3,560 results match your criteria Malingering

Do we know the mind of others? Suspicion of malingering in emergency psychiatry.

Nord J Psychiatry 2022 Jun 17:1-6. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Copenhagen Research Centre on Mental Health (CORE), University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: Malingering can be divided into simulation and exaggeration of symptoms. Malingering has traditionally been considered rare in general psychiatry. In contrast to earlier estimates, more recent studies report that doctors suspect malingering frequently in psychiatric emergency departments. Read More

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The Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA) as a screening tool for cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2022 Jun 8;40(6):1136-1142. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Institute of Rheumatology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Israel.

Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is one of the criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) and is typically based on self-report questionnaires such as the Symptom Severity Scale. However, recent studies have shown that there is no correlation between these subjective measures of cognitive dysfunction and more lengthy objective measures of cognitive functioning. This points to the need for a briefer valid evaluation tool for cognitive dysfunction in FM. Read More

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New Modification of Smell Identification Test for the Detection of Malingerers: A Pilot Experimental Study.

Iran J Med Sci 2022 May;47(3):248-255

Otorhinolaryngology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: A major problem with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is its poor sensitivity for malingering detection in a group of people familiar with the test mechanism. This study aimed to evaluate the modification of UPSIT to detect anosmia malingering.

Methods: This was a pilot experimental study conducted in 2019 in Tehran. Read More

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The parent-reported ADHD symptom infrequency scale (PRASIS): a parent report measure of ADHD symptom exaggeration.

Child Neuropsychol 2022 May 26:1-21. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA.

The present article outlines the development of the parent-reported ADHD symptom infrequency scale (PRASIS), a novel stand-alone questionnaire designed to discriminate between parents exaggerating ratings of ADHD symptoms of their child from parents more accurately reporting symptoms. The PRASIS includes an Infrequency scale (INF) to measure infrequently reported symptoms of ADHD and a clinical scale to measure Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 Edition (DSM-5) defined ADHD symptoms (ADHD Total). An initial list of infrequency and clinical items was revised over the course of three studies, each conducted on a different sample of participants ( = 154,  = 203,  = 167) recruited via CloudResearch and consisting of mothers of children 4-12 years old. Read More

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Analysis of malingered psychological symptoms in a clinical sample for early detection in initial interviews.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Educational Sciences, University of Extremadura, 06006, Badajoz, Spain.

Malingering consists of the production of false physical or psychological symptoms motivated by external incentives that are normally reproduced in pathologies that are not related to organic origin or there are no laboratory tests for their diagnosis, as is the case of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder and fibromyalgia syndrome. The objective of this research consisted of comparing the profile of simulative patients with fibromyalgia and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder to obtain a profile and facilitate its detection in initial interviews. The research was carried out with 78 patients (42 patients with fibromyalgia and 36 patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder) who were administered the professional's structured clinical judgment, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Questionnaire, and the Structured Symptom Simulation Inventory. Read More

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The work disability trap: manifestations, causes and consequences of a policy paradox.

Disabil Rehabil 2022 May 16:1-7. Epub 2022 May 16.

School of Public, Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

Purpose: This article focuses on the risk that work disability policies lock people into work disability rather than promote durable health and return to work. We outline the concept of a as a heuristic device to explore this policy paradox inherent in the design of most social insurance systems.

Materials And Methods: This is a conceptual paper drawing on examples from existing research. Read More

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Malingering of Psychotic Symptoms in Psychiatric Settings: Theoretical Aspects and Clinical Considerations.

Psychiatry J 2022 21;2022:3884317. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

University of Missouri Kansas City, Department of Psychiatry, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Malingering is the intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms motivated by external incentives. Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) does not list malingering in its diagnostic section and therefore does not identify it as a formal mental disorder, malingering and verified mental illness commonly coexist. Some subtypes of feigning behaviors, such as partial or pure malingering, dissimulation, and false imputation, can be suspected when patients have marked discrepancies between reported stressors and objective findings. Read More

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Functional Cognitive Disorder: Differential Diagnosis of Common Clinical Presentations.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Academic Neurology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Cognitive symptoms in the absence of neurological disease are common. Functional cognitive disorder (FCD) has been conceptualized as a cognitive subtype of functional neurological disorder. Although FCD is understood as different from exaggerated or feigned cognitive complaints, previous accounts have provided little practical advice on how FCD can be separated from factitious or malingered cognitive complaints. Read More

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Assessment of Malingering among Servicemembers with a Focused Examination of Explanatory Models.

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Dr. Rogers is Regents Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX. Ms. Chang and Mr. Pan are Advanced Doctoral Students in Clinical Psychology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX.

Umbrasas briefly mentioned established models of malingering that sought to understand the driving motivations for feigning mental disorders. He used these models as a point of departure to consider the unique experiences and enduring challenges of active and retired servicemembers. For military malingering, he identified acute distress malingering and disability malingering with the former occurring within the first five years and the latter after a military career had been established. Read More

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Examining the cross-cultural validity of the test of memory malingering and the Rey 15-item test.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2022 Apr 27:1-11. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the cross-cultural validity of two freestanding performance validity tests (PVTs), the Test of Memory Malingering - Trial 1 (TOMM-1) and the Rey Fifteen Item Test (Rey-15) in Romanian-speaking patients.

Methods: The TOMM-1 and Rey-15 free recall (FR) and the combination score incorporating the recognition trial (COMB) were administered to a mixed clinical sample of 61 adults referred for cognitive evaluation, 24 of whom had external incentives to appear impaired. Average scores on PVTs were compared between the two groups. Read More

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Explanatory Models Differentiating Servicemember Malingering from Delayed Symptom Report.

Karl V Umbrasas

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2022 Jun 25;50(2):182-193. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Dr. Umbrasis is Clinical and Forensic Psychologist, Kimbrough Ambulatory Care Center, Fort Meade, MD.

The military mental health clinic is a medico-legal setting that provides servicemembers with treatment, administrative, and forensic services. Clinicians must be vigilant for malingering in this setting but flexible enough to recognize genuine symptoms. This task is often complicated by servicemembers' delayed report of symptoms. Read More

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Identifying Feigned ADHD in College Students: Comparing the Multidimensional ADHD Rating Scale to Established Validity Measures.

J Atten Disord 2022 Apr 25:10870547221092095. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: There is increased concern for malingering in ADHD evaluations due to presence of incentives such as accommodations and medications. Although several validity tests are available to classify malingering in non-ADHD populations, there is no test with proven effectiveness to detect feigned ADHD. This study investigated the ability of the MARS Symptom Validity Index 4 (MARS SV-index 4) and two published validity tests (the Word Memory Test [WMT] and Clinical Assessment of Attention Deficit-Adult [CAT-A] Infrequency scale) to detect malingered ADHD. Read More

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A Forced Choice Performance Validity Test for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Objective: We aimed to assess the utility of a novel and easy-to-administer performance validity test (PVT), the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Forced Choice recognition trial (RFC), compared with previously developed RBANS PVTs.

Method: We compared the RFC with the RBANS Effort Index (EI) and Effort Scale (ES) in a sample of 62 non-litigating older adults (mean age = 74 years, 52% female) with varying levels of cognitive impairment.

Results: A significantly greater proportion of the sample met EI criteria for non-credible performance (EI > 2; 31%) compared with RFC criteria (RFC < 9; 15%). Read More

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Memory Perfectionism is Associated with Persistent Memory Complaints after Concussion.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: The etiology of persistent memory complaints after concussion is poorly understood. Memory perfectionism (highly valuing memory ability and intolerance of minor memory lapses) may help explain why some people report persistent subjective memory problems in the absence of corresponding objective memory impairment. This study investigated the relationship between memory perfectionism and persistent memory complaints after concussion. Read More

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Failed Performance on the Test of Memory Malingering and Misdiagnosis in Individuals with Early-Onset Dysexecutive Alzheimer's Disease.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2022 Apr 14. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objective: Individuals with early-onset dysexecutive Alzheimer's disease (dAD) have high rates of failed performance validity testing (PVT), which can lead to symptom misinterpretation and misdiagnosis.

Method: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate rates of failure on a common PVT, the test of memory malingering (TOMM), in a sample of clinical patients with biomarker-confirmed early-onset dAD who completed neuropsychological testing.

Results: We identified seventeen patients with an average age of symptom onset at 52. Read More

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Symptom coaching and symptom validity tests: An analog study using the structured inventory of malingered symptomatology, Self-Report Symptom Inventory, and Inventory of Problems-29.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2022 Apr 13:1-13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Torino, Italy.

In this pilot and exploratory study, we tested the robustness of three self-report symptom validity tests (SVTs) to symptom coaching for depression, with and without additional information available on the Internet. Specifically, we divided our sample ( = 193) so that each subject received either the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (;  = 64), the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (;  = 66), or the Inventory of Problems-29 (;  = 63). Within each of the three subgroups, approximately one third of participants were instructed to respond honestly (Genuine Condition, = 21; = 24; = 26) and approximately two-thirds were instructed to feign depression. Read More

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Low rate of performance validity failures among individuals with bipolar disorder.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2022 Apr 11:1-8. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan/Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Objective: Assessing performance validity is imperative in both clinical and research contexts as data interpretation presupposes adequate participation from examinees. Performance validity tests (PVTs) are utilized to identify instances in which results cannot be interpreted at face value. This study explored the hit rates for two frequently used PVTs in a research sample of individuals with and without histories of bipolar disorder (BD). Read More

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Self-reported disability-seeking predicts PVT failure in veterans undergoing clinical neuropsychological evaluation.

Clin Neuropsychol 2022 Apr 7:1-15. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Mental Health Service, Ralph H. Johnson Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.

This study examined disability-related factors as predictors of PVT performance in Veterans who underwent neuropsychological evaluation for clinical purposes, not for determination of disability benefits. Participants were 1,438 Veterans who were seen for clinical evaluation in a VA Medical Center's Neuropsychology Clinic. All were administered the TOMM, MSVT, or both. Read More

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Experts' Failure to Consider the Negative Predictive Power of Symptom Validity Tests.

Front Psychol 2022 18;13:789762. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Feigning (i.e., grossly exaggerating or fabricating) symptoms distorts diagnostic evaluations. Read More

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Lose the Nintendo and thou shall be healed! Restoring vision in malingering.

GMS Ophthalmol Cases 2022 8;12:Doc05. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Ghent University Hospital, Department of Head and Skin, Ghent, Belgium.

Non-organic visual loss can be hard to prove or explain to the parents of affected children at times. Here, we describe a simple yet effective approach that may help solve both issues by ensuring that the patient refrains from visual stimuli. Read More

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February 2022

An examination of the MMPI-3 validity scales in detecting overreporting of psychological problems.

Psychol Assess 2022 Jun 24;34(6):517-527. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Psychology.

The recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3) includes a revised set of Validity Scales on which there is currently limited validity and clinical utility evidence for the detection of overreporting. The present study evaluated the MMPI-3 Validity Scales in the identification of such response bias. An analogue simulation design was used in which participants in an overreporting condition (163 undergraduate students) were instructed to feign mental health symptoms when responding to the MMPI-3 in the context of a compensation-seeking claim. Read More

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A broader perspective: Functional symptoms beyond Neurology.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2022 25;18:100506. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Harvard Medical School, United States.

•Functional (psychogenic) symptoms exist in all specialties.•They are by definition not under voluntary control, unlike factitious disorders and malingering.•The diagnostic approach to functional symptoms varies among specialties. Read More

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November 2021

Cry for help as a root cause of poor symptom validity: A critical note.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2022 Feb 23:1-6. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Berlin, Germany.

When patients fail symptom validity tests (SVTs) and/or performance validity tests (PVTs), their self-reported symptoms and test profiles are unreliable and cannot be taken for granted. There are many well-established causes of poor symptom validity and malingering is only of them. Some authors have proposed that a cry for help may underlie poor symptom validity. Read More

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February 2022

Comparing the Independent and Aggregated Accuracy of Trial 1 and the First 10 TOMM Items for Detecting Invalid Neuropsychological Test Performance Across Civilian and Veteran Clinical Samples.

Percept Mot Skills 2022 Apr 9;129(2):269-288. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Psychiatry, 12247University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Previous studies support using two abbreviated tests of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), including (a) Trial 1 (T1) and (b) the number of errors on the first 10 items of T1 (T1e10), as performance validity tests (PVTs). In this study, we examined the independent and aggregated predictive utility of TOMM T1 and T1e10 for identifying invalid neuropsychological test performance across two clinical samples. We employed cross-sectional research to examine two independent and demographically diverse mixed samples of military veterans and civilians (VA = 108; academic medical center = 234) of patients who underwent neuropsychological evaluations. Read More

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Neuropsychological performance and effort in patients diagnosed with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures - Descriptive study of a Czech sample.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 03 4;128:108584. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Epilepsy Center, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the neuropsychological performance and effort in patients with a confirmed PNES diagnosis. The second aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between validity indicators from the cognitive battery with validity and clinical scales from a personality scale.

Method: Patients with PNES (N = 250; F:M 186:64; mean age 38. Read More

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An exploratory study of the convergent validity of the Test of Effort (TOE) in adults with acquired brain injury.

Brain Inj 2022 02 3;36(3):424-431. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

School of Nursing and Health Sciences, La Salle University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Primary Objective: To examine the convergent validity of the Test of Effort (TOE), a performance validity test (PVT) currently under development that employs a two-subtest (one verbal, one visual), forced-choice recognition memory format.

Research Design: A descriptive, correlational design was employed to describe performance on the TOE and examine the convergent validity between the TOE and comparison measures.

Methods And Procedures: A sample of 53 individuals with chronic acquired brain injury (ABI) were administered the TOE and three well-validated PVTs (Reliable Digit Span [RDS], Test of Memory Malingering [TOMM] and Dot Counting Test [DCT]). Read More

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February 2022

Detecting symptom exaggeration and minimization using translated versions of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF: A systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis.

Law Hum Behav 2022 02;46(1):81-97

Department of Psychology, Fordham University.

Objective: This systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of translated versions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in detecting response distortion (i.e., symptom exaggeration and minimization), a central concern in forensic assessment. Read More

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February 2022

Decision rules for an abbreviated administration of the Test of Memory Malingering.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2022 Jan 24:1-10. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

The present study investigated abbreviation methods for the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in relation to traditional manual-based test cutoffs and independently derived more stringent cutoffs suggested by recent research (≤48 on Trial 2 or 3). Consecutively referred outpatient U.S. Read More

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January 2022

Contribution of objectively measured grating acuity by sweep visually evoked potentials to the diagnosis of unexplained visual loss.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022 May 23;260(5):1687-1699. Epub 2022 Jan 23.

Laboratório de Eletrofisiologia Visual Clínica, Departamento de Oftalmologia e Ciências Visuais Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo-UNIFESP, R. Botucatu 816 CEP, São Paulo, SP, 04023-062, Brazil.

Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic contribution of grating visual acuity (GVA) measured by sweep pattern-reversal visually evoked potentials (SPRVEP) in unexplained visual loss (UVL).

Methods: This case-control study included adult patients under suspicion of UVL referred to SPRVEP and transient pattern-reversal visually evoked potentials (TPRVEP) testing. Optotype visual acuity (OVA) was measured by ETDRS 4-meter chart and GVA by SPRVEP. Read More

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