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    Detection of immune-related adverse events by medical imaging in patients treated with anti-programmed cell death 1.
    Eur J Cancer 2018 Apr 23;96:91-104. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Radiology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.
    Background: Programmed death receptor-1 blocking antibodies (anti-PD1) are a new standard of care in many cancer types. Patients benefit from improved survival but have the risk of immune-related adverse events (irAE). We evaluated if medical imaging procedures, used for anti-tumour response assessment, can detect irAEs. Read More

    Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel sulfonamides as potential anticancer agents.
    Comput Biol Chem 2018 Apr 10;74:294-303. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1, Murmanskaya Str, Kyiv 02094, Ukraine.
    Based on modern literature data about biological activity of E7010 derivatives, a series of new sulfonamides as potential anticancer drugs were rationally designed by QSAR modeling methods Сlassification learning QSAR models to predict the tubulin polymerization inhibition activity of novel sulfonamides as potential anticancer agents were created using the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM) and are freely available online on OCHEM server at https://ochem.eu/article/107790. A series of sulfonamides with predicted activity were synthesized and tested against 60 human cancer cell lines with growth inhibition percent values. Read More

    Red meat and processed meat intake and risk of cutaneous melanoma in white women and men: Two prospective cohort studies.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, U.S.A.; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, U.S.A.; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, U.S.A.. Electronic address:
    Background: Red and processed meat consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, but association with cutaneous melanoma risk has been inconclusive.

    Objective: To investigate the association between red and processed meat intake and melanoma risk.

    Methods: Dietary information was assessed using food frequency questionnaires in two prospective cohorts - 75,263 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984 - 2010) and 48,523 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 - 2010). Read More

    Bronchial mucosal Interferon-α/β and pattern recognition receptor expression in experimental rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Airway Disease Infection, National Heart and Lung Institute, Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Imperial College London, London United Kingdom; Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Background: The innate immune system senses viral infection via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to type I interferon (IFN) production: their roles in rhinovirus (RV)-induced asthma exacerbations in vivo are uncertain.

    Objectives: To compare bronchial mucosal type I IFN and PRR expression at baseline and following RV infection in atopic asthmatic and control subjects.

    Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of IFN-α, IFN-β and the PRRs, toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, melanoma-differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5) and retinoic-acid-inducible protein-I (RIG-I) in bronchial biopsies from 10 atopic asthmatics and 15 non-asthmatic non-atopic controls at baseline and on day four and six weeks following RV infection. Read More

    Attenuated Salmonella VNP20009 mutant (ΔhtrA) is a promising candidate for bacteria-mediated tumor therapy in hosts with TNFR1 deficiency.
    Lett Appl Microbiol 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    VNP20009 is a genetically modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium and has a good anti-cancer effect wildly used in tumor therapy on animal models. For its clinical application, an accurate bio-safety assessment on sensitive models is necessary. In this study, we use TNFR1 KO mice as a susceptive model to assess the virulence of bacterial VNP20009 and its derivative ΔhtrA. Read More

    TNF differentially regulates ganglioside biosynthesis and expression in breast cancer cell lines.
    PLoS One 2018 26;13(4):e0196369. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    University of Lille, Structural and Functional Glycobiology Unit, UMR CNRS 8576, Lille, France.
    Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids concentrated in glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains. Mainly restricted to the nervous system in healthy adult, complex gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 have been shown to be involved in aggressiveness and metastasis of neuro-ectoderm derived tumors such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. GD3 synthase (GD3S), the key enzyme that controls the biosynthesis of complex gangliosides, was shown to be over-expressed in Estrogen Receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer tumors, and associated with a decreased overall survival of patients. Read More

    Targeted inhibition of the BRAF pathway in a patient with stage IV melanoma.
    JAAPA 2018 May;31(5):24-26
    At the time this article was written, Breea Buckley was a student in the PA program at Marietta (Ohio) College. Bradley Pierce is an assistant professor in the PA program at Marietta College and practices in the Strecker Cancer Center at Memorial Health System in Marietta, Ohio. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.
    This article describes the use of vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor, to achieve disease regression in a woman with extensive metastatic melanoma and the BRAF V600 gene mutation. Given the improved survival rates seen in these patients, clinicians need to be aware of long-term patient management and adverse reactions to the drug. Read More

    What do Germans Want to Know About Skin Cancer? A Nationwide Google Search Analysis From 2013 to 2017.
    J Med Internet Res 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technical University Munich, Biedersteiner Str. 29, Munich, DE.
    Background: Experts worldwide agree that skin cancer is a global health issue, but only a few studies have reported on world populations' interest in skin cancer. Internet search data can reflect the interest of a population in different topics and thereby identify what the population wants to know.

    Objective: Our aim was to assess the interest of the German population in nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma. Read More

    Progress in melanoma modeling in vitro.
    Exp Dermatol 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Laboratory of Cutaneous Biology Department of Surgical, Medical, Dental and Morphological Sciences University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Melanoma is one of the most studied neoplasia, although laboratory techniques used for investigating this tumor are not fully reliable. Animal models may not predict the human response due to differences in skin physiology and immunity. In addition, international guidelines recommend to develop processes that contribute to the reduction, refinement and replacement of animals for experiments (3Rs). Read More

    USE OF CIRCULATING TUMOR DNA FOR DETECTION OF BRAF V600E MUTATION AND TREATMENT MONITORING IN MELANOMA PATIENTS.
    Georgian Med News 2018 Mar(276):76-81
    Pathology laboratory CSD Health Care, Department of molecular pathology; Bogomolets National Medical University, Faculty Of General Medicine, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Detection of BRAF V600E mutation in circulating tumor DNA may be important tool for primary diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring in patients with melanoma. For the first time in Ukraine, the sensitivity of BRAF V600E testing on circulating tumor DNA was analyzed, as well as the possibility of its application for monitoring the course of the disease. Allele-specific semi-quantitative Real-time PCR for BRAF V600E mutation was performed on DNA extracted from 28 plasma samples of 18 patients with known BRAF V600E melanoma. Read More

    IMPACT web portal: oncology database integrating molecular profiles with actionable therapeutics.
    BMC Med Genomics 2018 Apr 20;11(Suppl 2):26. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Translational Bioinformatics and Cancer Systems Biology Laboratory, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.
    Background: With the advancement of next generation sequencing technology, researchers are now able to identify important variants and structural changes in DNA and RNA in cancer patient samples. With this information, we can now correlate specific variants and/or structural changes with actionable therapeutics known to inhibit these variants. We introduce the creation of the IMPACT Web Portal, a new online resource that connects molecular profiles of tumors to approved drugs, investigational therapeutics and pharmacogenetics associated drugs. Read More

    Melanosome-Targeting Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe with Large Stokes Shift for in Situ Quantification of Tyrosinase Activity and Assessing Drugs Effects on Differently Invasive Melanoma Cells.
    Anal Chem 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Tyrosinase (TYR) plays a vital role in melanin biosynthesis and is widely regarded as a relatively specific marker for melanocytic lesions which involve vitiligo, malignant cutaneous melanoma, Parkinson's disease (PD), etc. However, the detection of TYR in living cells with fluorescent probes is usually interfered by diverse endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Herein, we synthesized a melanosome-targeting near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (HB-NP) with a large Stokes shift (195 nm), achieving a highly sensitive and selective in situ detection for intracellular TYR, by incorporating m-hydroxybenzy moiety that recognizes TYR specifically and the morpholine unit which facilitates the probe accumulating in melanosome into salicyladazine skeleton. Read More

    Expression of the serotonin receptor 2B in uveal melanoma and effects of an antagonist on cell lines.
    Clin Exp Metastasis 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Axe Médecine régénératrice and Centre Universitaire d'Ophtalmologie (CUO)-Recherche, Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary tumor in the adult, and disseminates to the liver in half of patients. A 15-gene expression profile prognostic assay allows to determine the likelihood of metastasis in patients using their ocular tumor DNA, but a cure still remains to be discovered. The serotonin receptor 2B represents the discriminant gene of this molecular signature with the greatest impact on the prognosis of UM. Read More

    Stereotactic radiosurgery and ipilimumab for patients with melanoma brain metastases: clinical outcomes and toxicity.
    J Neurooncol 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Introduction: There is evidence that the combination of ipilimumab and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases improves outcomes. We investigated clinical outcomes, radiation toxicity, and impact of ipilimumab timing in patients treated with SRS for melanoma brain metastases.

    Methods: We retrospectively identified 91 patients treated with SRS at our institution for melanoma brain metastases from 2006 to 2015. Read More

    The best of both worlds: a hybrid approach for optimal pre- and intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes.
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2 (C2-S zone), PO BOX 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Purpose: Hybrid image-guided surgery technologies such as combined radio- and fluorescence-guidance are increasingly gaining interest, but their added value still needs to be proven. In order to evaluate if and how fluorescence-guidance can help realize improvements beyond the current state-of-the-art in sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedures, use of the hybrid tracer indocyanine green (ICG)-Tc-nancolloid was evaluated in a large cohort of patients.

    Patients And Methods: A prospective trial was conducted (n = 501 procedures) in a heterogeneous cohort of 495 patients with different malignancies (skin malignancies, oral cavity cancer, penile cancer, prostate cancer and vulva cancer). Read More

    Role of MDA5 and interferon-I in dendritic cells for T cell expansion by anti-tumor peptide vaccines in mice.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy and Tolerance Program, Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta University, 1410 Laney Walker Blvd., CN-4121, Augusta, GA, 30912, USA.
    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are effective components of the immune system capable of destroying tumor cells. Generation of CTLs using peptide vaccines is a practical approach to treat cancer. We have previously described a peptide vaccination strategy that generates vast numbers of endogenous tumor-reactive CTLs after two sequential immunizations (prime-boost) using poly-ICLC adjuvant, which stimulates endosomal toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and cytoplasmic melanoma differentiation antigen 5 (MDA5). Read More

    Exploiting TERT dependency as a therapeutic strategy for NRAS-mutant melanoma.
    Oncogene 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Molecular & Cellular Oncogenesis Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Targeting RAS is one of the greatest challenges in cancer therapy. Oncogenic mutations in NRAS are present in over 25% of melanomas and patients whose tumors harbor NRAS mutations have limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. Thus far, there are no clinical agents available to effectively target NRAS or any other RAS oncogene. Read More

    Oncolytic viruses as engineering platforms for combination immunotherapy.
    Nat Rev Cancer 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Trev and Joyce Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    To effectively build on the recent successes of immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell therapy and cancer vaccines, it is critical to rationally design combination strategies that will increase and extend efficacy to a larger proportion of patients. For example, the combination of anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) immune checkpoint inhibitors essentially doubles the response rate in certain patients with metastatic melanoma. However, given the heterogeneity of cancer, it seems likely that even more complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to obtain consistent, durable therapeutic responses against a broad spectrum of cancers. Read More

    ASTX660, a novel non-peptidomimetic antagonist of cIAP1/2 and XIAP, potently induces TNF-α dependent apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth.
    Mol Cancer Ther 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Astex Pharmaceuticals.
    Due to their roles in the evasion of apoptosis, Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are considered attractive targets for anti-cancer therapy. Antagonists of these proteins have the potential to switch pro-survival signaling pathways in cancer cells towards cell death. Various SMAC-peptidomimetics with inherent cIAP selectivity have been tested clinically and demonstrated minimal single agent efficacy. Read More

    Fat-forming Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney - A Case Report and Literature Review.
    In Vivo 2018 May-Jun;32(3):649-652
    Department of General Surgery, Ilfov Clinical County Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.
    Fat-forming solitary fibrous tumors arising from the kidney are extremely rare, with only few cases reported so far. We report the case of a 49-year-old patient investigated for lumbar pain and diagnosed preoperatively with a large retroperitoneal tumor destroying the right kidney. The patient was submitted to surgery, the tumor being resected en bloc with right nephrectomy. Read More

    An Improved Methodology to Visualise Tumour Induced Changes in Vasculature Using the Chick Chorionic Allantoic Membrane Assay.
    In Vivo 2018 May-Jun;32(3):461-472
    Department of Materials Science Engineering, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K.
    Background/aim: Decreasing the vascularity of a tumour has proven to be an effective strategy to suppress tumour growth and metastasis. Anti-angiogenic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of advanced-stage cancers, however there is still demand for further improvement. This necessitates new experimental models that will allow researchers to reliably study aspects of angiogenesis. Read More

    The economic burden of occupational non-melanoma skin cancer due to solar radiation.
    J Occup Environ Hyg 2018 Apr 25:1-11. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    f Occupational Cancer Research Centre , Toronto , Ontario , Canada.
    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the second most prevalent carcinogenic exposure in Canada and is similarly important in other countries with large Caucasian populations. The objective of this article was to estimate the economic burden associated with newly diagnosed non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) attributable to occupational solar radiation exposure. Key cost categories considered were direct costs (healthcare costs, out-of-pocket costs (OOPCs), and informal caregiver costs); indirect costs (productivity/output costs and home production costs); and intangible costs (monetary value of the loss of health-related quality of life (HRQoL)). Read More

    T cell mediated immunity after combination therapy with intralesional PV-10 and blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in a murine melanoma model.
    PLoS One 2018 25;13(4):e0196033. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Department of Immunology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.
    Intralesional (IL) injection of Rose Bengal (PV-10) induces regression of injected and uninjected lesions in several murine tumor models. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor response of combining IL PV-10 with blockade of the PD-1 / PD-L1 pathway and the role of immune cell populations in eliciting this response. To investigate the role of T cell subsets in mediating an immune response, B16 or M05 melanoma-bearing mice received combination therapy as well as CD8+, CD4+, or CD25+ depleting antibodies. Read More

    Bedside diagnosis of lentigo maligna with reflectance confocal microscopy.
    J Cutan Pathol 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson medical school, Department of Dermatology, Somerset, NJ.
    Early diagnosis of lentigo maligna (LM) is both critical and challenging. Biopsy at some sites can be problematic for functional and cosmetic reasons. Small specimens introduce sampling error and false negatives as a result of their heterogeneity, which can include collision with benign lesions and amelanotic components that conceal true margins extending beyond the pigmented edge. Read More

    Risk for virus and non-virus related malignancies following immunosuppression in a cohort of liver transplant recipients. Italy, 1985-2014.
    Int J Cancer 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, CRO Aviano National Cancer Institute, Aviano, Italy.
    This cohort study assessed, in Italy, the overall pattern of risk for de novo malignancies following liver transplantation (LT). The study group included 2832 individuals who underwent LT between 1985 and 2014 in nine centres throughout all of Italy. Person-years (PYs) at cancer risk were computed from 30 days after LT to the date of cancer diagnosis, to the date of death, or to the end of follow-up. Read More

    Nodal induced by hypoxia exposure contributes to dacarbazine resistance and the maintenance of stemness in melanoma cancer stem‑like cells.
    Oncol Rep 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China.
    Nodal signaling has a critical role in the processes of embryogenesis and is necessary for maintaining cell stemness. However, its upregulation in melanoma is positively correlated with malignant potential, including cancer progression, metastasis and recurrence, and a recent report has revealed its role in promoting self‑renewal capacity in melanoma. Our study aimed to explore the effects of hypoxia exposure, which is one of the main causes of chemoresistance in melanoma, on the physiological processes of melanoma cancer stem‑like cells (CSCs) via regulating Nodal. Read More

    Novel Immunotherapeutics for the Treatment of Glioblastoma: The Last Decade of Research.
    Cureus 2018 Jan 30;10(1):e2130. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.
    Despite surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation, survival for glioblastoma remains poor. Because of the dismal prognosis, attention has shifted to alternative adjuvant treatment modalities. Although traditionally limited to systemic malignancies (melanoma, lung and colon cancer), the field of immunotherapy has recently identified glioblastoma as a potential target for new treatments. Read More

    Recanalization and remodeling of the great saphenous vein caused by the large melanoma's cutaneous metastasis.
    Contemp Oncol (Pozn) 2018 3;22(1):54-59. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Department of Surgical Oncology Hospital Ministry of Internal Affairs with Warmia and Mazury Oncology Centre, Olsztyn, Poland.
    Aim Of The Study: Large melanoma tumour caused arterial remodelling of the distal part of the great saphenous vein. The metastasis occurred at the site where inguinal lymphadenectomy was previously performed and the proximal part of the great saphenous vein was resected.The aim of this study is the presentation of such a rare observation and literature overview concerning melanoma metastasis and possible stimuli causing remodelling of veins. Read More

    Unusual presentation of renal cell carcinoma: A rare case report.
    J Lab Physicians 2018 Apr-Jun;10(2):241-244
    Department of Pathology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, PGIMER, New Delhi, India.
    Cutaneous and intraoral metastasis from any malignancy is not common. Cutaneous spread is usually noted in 5%-10% of high-grade malignancies, as in carcinoma breast, lung, colon, ovary, and malignant melanoma. Only 4. Read More

    Insights into the Biological Evaluation of Pterocarpanquinones and Carbapterocarpans with Anti-Tumor Activity against MDR Leukemias.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - Laboratorio de Quimica Bio-organica (LQB), Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. Brazil.
    In an attempt to find anticancer agents that could overcome multidrug resistance (MDR), two new classes of modified isoflavonoids were designed and synthesized, and their effectiveness evaluated against a vast array of tumor cell lines. Pterocarpanquinone (LQB-118) and 11a-aza-5-carbapterocarpan (LQB-223) were the most promising. LQB-118 induced cell death, in vitro, in the mM range, to a number of human cancer cell lines as well as to fresh tumor cells obtained from patients with acute or chronic myeloid leukemia, independent on whether they exhibit or not the MDR phenotype. Read More

    The Anti-malarial Drug Artesunate Blocks Wnt/β-catenin Pathway and Inhibits Growth, Migration and Invasion of Uveal Melanoma Cells.
    Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University - State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology Guangzhou, Guangdong. China.
    Background: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. So far, there have been no effective targeted therapeutic agents in patients with uveal melanoma. Artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia annua L for treatment of severe and multidrug-resistant malaria. Read More

    Skin Cancer Following Solid Organ Transplantation: A Review of Risk Factors and Models of Care.
    Am J Clin Dermatol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Skin & Cancer Foundation Inc., Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    The number of solid organ transplants has been increasing annually worldwide. Advances in transplantation surgery and community awareness of organ donation have been key contributors. Combined with increased understanding of immunosuppression, there are a growing number of solid organ transplant recipients in the community as a result of improved long-term outcomes. Read More

    Metastatic Melanoma to the Colon, Rectum, and Anus: A 50-Year Experience.
    Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Background: Melanoma metastatic to the large bowel (colon, rectum, and anus) is rarely diagnosed, with more than 95% of large bowel metastases identified post-mortem. The incidence, natural history, and survival rates of patients with large bowel melanoma metastases are poorly documented in the literature.

    Objective: This study aimed to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, and survival of patients with large bowel melanoma metastases. Read More

    Angio-3, a 10-residue peptide derived from human plasminogen kringle 3, suppresses tumor growth in mice via impeding both angiogenesis and vascular permeability.
    Angiogenesis 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.
    Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an established therapeutic strategy for cancer. The endogenous angiogenic inhibitor angiostatin contains the first 3-4 kringle domains of plasminogen and inhibits both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We present here a 10-residue peptide, Angio-3, derived from plasminogen kringle 3, which retains the functions of angiostatin in inhibiting both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. Read More

    Capping protein-controlled actin polymerization shapes lipid membranes.
    Nat Commun 2018 Apr 24;9(1):1630. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Lehrstuhl für Zellbiophysik, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, D-85748, Garching, Germany.
    Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly at cell membranes drives the formation of protrusions or endocytic vesicles. To identify the mechanism by which different membrane deformations can be achieved, we reconstitute the basic membrane deformation modes of inward and outward bending in a confined geometry by encapsulating a minimal set of cytoskeletal proteins into giant unilamellar vesicles. Formation of membrane protrusions is favoured at low capping protein (CP) concentrations, whereas the formation of negatively bent domains is promoted at high CP concentrations. Read More

    Evaluation of biodistribution of sulforaphane after administration of oral broccoli sprout extract in melanoma patients with multiple atypical nevi.
    Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
    Broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane (BSE-SFN) has been shown to inhibit ultraviolet radiation-induced damage and tumor progression in skin. This study evaluated the toxicity and potential effects of oral BSE-SFN at three dosages. Seventeen patients who each had at least 2 atypical nevi and a prior history of melanoma were randomly allocated to 50, 100, or 200 µmol oral BSE-SFN daily for 28 days. Read More

    MiR-150 suppresses tumor growth in melanoma through downregulation of MYB.
    Oncol Res 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Oncology, Shanxian Central Hospital, Heze 274300, Shandong Province, China.
    MiR-150 has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression in various human cancers, including colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer and thyroid cancer. However, the role of miR-150 in melanoma remains to be determined. In this study, we found that miR-150 was underexpressed in melanoma tissues and cell lines. Read More

    Selective Inhibition of Histone Deacetylation in Melanoma Increases Targeted Gene Delivery by a Bacteriophage Viral Vector.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Apr 21;10(4). Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Cancer Phage Therapy Laboratory, Division of Brain Sciences, Burlington Danes Building, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK.
    The previously developed adeno-associated virus/phage (AAVP) vector, a hybrid between M13 bacteriophage (phage) viruses that infect bacteria only and human Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV), is a promising tool in targeted gene therapy against cancer. AAVP can be administered systemically and made tissue specific through the use of ligand-directed targeting. Cancer cells and tumor-associated blood vessels overexpress the α integrin receptors, which are involved in tumor angiogenesis and tumor invasion. Read More

    Prognostic value of chromosomal imbalances, gene mutations, and BAP1 expression in uveal melanoma.
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Human Genetics Laboratory, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Genova, Italy.
    Uveal melanoma (UM) exhibits recurring chromosomal abnormalities and gene driver mutations, which are related to tumor evolution/progression. Almost half of the patients with UM develop distant metastases, predominantly to the liver, and so far there are no effective adjuvant therapies. An accurate UM genetic profile could assess the individual patient's metastatic risk, and provide the basis to determine an individualized targeted therapeutic strategy for each UM patient. Read More

    T cells isolated from patients with checkpoint inhibitor resistant-melanoma are functional and can mediate tumor regression.
    Ann Oncol 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Center for Cancer Immune Therapy, Department of Hematology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark.
    Background: The majority of patients with metastatic melanoma obtain only short-term or no benefit at all from checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) immunotherapy. In this study, we investigated whether the immune system of patients progressing following CPI treatment was able to generate functional tumor-specific immune responses.

    Materials And Methods: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were isolated and expanded from metastatic melanoma lesions which progressed during or after anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 treatment. Read More

    Melanoma, thyroid cancer, and gynecologic cancers in a cohort of female flight attendants.
    Am J Ind Med 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Industrywide Studies Branch, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Background: Flight attendants may have an increased risk of some cancers from occupational exposure to cosmic radiation and circadian disruption.

    Methods: The incidence of thyroid, ovarian, and uterine cancer among ∼6000 female flight attendants compared to the US population was evaluated via life table analyses. Associations of these cancers, melanoma, and cervical cancer with cumulative cosmic radiation dose and metrics of circadian disruption were evaluated using Cox regression. Read More

    Exposure to permethrin and cancer risk: a systematic review.
    Crit Rev Toxicol 2018 Apr 24:1-10. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    a Tisch Cancer institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York , NY , USA.
    No systematic reviews are available on data from humans on cancer risk from exposure to permethrin, a widely used insecticide for which some animal studies have reported positive findings based on mechanisms that may not be relevant to humans. We identified potentially relevant articles through a search of electronic databases which included all studies of pesticide exposure and human cancer. A total of 18 articles were selected, including six identified from the list of references of other articles. Read More

    Modification, Biological Evaluation and SAR Studies of Novel 1H-Pyrazol Derivatives Containing N, N'-Disubstituted Urea Moiety as Potential Anti-Melanoma Agents.
    Chem Biodivers 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    School of Biological and Medical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, P. R. China.
    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancer. BRAF inhibitors have exhibited therapeutic effects against BRAF-mutant melanoma. In continuation of our earlier studies on 1H-pyrazole skeleton based anti-melanoma agent, two sets of novel compounds that include 1H-pyrazole-4-amines FA1-13 and corresponding urea derivatives FN1-13 have been synthesized and evaluated for their BRAF inhibitory and anti-proliferation activities. Read More

    Case of probable spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma combined with squamous cell carcinoma without surgical intervention.
    J Dermatol 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga, Japan.
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but more lethal cutaneous cancer than melanoma. However, spontaneous regression of a number of MCC has been reported, although the cause of this regression remains unclear. In most cases, MCC regresses after a surgical procedure, for example, biopsy. Read More

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