89,654 results match your criteria Malaria Journal [Journal]


Organ-Specific Fate, Recruitment, and Refilling Dynamics of Tissue-Resident Macrophages during Blood-Stage Malaria.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3099-3109.e3

Nanyang Technological University, School of Biological Sciences, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore. Electronic address:

Inflammation-induced disappearance of tissue-resident macrophages represents a key pathogen defense mechanism. Using a model of systemic blood-stage malaria, we studied the dynamics of tissue-resident macrophages in multiple organs to determine how they are depleted and refilled during the course of disease. We show that Plasmodium infection results in a transient loss of embryonically established resident macrophages prior to the parasitemia peak. Read More

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December 2018

The know-do gap in sick child care in Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208898. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

International Institue for Primary Health Care- Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: While health care provider knowledge is a commonly used measure for process quality of care, evidence demonstrates that providers don't always perform as much as they know. We describe this know-do gap for malaria care for sick children among providers in Ethiopia and examine what may predict this gap.

Methods: We use a 2014 nationally-representative survey of Ethiopian providers that includes clinical knowledge vignettes of malaria care and observations of care provided to children in facilities. Read More

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December 2018

First field efficacy trial of the ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP vectored malaria vaccine candidate in 5-17 months old infants and children.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208328. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Background: Heterologous prime boost immunization with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccines is a strategy previously shown to provide substantial protective efficacy against P. falciparum infection in United Kingdom adult Phase IIa sporozoite challenge studies (approximately 20-25% sterile protection with similar numbers showing clear delay in time to patency), and greater point efficacy in a trial in Kenyan adults.

Methodology: We conducted the first Phase IIb clinical trial assessing the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP in 700 healthy malaria exposed children aged 5-17 months in a highly endemic malaria transmission area of Burkina Faso. Read More

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December 2018

Point-of-care lung ultrasound for the detection of pulmonary manifestations of malaria and sepsis: An observational study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0204832. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Introduction: Patients with severe malaria or sepsis are at risk of developing life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of this study was to evaluate point-of-care lung ultrasound as a novel tool to determine the prevalence and early signs of ARDS in a resource-limited setting among patients with severe malaria or sepsis.

Materials And Methods: Serial point-of-care lung ultrasound studies were performed on four consecutive days in a planned sub study of an observational cohort of patients with malaria or sepsis in Bangladesh. Read More

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December 2018

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) as quality assurance tools for Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) malaria diagnosis in Northern Namibia.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0206848. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Multi-Disciplinary Research Centre, Science Technology and Innovation Division, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia.

Malaria cases sometimes go undetected using RDTs due to their inaccurate use, poor storage conditions and failure to detect low parasitaemia (<50parasites/μL). This could result in continuous transmission of malaria and sustenance of parasite reservoirs. Molecular diagnostic tools are more sensitive and specific than RDTs in the detection of plasmodium parasites. Read More

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December 2018

Development of Onchocerca volvulus in humanized NSG mice and detection of parasite biomarkers in urine and serum.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 12;12(12):e0006977. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: The study of Onchocerca volvulus has been limited by its host range, with only humans and non-human primates shown to be susceptible to the full life cycle infection. Small animal models that support the development of adult parasites have not been identified.

Methodology/principal Findings: We hypothesized that highly immunodeficient NSG mice would support the survival and maturation of O. Read More

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December 2018

Commercial drugs containing flavonoids are active in mice with malaria and in vitro against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 6;113(12):e180279. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto René Rachou, Laboratório de Malária Experimental e Humana, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

BACKGROUND The main strategy to control human malaria still relies on specific drug treatment, limited now by Plasmodium falciparum-resistant parasites, including that against artemisinin derivatives. Despite the large number of active compounds described in the literature, few of them reached full development against human malaria. Drug repositioning is a fast and less expensive strategy for antimalarial drug discovery, because these compounds are already approved for human use. Read More

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December 2018

The Challenges and Knowledge Gaps in Malaria Therapy: A Stakeholder Approach to Improving Oral Quinine Use in the Treatment of Childhood Malaria in Ghana.

J Pharm (Cairo) 2018 14;2018:1784645. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: The study was undertaken to elicit the knowledge, views, and perceptions of key stakeholders on malaria, its bioburden, and treatment options, in order to ascertain the knowledge gabs and challenges, especially in the use of oral quinine in childhood malaria.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a well-structured Likert Scale and self-administered questionnaire. The principal site of the study was a government-run children's hospital located in the Ashiedu Keteke Sub-Metro of Accra. Read More

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November 2018

Magnitude of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Public Hospitals of Ilu Abba Bora Zone, South West Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Anemia 2018 12;2018:9201383. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting all population particularly pregnant women. Hence, this study assessed the magnitude of anemia and associated factors among pregnant.

Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 416 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in three public hospitals of Ilu Aba Bora zone. Read More

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November 2018

Highlights on the Application of Genomics and Bioinformatics in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases: Challenges and Opportunities in Africa.

Front Genet 2018 27;9:575. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

West African Centre for Cell Biology of Infectious Pathogens, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Genomics and bioinformatics are increasingly contributing to our understanding of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens such as and parasites such as . This ranges from investigations of disease outbreaks and pathogenesis, host and pathogen genomic variation, and host immune evasion mechanisms to identification of potential diagnostic markers and vaccine targets. High throughput genomics data generated from pathogens and animal models can be combined with host genomics and patients' health records to give advice on treatment options as well as potential drug and vaccine interactions. Read More

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November 2018

Human Vγ9Vδ2 T Lymphocytes in the Immune Response to Infection.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2760. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS ImmunoConcEpT UMR 5164, Bordeaux, France.

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite , the most lethal being . Clinical malaria is associated with the asexual replication cycle of parasites inside the red blood cells (RBCs) and a dysregulated immune response. Although the mechanisms of immune responses to blood-or liver-stage parasites have been extensively studied, this has not led to satisfactory leads for vaccine design. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of T cells infiltration inhibition in brain by immunohistochemistry during experimental cerebral malaria.

J Parasit Dis 2018 Dec 24;42(4):537-549. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014 India.

ANKA is known to be responsible for causing neurological complications in susceptible strain of mice. Despite the decades of research, pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is still unknown. Histopathological and immunofluorescent staining was performed on brain of ANKA infected and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) treated mice to understand the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria in present study. Read More

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December 2018

Transcriptomic meta-signatures identified in Anopheles gambiae populations reveal previously undetected insecticide resistance mechanisms.

Nat Commun 2018 12 11;9(1):5282. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L35QA, UK.

Increasing insecticide resistance in malaria-transmitting vectors represents a public health threat, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, a data integration approach is used to analyse transcriptomic data from comparisons of insecticide resistant and susceptible Anopheles populations from disparate geographical regions across the African continent. An unbiased, integrated analysis of this data confirms previously described resistance candidates but also identifies multiple novel genes involving alternative resistance mechanisms, including sequestration, and transcription factors regulating multiple downstream effector genes, which are validated by gene silencing. Read More

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December 2018
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Shedding Light on the Role of the Skin in Vaccine-Induced Protection against the Malaria Sporozoite.

MBio 2018 Dec 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Bronx, New York, USA

The most advanced vaccine against malaria, RTS,S/AS01, provides partial protection in infants and children living in areas of malaria endemicity. Further understanding its mechanisms of protection may allow the development of improved second-generation vaccines. The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine targets the sporozoites injected by mosquito vectors into the dermis which then travel into the blood stream to establish infection in the liver. Read More

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December 2018
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Malaria causes long-term effects on markers of iron status in children: a critical assessment of existing clinical and epidemiological tools.

Malar J 2018 Dec 11;17(1):464. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Medical Parasitology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Most epidemiological studies on the interplay between iron deficiency and malaria risk classify individuals as iron-deficient or iron-replete based on inflammation-dependent iron markers and adjustment for inflammation by using C-reactive protein (CRP) or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). The validity of this approach and the usefulness of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a proposed inflammation-independent iron marker were tested.

Methods: Conventional iron markers and FGF23 were measured in children with acute falciparum malaria and after 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Read More

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December 2018

Hydroxamic acid inhibitors provide cross-species inhibition of Plasmodium M1 and M17 aminopeptidases.

J Med Chem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

There is an urgent clinical need for antimalarial compounds that target malaria caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The M1 and M17 metalloexopeptidases play key roles in Plasmodium haemoglobin digestion, and are validated drug targets. We used a multi-target strategy to rationally design inhibitors capable of potent inhibition of the M1 and M17 aminopeptidases from both P. Read More

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December 2018

Novel strains in malaria vectors from Sub-Saharan Africa.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 27;3:113. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

, a common insect endosymbiotic bacterium that can influence pathogen transmission and manipulate host reproduction, has historically been considered absent from the  genera, but has recently been found in  s.l. populations in West Africa. Read More

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November 2018
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Laboratory validation and field usability assessment of a point-of-care test for serum bilirubin levels in neonates in a tropical setting.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 23;3:110. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Mae Sot, 63110, Thailand.

Screening and monitoring serum bilirubin (SBR) in neonates is crucial to prevent neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH)-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. A lack of resources is often a barrier for measuring SBR in developing countries. Reliable, cost-effective, easy to use point-of-care (POC) SBR tests are needed. Read More

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November 2018

Putative contributions of the sex chromosome proteins SOX3 and SRY to neurodevelopmental disorders.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

LIM23, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The male-biased prevalence of certain neurodevelopmental disorders and the sex-biased outcomes associated with stress exposure during gestation have been previously described. Here, we hypothesized that genes distinctively targeted by only one or both homologous proteins highly conserved across therian mammals, SOX3 and SRY, could induce sexual adaptive changes that result in a differential risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. ChIP-seq/chip data showed that SOX3/SRY gene targets were expressed in different brain cell types in mice. Read More

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December 2018

Anti-proliferative and anti-malarial activities of spiroisoxazoline analogues of artemisinin.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2018 Dec 10:e1800192. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical and Life Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

A series of spiroisoxazoline analogues of artemisinin was synthesized by employing 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between various in situ generated nitrile oxides and artemisitene. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their anti-proliferative and anti-malarial activities. Among the compounds tested, compound 11a was found to be potent against the HCT-15 cancer cell line with IC  = 4. Read More

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December 2018
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Artemisinin inhibits breast cancer-induced osteolysis by inhibiting osteoclast formation and breast cancer cell proliferation.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Research Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People's Republic of China.

In addition to being used to treat malaria, artemisinin (Art) can be used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Art on osteoclast formation and activation and on the development of breast cancer cells in bone. To evaluate the effect of Art on osteoclast differentiation in vitro, we treated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with various concentrations of Art and evaluated the expression of genes and proteins involved in osteoclast formation. Read More

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December 2018

«Who» «Where» and «Why» moves to checkmate imported malaria?

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

National Travel Health Network and Centre, London, UK.

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December 2018

Persistence of imported Malaria into the UK: an epidemiological review of risk factors and at risk groups.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Medicine, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK.

Background: The UK documented a fall of over 30% in imported cases of malaria annually between 1996-2003 however there are still around 1700 cases and 5-10 deaths each year. Prophylaxis health messages focus on families returning to their country of origin as being at particular risk.

Methods: We reviewed 225 paper records including demographic data of patients seen in Addenbrooke's hospital (Cambridge University Hospital Foundation Trust - CUHFT) a tertiary referral centre in Cambridge, England. Read More

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December 2018

Increased risk of malaria during the first year of life in small-birth-weight-for-gestational age infants: a longitudinal study in Benin.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

MERIT, IRD, Université Paris 5, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Background: According to the DOHaD paradigm, the foetal period is one of the most vulnerable periods that may have profound effects on health later in life. Few studies have assessed the effect of small-birth-weight-for-gestational age (SGA), a proxy for foetal growth impairment, on the risk of malaria during infancy in Africa.

Methods: We used data from a cohort of 398 mother-child pairs, followed from early pregnancy to age one in Benin. Read More

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December 2018

Novel pfkelch13 gene polymorphism associates with artemisinin resistance in eastern India.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, West Bengal, India.

Background: Artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ASSP) is the frontline artemisinin ombination therapy (ACT) in India. Random, irrational, sub-therapeutic artemisinin doses and self-medication with ACT along with predominance of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance parasite invoked a strong possibility of emerging artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites.

Methods: This study involved 226 patients with uncomplicated P. Read More

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December 2018

Cross-Species Immune Recognition Between Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein Antibodies and the Plasmodium falciparum Surface Antigen VAR2CSA.

J Infect Dis 2019 Jan;219(1):110-120

School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Background: In pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum parasites express the surface antigen VAR2CSA, which mediates adherence of red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placenta. VAR2CSA antibodies are generally acquired during infection in pregnancy and are associated with protection from placental malaria. We observed previously that men and children in Colombia also had antibodies to VAR2CSA, but the origin of these antibodies was unknown. Read More

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January 2019

The sickle cell trait affects contact dynamics and endothelial cell activation in -infected erythrocytes.

Commun Biol 2018 30;1:211. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

1Department of Infectious Diseases, Parasitology, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Sickle cell trait, a common hereditary blood disorder, protects carriers from severe disease in infections with the human malaria parasite . Protection is associated with a reduced capacity of parasitized erythrocytes to cytoadhere to the microvascular endothelium and cause vaso-occlusive events. However, the underpinning cellular and biomechanical processes are only partly understood and the impact on endothelial cell activation is unclear. Read More

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November 2018

Impact of pre-travel consultation on clinical management and outcomes of travelers' diarrhea: a retrospective cohort study.

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2018 4;4:16. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 USA.

Background: International travelers are at high risk of acquiring travelers' diarrhea. Pre-travel consultation has been associated with lower rates of malaria, hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The objective was to study the impact of pre-travel consultation on clinical management and outcomes of travelers' diarrhea. Read More

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December 2018

Leptin Functions in Infectious Diseases.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2741. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, United States.

Leptin, a pleiotropic protein has long been recognized to play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and other physiological functions through its effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and encoded by the obese () gene. Leptin acts as a central mediator which regulates immunity as well as nutrition. Read More

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November 2018

(Trichocomaceae): A Natural, Eco-Friendly Mycoinsecticide for Control of Malaria, Filariasis, Dengue Vectors and Its Toxicity Assessment Against an Aquatic Model Organism .

Front Pharmacol 2018 26;9:1355. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Natural Drug Research Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Biosciences, Periyar University, Salem, India.

Vector-borne diseases like malaria, filariasis, and dengue are transmitted by mosquitoes and they cause global mortality and morbidity due to an increased resistance against commercial insecticides. The present study was aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity, knock-down effect, histopathology, ovicidal, adulticidal, and smoke toxicity effect of extract against three mosquito species, namely , and (Diptera: Culicidae). The isolated fungal strain was identified as (GenBank accession no: KX694148. Read More

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November 2018

Combining different diagnostic studies of lymphatic filariasis for risk mapping in Papua New Guinea: a predictive model from microfilaraemia and antigenaemia prevalence surveys.

Trop Med Health 2018 4;46:41. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

3College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4870 Australia.

Background: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has encouraged countries to follow a set of guidelines to help them assess the need for mass drug administration and evaluate its progress. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the highest priority countries in the Western Pacific for lymphatic filariasis and the site of extensive research on lymphatic filariasis and surveys of its prevalence. However, different diagnostic tests have been used and thresholds for each test are unclear. Read More

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December 2018

A Divergent Strain of Culex pipiens-Associated Tunisia Virus in the Malaria Vector Anopheles epiroticus.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Oct 25;7(16). Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Section of Vector Biology, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID-NIH), Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a divergent strain of Culex pipiens-associated Tunisia virus (CpATV) identified in the malaria vector Anopheles epiroticus (CpATV-AnE). CpATV-AnE expands the reference virus sequence, introducing an extended replicase with novel virga-like domains. Our results suggest that the host range of CpATV includes Anopheles sp. Read More

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October 2018

Comparison of Landmark- and Outline-Based Geometric Morphometrics for Discriminating Mosquito Vectors in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand.

Biomed Res Int 2018 6;2018:6170502. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

College of Allied Health Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Samut Songkhram 75000, Thailand.

It is often challenging to identify mosquito vectors in the field based on morphological features due to their similar morphologies and difficulties in obtaining undamaged samples but is required for their successful control. Geometric morphometrics (GM) overcomes this issue by analyzing a suite of traits simultaneously and has the added advantages of being easy to use, low cost, and quick. Therefore, this research compared the efficiency and precision of landmark- and outline-based GM techniques for separating species of mosquitoes in Huay Nam Nak village, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. Read More

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November 2018

polymorphism, haematological parameters, and severe malaria in Senegalese patients.

PeerJ 2018 3;6:e6048. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, TAGC, Marseille, France.

Background: Host factors, including host genetic variation, have been shown to influence the outcome of infection. Genome-wide linkage studies have mapped mild malaria resistance genes on chromosome 6p21, whereas polymorphism (rs2736191) lying within this region was found to be associated with mild malaria.

Methods: Blood samples were taken from 188 malaria patients (76 mild malaria patients, 85 cerebral malaria patients, and 27 severe non-cerebral malaria patients). Read More

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December 2018

Microvasculature-on-a-chip for the long-term study of endothelial barrier dysfunction and microvascular obstruction in disease.

Nat Biomed Eng 2018 23;2:453-463. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Alterations in the mechanical properties of erythrocytes occurring in inflammatory and hematologic disorders such as sickle cell disease (SCD) and malaria often lead to increased endothelial permeability, haemolysis, and microvascular obstruction. However, the associations among these pathological phenomena remain unknown. Here, we report a perfusable, endothelialized microvasculature-on-a-chip featuring an interpenetrating-polymer-network hydrogel that recapitulates the stiffness of blood-vessel intima, basement membrane self-deposition and self-healing endothelial barrier function for longer than 1 month. Read More

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April 2018
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Malaria and Malnutrition: Kwashiorkor Associated with Low Levels of Parasitaemia.

Malar Res Treat 2018 27;2018:7153173. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The relationship between protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and malaria is controversial. While most studies demonstrate that PEM is associated with greater malaria morbidity, some indicate that PEM may in fact have a protective effect. PEM is differentiated into three subgroups: kwashiorkor (marked protein deficiency), marasmus (calorie deficiency), and kwashiorkor/marasmus. Read More

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September 2018

Perceptions of asymptomatic malaria infection and their implications for malaria control and elimination in Laos.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(12):e0208912. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Social Science and Global Health, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), malaria elimination efforts are targeting the asymptomatic parasite reservoirs. Understanding community perceptions about asymptomatic malaria infections and interventions that target this reservoir is critical to the design of community engagement. This article examines knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices related to asymptomatic malaria infections and mass drug administration (MDA) in malaria-endemic villages in southern Savannakhet Province, Laos. Read More

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December 2018

Urban yellow fever outbreak-Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2016: Towards more rapid case detection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 7;12(12):e0007029. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Direction de Lutte contre la Maladie, Ministry of Health, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Background: Between December 2015 and July 2016, a yellow fever (YF) outbreak affected urban areas of Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We described the outbreak in DRC and assessed the accuracy of the YF case definition, to facilitate early diagnosis of cases in future urban outbreaks.

Methodology/principal Findings: In DRC, suspected YF infection was defined as jaundice within 2 weeks after acute fever onset and was confirmed by either IgM serology or PCR for YF viral RNA. Read More

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December 2018

Asymptomatic carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae detected by qPCR on the palm of hands of populations in rural Senegal.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 10;12(12):e0006945. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Aix-Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, UMR Vecteurs-,InfectionsTropicales et Mediterranéennes (VITROME), Marseille, France.

Aside from malaria, infectious diseases are an important cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa and continue to pose major public health problems in African countries, notably pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups. The skin is one of the main infection sites followed by the oropharynx. Read More

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December 2018

Modeling prevention of malaria and selection of drug resistance with different dosing schedules of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine preventive therapy during pregnancy in Uganda.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) is under study for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp), but it may accelerate selection for drug resistance. Understanding the relationships between piperaquine concentration, prevention of parasitemia, and selection for decreased drug sensitivity can inform control policies and optimization of DHA-PQ dosing. Piperaquine concentrations, measures of parasitemia, and genotypes associated with decreased aminoquinoline sensitivity in Africa ( 86Y, 76T) were obtained from pregnant Ugandan women randomized to IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) or DHA-PQ. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of PTA-derived ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) quinoline complexes against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strains of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite.

J Inorg Biochem 2018 Nov 27;191:164-173. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Chemical Physics, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Cationic 1,3,5‑triaza‑phosphaadamantane (PTA) quinoline ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes were successfully synthesized and characterized using standard spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial activities against the chloroquine-sensitive (CQS) NF54 and chloroquine-resistant (CQR) K1 strains of the Plasmodium falciparum species of the malaria parasite and were found to exhibit good activities in the sensitive strain but moderate activities in the resistant strain, suggesting a resistance mechanism similar to chloroquine (CQ). Selected samples were screened for their ability to inhibit synthetic haemozoin formation and were found to be inhibitors with similar activity to CQ. Read More

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November 2018

Peptidomimetic plasmepsin inhibitors with potent anti-malarial activity and selectivity against cathepsin D.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 29;163:344-352. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Aizkraukles 21, Riga, LV, 1006, Latvia. Electronic address:

Following up the open initiative of anti-malarial drug discovery, a GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) phenotypic screening hit was developed to generate hydroxyethylamine based plasmepsin (Plm) inhibitors exhibiting growth inhibition of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at nanomolar concentrations. Lead optimization studies were performed with the aim of improving Plm inhibition selectivity versus the related human aspartic protease cathepsin D (Cat D). Optimization studies were performed using Plm IV as a readily accessible model protein, the inhibition of which correlates with anti-malarial activity. Read More

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November 2018
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Hydroxyazole scaffold-based Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors: Synthesis, biological evaluation and X-ray structural studies.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 22;163:266-280. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Science and Drug Technology, University of Turin, via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) has been clinically validated as a target for antimalarial drug discovery, as a triazolopyrimidine class inhibitor (DSM265) is currently undergoing clinical development. Here, we have identified new hydroxyazole scaffold-based PfDHODH inhibitors belonging to two different chemical series. The first series was designed by a scaffold hopping strategy that exploits the use of hydroxylated azoles. Read More

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November 2018

Growth-disrupting Murraya koenigii leaf extracts on Anopheles gambiae larvae and identification of associated candidate bioactive constituents.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute, PO Box, 230-80108, Kilifi, Kenya; Biotechnology Research Institute - Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, PO Box, 362-00902, Kikuyu, Kenya. Electronic address:

Plant-based constituents have been proposed as eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides for control of mosquito vectors of malaria. In this study, we first screened the effects of methanolic leaf extracts of curry tree (Murraya koenigii) growing in tropical (Mombasa, Malindi) and semi-arid (Kibwezi, and Makindu) ecological zones of Kenya on third instar An. gambiae s. Read More

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December 2018

Nanoformulation of curcumin-loaded eudragit-nutriosomes to counteract malaria infection by a dual strategy: improving antioxidant intestinal activity and systemic efficacy.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Dept. of Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, University of Cagliari, via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy.

In this paper, nutriosomes (phospholipid vesicles associated with Nutriose FM06) were modified to obtain new systems aimed at enhancing the efficacy of curcumin in counteracting malaria infection upon oral administration. Eudragit L100, a pH-sensitive co-polymer, was added to these vesicles, thus obtaining eudragit-nutriosomes, to improve their in vivo performances. Liposomes without eudragit and nutriose were also prepared as a reference. Read More

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December 2018

Patient Characteristics from an Emergency Care Center in Rural Western Kenya.

J Emerg Med 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Global Health and Human Rights, Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; African Institute for Health Transformation at Sagam Community Hospital, Luanda, Kenya; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Emergency care is a neglected area of focus in many low- and middle-income countries. There is a paucity of research on types and frequencies of acute illnesses and injuries in low-resource settings.

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics and emergency conditions of patients that presented to a new emergency care center (ECC) at Sagam Community Hospital in Luanda, Kenya. Read More

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December 2018

Challenges in Treatment for Fever among School-Age Children and Adults in Malawi.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Prompt and effective treatment is key to malaria control and prevention, as it reduces disease morbidity and mortality and minimizes the number of transmission reservoirs. Transmission reduction may be particularly important among school-age children (SAC, 5-15 years old), who have the highest prevalence of infection in southern Malawi. We hypothesized that one factor contributing to this difference in prevalence is that SAC are less likely to seek appropriate treatment for fever than children younger than 5 years. Read More

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December 2018

Characteristics of Subpatent Malaria in a Pre-Elimination Setting in Southern Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

To achieve and sustain malaria elimination, identification and treatment of the asymptomatic infectious reservoir is critical. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are frequently used to identify asymptomatic, -infected individuals through test-and-treat strategies, but their sensitivity is low when used in low transmission settings. Characteristics of individuals with subpatent (RDT-negative but polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-positive) parasitemia were evaluated in southern Zambia where malaria transmission has declined and efforts to achieve malaria elimination are underway. Read More

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December 2018