended that the sole presence of telangiectasias should not form the basis of a distinct variant of CM. We conducted a review of the literature from 1930 to 2017 and found 76 cases that were reported as TMEP. Read More

    Solitary mastocytoma in the eyelid of an adult.
    Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2018 Mar 4;9:103-105. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
    Purpose: To describe the ophthalmic symptoms and histopathological findings in a rare case of an eyelid mastocytoma in an adult.

    Observations: A man in his early 60s developed a painless, non-tender, non-pruritic, mobile nodule on the right lower eyelid beneath the inferior orbital rim. The lesion grew to 15 × 9 mm over eleven months. Read More

    Recent advances in the genomics and therapy of BCR/ABL1-positive and -negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.
    Leuk Res 2018 Apr 14;67:67-74. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
    This review is based on the presentations and deliberations at the 7th John Goldman Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) Colloquium which took place in Estoril, Portugal on the 15th October 2017, and the 11th post-ASH International Workshop on CML and MPN which took place on the 6th-7th December 2016, immediately after the 58th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting. Rather than present a resume of the proceedings, we have elected to address some of the topical translational research and clinically relevant topics in greater detail. We address recent updates in the genetics and epigenetics of MPN, the mechanisms of transformation by mutant calreticulin, advances in the biology and therapy of systemic mastocytosis, clinical updates on JAK2 inhibitors and other therapeutic approaches for patients with MPNs, cardiovascular toxicity related to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the concept of treatment-free remission for patients with CML. Read More

    Topical pimecrolimus for paediatric cutaneous mastocytosis.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Pediatric Dermatology Unit, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Most cases of paediatric cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) occur before the age of 2 years, and regression occurs in only 67% of children. Given the absence of any specific therapy, CM is usually treated symptomatically. A few publications have reported the beneficial effect of calcineurin inhibitors for CM. Read More

    De novo mast cell leukemia without CD25 expression and KIT mutations: a rare case report in a 13-year-old child.
    Diagn Pathol 2018 Feb 20;13(1):14. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Pathology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.
    Background: Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM) and accounts for less than 0.5% of all mastocytosis. The diagnosis of MCL requires the presence of SM criteria, accompanied by leukemic infiltrating of atypical mast cells (MCs) in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood as well as extracutaneous organs. Read More

    Mast cells signal their importance in health and disease.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Mast Cell Biology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
    FcεRI is the primary receptor in mast cells that mediates allergic reactions by inducing rapid release of mediators, an adaptive immune response that might have evolved as a host defense against parasites and venoms. Yet it is apparent that mast cells are also activated through non-IgE receptors, the significance of which is just beginning to be understood. This includes the Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2, which might contribute to reactions to diverse antimicrobials and polybasic compounds, and the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E2, variants of which are associated with familial vibratory urticaria and are activated by mechanical vibration. Read More

    Effective management of severe cutaneous mastocytosis in young children with omalizumab (Xolair ).
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and Dermatology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
    Omalizumab (Xolair ) is an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, which may benefit adults with systemic mastocytosis. We report effective treatment with omalizumab in two toddlers with severe diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Our cases offer preliminary evidence to support the safe use of omalizumab in paediatric patients with cutaneous mastocytosis. Read More

    The KIT and PDGFRA switch-control inhibitor DCC-2618 blocks growth and survival of multiple neoplastic cell types in advanced mastocytosis.
    Haematologica 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria;
    Systemic mastocytosis is a complex disease defined by abnormal growth and accumulation of neoplastic mast cells in various organs. Most patients exhibit a D816V-mutated variant of KIT, which confers resistance against imatinib. Clinical problems in systemic mastocytosis arise from mediator-related symptoms and/or organ destruction caused by malignant expansion of neoplastic mast cells and/or other myeloid cells in various organ systems. Read More

    Systemic Mastocytosis: The Difficult Patient with a Rare Disease. Case Presentation and Brief Review.
    Hawaii J Med Public Health 2018 Feb;77(2):27-29
    Tripler Army Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Honolulu, HI (DHD).
    Mastocytosis is a rare process involving the activation and accumulation of clonal mast cells categorized by cutaneous or systemic involvement. Although the diagnosis of cutaneous disease can be straightforward and confirmed via skin biopsy, systemic disease mimics more common disease processes making diagnosis a challenge. The widespread physiologic distribution of mast cells causes a variety of symptoms with aberrant expression including fatigue, headache, depression, dyspnea, dyspepsia, nausea, and abdominal pain. Read More

    Mast cell-neural interactions contribute to pain and itch.
    Immunol Rev 2018 Mar;282(1):168-187
    Department of Dermatology, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Mast cells are best recognized for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, but increasing evidence supports their role in neurogenic inflammation leading to pain and itch. Mast cells act as a "power house" by releasing algogenic and pruritogenic mediators, which initiate a reciprocal communication with specific nociceptors on sensory nerve fibers. Consequently, nerve fibers release inflammatory and vasoactive neuropeptides, which in turn activate mast cells in a feedback mechanism, thus promoting a vicious cycle of mast cell and nociceptor activation leading to neurogenic inflammation and pain/pruritus. Read More

    The 2016 WHO classification and diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms: document summary and in-depth discussion.
    Blood Cancer J 2018 02 9;8(2):15. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    The new edition of the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system for tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues was published in September 2017. Under the category of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), the revised document includes seven subcategories: chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, polycythemia vera (PV), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), essential thrombocythemia (ET), chronic eosinophilic leukemia-not otherwise specified and MPN, unclassifiable (MPN-U); of note, mastocytosis is no longer classified under the MPN category. In the current review, we focus on the diagnostic criteria for JAK2/CALR/MPL mutation-related MPNs: PV, ET, and PMF. Read More

    Development and validation of the mastocytosis activity score.
    Allergy 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Interdisciplinary Mastocytosis Center Charité, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by a clonal expansion of mast cells in various organs. The vast majority of patients suffer from signs and symptoms caused by mediator release from mast cells. Although the disease burden is high, there is currently no specific and validated instrument to measure and monitor signs and symptoms in patients with mastocytosis. Read More

    Variability of PD-L1 expression in mastocytosis.
    Blood Adv 2018 Feb;2(3):189-199
    Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
    Mastocytosis is a rare disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and few effective therapies. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) protect tissues from immune-mediated damage and permit tumors to evade immune destruction. Therapeutic antibodies against PD-1 and PD-L1 are effective in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms. Read More

    [Systemic mastocytosis with progressive disease course].
    Orv Hetil 2018 Feb;159(5):192-196
    III. Belgyógyászati Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Kútvölgyi út 4., 1125.
    Authors report on a case of a male patient of systemic mastocytosis that was associated with extensive cutaneous lesions. Chronic diarrhoea worsening his quality of life was well managed by the administration of antihistamines. The pleural fluid recurrence soon after drainage has been controlled by the administration of alpha interferon. Read More

    Comparison of lesional skin c-KIT mutations with clinical phenotype in patients with mastocytosis.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Dermatology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: Activating c-KIT mutations cause abnormal mast cell growth and appear to play a role in mastocytosis. However, the correlation of c-KIT mutations with disease phenotypes is poorly characterized.

    Aim: To evaluate the correlation of c-KIT mutations with clinical presentations and laboratory findings. Read More

    Spotlight on midostaurin in the treatment of FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia and systemic mastocytosis: design, development, and potential place in therapy.
    Onco Targets Ther 2018 29;11:175-182. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
    The Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3; fetal liver kinase-2; human stem cell tyrosine kinase-1; CD135) is a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that is normally involved in regulating the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of both hematopoietic cells and dendritic cells. Mutations leading it to be constitutively activated make it an oncogenic driver in ~30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients where it is associated with poor prognosis. The prevalence of oncogenic FLT3 and the dependency on its constitutively activated kinase activity for leukemia growth make this protein an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Read More

    Incidence and prognostic impact of cytogenetic aberrations in patients with systemic mastocytosis.
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 05 19;57(5):252-259. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    The clinical behavior of systemic mastocytosis (SM) is strongly associated with activating mutations in KIT (D816V in >80% of cases), with the severity of the phenotype influenced by additional somatic mutations, for example, in SRSF2, ASXL1, or RUNX1. Complex molecular profiles are frequently associated with the presence of an associated hematologic neoplasm (AHN) and an unfavorable clinical outcome. However, little is known about the incidence and prognostic impact of cytogenetic aberrations. Read More

    Characterization of CD34 hematopoietic cells in systemic mastocytosis: Potential role in disease dissemination.
    Allergy 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Cancer Research Centre (IBMCC USAL-CSIC), Cytometry Service (NUCLEUS) and Department of Medicine, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.
    Background: Recent studies show that most systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients, including indolent SM (ISM) with (ISMs+) and without skin lesions (ISMs-), carry the KIT D816V mutation in PB leukocytes. We investigated the potential association between the degree of involvement of BM hematopoiesis by the KIT D816V mutation and the distribution of different maturation-associated compartments of bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) CD34 hematopoietic precursors (HPC) in ISM and identified the specific PB cell compartments that carry this mutation.

    Methods: The distribution of different maturation-associated subsets of BM and PB CD34 HPC from 64 newly diagnosed (KIT-mutated) ISM patients and 14 healthy controls was analyzed by flow cytometry. Read More

    Factors increasing the risk for a severe reaction in anaphylaxis: An analysis of data from The European Anaphylaxis Registry.
    Allergy 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Charite-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Preventive measures to decrease the frequency and intensity of anaphylactic events are essential to provide optimal care for allergic patients. Aggravating factors may trigger or increase the severity of anaphylaxis and therefore need to be recognized and avoided.

    Objective: To identify and prioritize factors associated with an increased risk of developing severe anaphylaxis. Read More

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