3,463 results match your criteria Malingering


Race, health, and socioeconomic disparities associated with malingering in psychiatric patients at an urban emergency department.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2021 May 29;71:121-127. Epub 2021 May 29.

University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Objective: To examine clinical and sociodemographic differences between psychiatric patients suspected of malingering and non-malingering controls in an urban emergency department (ED) setting.

Methods: We used retrospective chart review to compare 57 psychiatric patients suspected of malingering with 195 date-matched controls. We examined evidence used for malingering and documented secondary gains. Read More

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The Rey 15-Item Memory Test in US veterans.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 2;43(3):324-331. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Introduction: The Rey 15-item Test is a public-domain, memory-based performance validity test, frequently used in clinical settings. Various efforts have been made to modify the test to make it more sensitive and more robust to effects of lower education and intelligence. The most promising of these is the addition of a recognition trial to the existing free recall paradigm. Read More

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Relapse risk factors for patients with comorbid affective disorders and substance abuse disorders from an intensive treatment unit.

Am J Addict 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background And Objectives: The prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD), particularly involving opiates and benzodiazepines, has increased to the detriment of public health and the economy. Here, we evaluate relapse factors among the high-risk demographic of patients with SUD and comorbid affective disorders.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of 76 patients discharged after detoxification and simultaneous psychiatric care for concomitant affective disorders and SUDs. Read More

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The Impact of Learning and Memory on Performance Validity Tests in a Mixed Clinical Pediatric Population.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objective: This study examined the degree to which verbal and visuospatial memory abilities influence performance validity test (PVT) performance in a mixed clinical pediatric sample.

Method: Data from 252 consecutive clinical pediatric cases (Mage=11.23 years, SD=4. Read More

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Utility of WAIS-IV Digit Span indices as measures of performance validity in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 May 27:1-14. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

The addition of Sequencing to WAIS-IV Digit Span (DS) brought about new Reliable Digit Span (RDS) indices and an Age-Corrected Scaled Score that includes Sequencing trials. Reports have indicated that these new performance validity tests (PVTs) are superior to the traditional RDS; however, comparisons in the context of known neurocognitive impairment are sparse. This study compared DS-derived PVT classification accuracies in a design that included adults with verified TBI. Read More

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Adaptation and initial validation of the Arabic version of the Word Memory Test (WMT).

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 May 27:1-10. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Psychology, the Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, Tel Aviv-Yaffo, Israel.

Background: The feigning of cognitive impairment is common in neuropsychological assessments, especially in a medicolegal setting. The Word Memory Test (WMT) is a forced-choice recognition memory performance validity test (PVT) which is widely used to detect noncredible performance. Though translated to several languages, this was not done for one of the most common languages, Arabic. Read More

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Detecting simulated versus bona fide traumatic brain injury using pupillometry.

Neuropsychology 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Psychology.

Pupil dilation patterns are outside of conscious control and provide information regarding neuropsychological processes related to deception, cognitive effort, and familiarity. This study examined the incremental utility of pupillometry on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in classifying individuals with verified traumatic brain injury (TBI), individuals simulating TBI, and healthy comparisons. Participants were 177 adults across three groups: verified TBI ( = 53), feigned cognitive impairment due to TBI (SIM, = 52), and heathy comparisons (HC, = 72). Read More

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Normal cognitive test scores cannot be interpreted as accurate measures of ability in the context of failed performance validity testing: A symptom- and detection-coached simulation study.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 16;43(3):301-309. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas School of Medicine - Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA.

While use of performance validity tests (PVTs) has become a standard of practice in neuropsychology, there are differing opinions regarding whether to interpret cognitive test data when standard scores fall within normal limits despite PVTs being failed. This study is the first to empirically determine whether normal cognitive test scores underrepresent functioning when PVTs are failed. Participants, randomly assigned to either a simulated malingering group ( = 50) instructed to mildly suppress test performances or a best-effort/control group ( = 50), completed neuropsychological tests which included the North American Adult Reading Test (NAART), California Verbal Learning Test - 2 Edition (CVLT-II), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Read More

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Empirically-informed guidelines for first-time adult ADHD diagnosis.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2021 May 5:1-12. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

: Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is prone to misdiagnosis because its symptoms are subjective, share features with a broad range of mental, behavioral and physical disorders, and express themselves heterogeneously. Furthermore, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for adult ADHD diagnosis remain underdeveloped, prompting a need for systematic and empirically-informed guidelines.: This article presents a brief history of research on adult ADHD and reviews common sources of false positive and false negative diagnoses. Read More

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The TOMM1 discrepancy index (TDI): A new performance validity test (PVT) that differentiates between invalid cognitive testing and those diagnosed with dementia.

Authors:
John H Denning

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 May 4:1-8. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Veteran Affairs, Mental Health Service, Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.

There is a need to develop performance validity tests (PVTs) that accurately identify those with severe cognitive decline but also remain sensitive to those suspected of invalid cognitive testing. The TOMM1 Discrepancy Index (TDI) attempts to address both of these issues. Veterans diagnosed with dementia ( = 251) were administered TOMM1 and the MSVT in order to develop the TDI (TOMM1 percent correct minus MSVT Free Recall percent correct). Read More

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Opinions of adults affected with later-onset lysosomal storage diseases regarding newborn screening: A qualitative study.

J Genet Couns 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of conditions causing substrate accumulation leading to progressive organ damage. Newborn screening (NBS) for several LSDs has become available in recent years due to advances in technology and treatment availability. While early initiation of treatment is lifesaving for those with infantile presentations, controversy continues regarding diagnosis of milder, later-onset diseases in infancy, including creation of pre-symptomatic populations of 'patients-in-waiting', the potential for medicalization, stigmatization, and/or discrimination. Read More

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Evaluation of the Executive Functioning and Psychological Adjustment of Child-to-Parent Offenders: Epidemiology and Quantification of Harm.

Front Psychol 2021 9;12:616855. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departamento Análisis e Intervención Psicosocioeducativa (AIPSE), Universidad de Vigo, Vigo, Spain.

With the aim of ascertaining if child-to-parent offenders have impairments in the executive functions and psychological maladjustment, and to quantify the potential harm and epidemiology, a field study was designed. As for this, 76 juvenile offenders sentenced for child-to-parent violence were assessed in executive functions (Stroop tasks) and psychological adjustment (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent, MMPI-A). The results showed valid responses for 75 juveniles and that data were not generally biased in line with defensiveness or malingering (differential diagnosis in justice juvenile evaluations). Read More

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Munchausen by internet and false perinatal crises.

Ann Clin Psychiatry 2021 05;33(2):e8-e12

Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA.

Background: In representative cases of Munchausen by internet (MBI), an individual (or "poser") goes online to falsely report or exaggerate illnesses or life crises. The principal goal, as in factitious disorder imposed on self or another, is to garner emotional satisfaction. We provide the first evidence that MBI can target a specific type of health care provider-in this case, birthing doulas. Read More

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A pilot study on the adequacy of the TOMM in detecting invalid performance in patients with substance use disorders.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 15;43(3):255-263. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Unidad Asistencial de Drogodependencias del Ayuntamiento de Vigo CEDRO, Pontevedra, Spain.

: The validity of neuropsychological test performance has scarcely been studied in patients with substance use disorders (SUD), despite the possibility that some SUD individuals may distort their performance for compensation seeking (e.g., work leave, permanent or total disability, or the designation of services such as sheltered housing). Read More

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Comparability and Validity of the Online and In-Person Administrations of the Inventory of Problems-29.

Psychol Inj Law 2021 Apr 5:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Alliant International University - San Diego, San Diego, CA USA.

While the psychometric equivalence of computerized versus paper-and-pencil administration formats has been documented for some tests, so far very few studies have focused on the comparability and validity of test scores obtained via in-person versus remote administrations, and none of them have researched a symptom validity test (SVT). To contribute to fill this gap in the literature, we investigated the scores of the Inventory of Problems-29 (IOP-29) generated by various administration formats. More specifically, Study 1 evaluated the equivalence of scores from nonclinical individuals administered the IOP-29 remotely ( = 146) versus in-person via computer ( = 140) versus in-person via paper-and-pencil format ( = 140). Read More

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All of the accuracy in half of the time: assessing abbreviated versions of the Test of Memory Malingering in the context of verbal and visual memory impairment.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 9:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objective: The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) Trial 1 (T1) and errors on the first 10 items of T1 (T1-e10) were developed as briefer versions of the TOMM to minimize evaluation time and burden, although the effect of genuine memory impairment on these indices is not well established. This study examined whether increasing material-specific verbal and visual memory impairment affected T1 and T1-e10 performance and accuracy for detecting invalidity. Data from 155 neuropsychiatric patients administered the TOMM, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) during outpatient evaluation were examined. Read More

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The detection of malingering in whiplash-related injuries: a targeted literature review of the available strategies.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia, Ed. 9C. Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia, Spain.

Objective: The present review is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of the strategies available to detect malingered symptoms following whiplash. Whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) represent the most common traffic injuries, having a major impact on economic and healthcare systems worldwide. Heterogeneous symptoms that may arise following whiplash injuries are difficult to objectify and are normally determined based on self-reported complaints. Read More

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American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) 2021 consensus statement on validity assessment: Update of the 2009 AACN consensus conference statement on neuropsychological assessment of effort, response bias, and malingering.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 6:1-54. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Psychology Department, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA.

Citation and download data pertaining to the 2009 AACN consensus statement on validity assessment indicated that the topic maintained high interest in subsequent years, during which key terminology evolved and relevant empirical research proliferated. With a general goal of providing current guidance to the clinical neuropsychology community regarding this important topic, the specific update goals were to: identify current key definitions of terms relevant to validity assessment; learn what experts believe should be reaffirmed from the original consensus paper, as well as new consensus points; and incorporate the latest recommendations regarding the use of validity testing, as well as current application of the term 'malingering.' In the spring of 2019, four of the original 2009 work group chairs and additional experts for each work group were impaneled. Read More

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The Litigation Complexity of Posttraumatic Headaches.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2021 Apr 6;25(6):39. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Temple University Fox School of Business and the Beasley School of Law, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review explores the workings of the legal process in posttraumatic headache (PTH) claims by discussing representative court cases, the approaches taken by both plaintiff and defense attorneys in evaluating a client with PTH, and the role of the expert witness. This discussion also examines the question of whether or not litigation prolongs the symptoms of PTH and concussion, looking at the issues of malingering and the psychological effect of litigation.

Recent Findings: Litigation prolongs recovery of PTH, primarily not from malingering but rather due to the psychological mindset of the plaintiff as created by the litigation process. Read More

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The association between clinicians' initial judgments of feigning and outcomes on symptom validity measures among pretrial forensic psychiatric inpatients.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun;76:101698. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Patton State Hospital, Patton, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Research suggests the use of validated symptom validity tests to detect feigning is imperative to increase accuracy over unaided clinical judgment, especially in forensic settings. This study examined performance on the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms (M-FAST) and Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) during 297 assessments of forensic inpatients. The risk of being identified as feigning on the M-FAST or SIRS was similar for those who were referred for evaluation of feigning compared to those who were not, but individuals with malingering designations prior to the evaluation scored significantly higher than those without on the M-FAST and several SIRS subscales. Read More

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The Good, the Bad, and the Clever: Faking Ability as a Socio-Emotional Ability?

J Intell 2021 Mar 4;9(1). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

Socio-emotional abilities have been proposed as an extension to models of intelligence, but earlier measurement approaches have either not fulfilled criteria of ability measurement or have covered only predominantly receptive abilities. We argue that faking ability-the ability to adjust responses on questionnaires to present oneself in a desired manner-is a socio-emotional ability that can broaden our understanding of these abilities and intelligence in general. To test this theory, we developed new instruments to measure the ability to fake bad (malingering) and administered them jointly with established tests of faking good ability in a general sample of = 134. Read More

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Factitious Disorder Masquerading as a Life-Threatening Anaphylaxis.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:23247096211006248

UPMC Pinnacle Hospital, Harrisburg, PA, USA.

Factitious disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which sufferers intentionally fabricate physical or psychological symptoms in order to assume the role of the patient, without any obvious gain. We present a case of a 23-year-old female with chronic urticaria who presented with dyspnea, dysphasia, mild generalized erythema, abdominal cramps, and headache. She was tachypneic and hypotensive. Read More

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A model to differentiate WAD patients and people with abnormal pain behaviour based on biomechanical and self-reported tests.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Jul 27;135(4):1637-1646. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, via Venezia 8, 35131, Padova, Italy.

The prevalence of malingering among individuals presenting whiplash-related symptoms is significant and leads to a huge economic loss due to fraudulent injury claims. Various strategies have been proposed to detect malingering and symptoms exaggeration. However, most of them have been not consistently validated and tested to determine their accuracy in detecting feigned whiplash. Read More

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Gender and Malingering in Defendants Deemed Incompetent to Stand Trial.

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2021 Jun 26;49(2):211-218. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Dr. Nesbit-Bartsch is a Forensic Psychiatrist, San Diego County Forensic Psychiatry Clinic, San Diego, CA. Dr. McDermott is Professor and Research Director at Napa State Hospital, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Sacramento, CA. Dr. Warburton is Medical Director, California Department of State Hospitals, Sacramento, CA.

The relationships between gender and malingering have received little attention in the literature. Our study examined data from 1,748 patients committed as incompetent to stand trial between 2008 and 2017, of whom 397 were women. Scores on a structured assessment of feigned psychiatric symptoms were only slightly higher for men than for women. Read More

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Testing in Psychological Injury and Law.

Authors:
Gerald Young

Psychol Inj Law 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Glendon College, York University, Toronto, Canada.

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Rey-Osterrieth complex figure normative data for the psychiatric population.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Mar 11:1-26. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Appropriate normative data are crucial for competent neuropsychological assessment. Although individuals with psychiatric illness often perform more poorly than healthy adults on neuropsychological testing, data that reflect the psychiatric population are often lacking. We present a normative dataset and calculation tools for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) derived from the psychiatric inpatient population. Read More

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Kawasaki disease malingering as juvenile dermatomyositis: case-based review : Myositis in Kawasaki disease.

Rheumatol Int 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Pediatric, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Allergy Immunology Unit, Advanced Pediatric Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a medium vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects children below 5. Diagnosis of KD is based on the presence of characteristic clinical manifestations as there are no definite diagnostic laboratory investigations for the diagnosis of this disease. Presence of atypical clinical features such as myositis often pose diagnostic challenge for the treating physicians. Read More

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Knowledge of Depression and Malingering: An Exploratory Investigation.

Eur J Psychol 2020 Mar 3;16(1):32-44. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Psychology, Leeds Trinity University, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Malingering mental disorder for financial compensation can offer substantial rewards to those willing to do so. A recent review of UK medico-legal experts' practices for detecting claimants evidenced that they are not well equipped to detect those that do. This is not surprising, considering that very little is known regarding why individuals opt to malinger. Read More

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High elevation rates of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) in neuropsychological patients.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 Mar 4:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

LeBauer Department of Neurology, Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital, Greensboro, NC, USA.

The current study examined characteristics of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) in a sample of 110 patients at an adult neuropsychology clinic. Subjects with especially high or low suspicion of invalid reporting were identified based on clinician-completed questions. SIMS elevation rates were examined at different cutoffs and between these groups and were correlated with other indicators of validity. Read More

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This will only take a minute: Time cutoffs are superior to accuracy cutoffs on the forced choice recognition trial of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 Feb 25:1-15. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Psychology, Neuropsychology Track, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the classification accuracy of the recently introduced forced-choice recognition trial to the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (FCR) as a performance validity test (PVT) in a clinical sample. Time-to-completion (T2C) for FCR was also examined.

Method: Forty-three students were assigned to either the control or the experimental malingering (MAL) condition. Read More

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February 2021