96,262 results match your criteria Malaria


Janus sword actions of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19.

Cell Signal 2020 Jul 3:109706. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota, United States of America.

Chloroquine (CQ) and its analogue hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been thrust into our everyday vernacular because some believe, based on very limited basic and clinical data, that they might be helpful in preventing and/or lessening the severity of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, lacking is a temperance in enthusiasm for their possible use as well as sufficient perspective on their effects and side-effects. CQ and HCQ have well-known properties of being diprotic weak bases that preferentially accumulate in acidic organelles (endolysosomes and Golgi apparatus) and neutralize luminal pH of acidic organelles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109706DOI Listing

Rising temperature and its impact on receptivity to malaria transmission in Europe: A systematic review.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Jul 3:101815. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

University of Zurich Centre for Travel Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Travellers' Health, Department of Public and Global Health, MilMedBiol Competence Centre, Institute for Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Malaria is one of the most life-threatening vector-borne diseases globally. Recent autochthonous cases registered in several European countries have raised awareness regarding the threat of malaria reintroduction to Europe. An increasing number of imported malaria cases today occur due to international travel and migrant flows from malaria-endemic countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101815DOI Listing

A pharmacological perspective of Chloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020 Jul 3:106078. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

The pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is having serious consequences on health and the economy worldwide. All evidence-based treatment strategies need to be considered to combat this new virus. Drugs need to be considered on scientific grounds of efficacy, safety and cost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106078DOI Listing

Moving towards malaria elimination in southern Mozambique: Cost and cost-effectiveness of mass drug administration combined with intensified malaria control.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(7):e0235631. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

ISGlobal, Hospital Clínic -Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: As new combinations of interventions aiming at interrupting malaria transmission are under evaluation, understanding the associated economic costs and benefits is critical for decision-making. This study assessed the economic cost and cost-effectiveness of the Magude project, a malaria elimination initiative implemented in a district in southern Mozambique (i.e. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235631PLOS

In-vitro diagnostic point-of-care tests in paediatric ambulatory care: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(7):e0235605. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Nuffield Department of Primary Health Care Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Paediatric consultations form a significant proportion of all consultations in ambulatory care. Point-of-care tests (POCTs) may offer a potential solution to improve clinical outcomes for children by reducing diagnostic uncertainty in acute illness, and streamlining management of chronic diseases. However, their clinical impact in paediatric ambulatory care is unknown. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235605PLOS

Genome wide distribution of G-quadruplexes and their impact on gene expression in malaria parasites.

PLoS Genet 2020 Jul 6;16(7):e1008917. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

MIVEGEC UMR IRD 224, CNRS 5290, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France.

Mechanisms of transcriptional control in malaria parasites are still not fully understood. The positioning patterns of G-quadruplex (G4) DNA motifs in the parasite's AT-rich genome, especially within the var gene family which encodes virulence factors, and in the vicinity of recombination hotspots, points towards a possible regulatory role of G4 in gene expression and genome stability. Here, we carried out the most comprehensive genome-wide survey, to date, of G4s in the Plasmodium falciparum genome using G4Hunter, which identifies G4 forming sequences (G4FS) considering their G-richness and G-skewness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008917DOI Listing

Inhibitory effects of brusatol delivered using glycosaminoglycan‑placental chondroitin sulfate A‑modified nanoparticles on the proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells.

Int J Mol Med 2020 Aug 3;46(2):817-827. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Laboratory for Reproductive Health, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518052, P.R. China.

Breakthroughs in cancer management result from the development of drugs that can be used for early diagnosis and effective treatment. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are the main anticancer therapies. However, traditional cancer chemotherapy is associated with serious systemic side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4627DOI Listing

Th2-Immune Polarizing and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Insulin Are Not Effective in Type 2 Diabetic Pregnancy.

J Immunol Res 2020 15;2020:2038746. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FAST), University of Abomey-Calavi, Institute of Applied Biomedical Sciences (ISBA), Laboratory of Cell Biology and Physiology, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin.

Background: The implication of the immune system in the physiopathology of pregnancy complicated by diabetes has been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of insulin treatment on the frequencies of immune cell subpopulations as well as T cell-derived cytokines in type 2 diabetic (T2D) pregnancy compared to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods: Fifteen (15) women with GDM, twenty (20) insulin-treated T2D pregnant women, and twenty-five (25) pregnant controls were selected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2038746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312550PMC

Potent Tetrahydroquinolone Eliminates Apicomplexan Parasites.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 9;10:203. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Apicomplexan infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, worldwide. New, improved therapies are needed. Herein, we create a next generation anti-apicomplexan lead compound, JAG21, a tetrahydroquinolone, with increased sp3-character to improve parasite selectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311950PMC

Heme-Dependent ER Stress Apoptosis: A Mechanism for the Selective Toxicity of the Dihydroartemisinin, NSC735847, in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

Front Oncol 2020 17;10:965. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, United States.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Artemisinin derivatives, including the dihydroartemisinin (DHA) monomers, are widely used as clinical agents for the treatment of malaria. Numerous studies demonstrate that these molecules also display antineoplastic activity with minimal toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313430PMC

Transcriptome analyses revealed the ultraviolet B irradiation and phytohormone gibberellins coordinately promoted the accumulation of artemisinin in L.

Chin Med 2020 1;15:67. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700 China.

Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapy has become the preferred approach for treating malaria and has successfully reduced malaria-related mortality. Currently, the main source of artemisinin is L., and thus, it is of strategic importance to enhance artemisinin contents in plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00344-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329506PMC

Pausing the Fight Against Malaria to Combat the COVID-19 Pandemic in Africa: Is the Future of Malaria Bleak?

Front Microbiol 2020 18;11:1476. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at LSHTM, Banjul, The Gambia.

Malaria remains a major global health burden, killing hundreds of thousands annually, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2019, a Phase IV Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)-linked malaria vaccine implementation was underway. However, in December 2019, a novel pneumonia condition termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with many clinical, epidemiological, and biological parallels to malaria, was reported in Wuhan, China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314964PMC

Hemocyte-specific FREP13 abrogates the exogenous bacterial population in the hemolymph and promotes midgut endosymbionts in Anopheles stephensi.

Immunol Cell Biol 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Laboratory of Host-Parasite Interaction Studies, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, Dwarka, New Delhi, 110077, India.

The mosquito's immune blood cells, 'hemocytes' imparts a highly selective immune response against various micro-organisms/pathogens. Among several immune effectors, FREPs (Fibrinogen related proteins) have been recognized as key modulator of cellular immune responses; however, their physiological relevance has not been investigated in detail. Our ongoing comparative RNA-Seq analysis identified a total of 13 FREPs originating from naïve sugar-fed, blood-fed, bacterial challenged, and Plasmodium vivax-infected hemocytes in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi hemocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12374DOI Listing

RAGE modulatory effects on cytokines network and histopathological conditions in malarial mice.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Jul 2:107946. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Dept. of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

This study was aimed at investigating the involvement of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) during malaria infection and the effects of modulating RAGE on the inflammatory cytokines release and histopathological conditions of affected organs in malarial animal model. Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) ANKA-infected ICR mice were treated with mRAGE/pAb and rmRAGE/Fc Chimera drugs from day 1 to day 4 post infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107946DOI Listing

Systematic review of artemisinin embryotoxicity in animals: Implications for malaria control in human pregnancy.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 Jul 2:115127. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

ISGlobal, Hospital Clínic-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Consorcio de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain; Manhiça Health Research Center (CISM), Manhiça, Mozambique. Electronic address:

Pregnant women are one of the most susceptible and vulnerable groups to malaria, the most important parasitic disease worldwide. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in all population groups including pregnant women. However, due to the embryotoxicity observed in animal studies, ACTs have long been contraindicated during the first trimester in pregnant women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.115127DOI Listing

Insights into the molecular diversity of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3γ (pvmsp3γ), a polymorphic member in the msp3 multi-gene family.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 3;10(1):10977. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Molecular Biology of Malaria and Opportunistic Parasites Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 3 (PvMSP3) is encoded by a multi-gene family. Of these, PvMSP3α, PvMSP3β and PvMSP3γ, are considered to be vaccine targets. Despite comprehensive analyses of PvMSP3α and PvMSP3β, little is known about structural and sequence diversity in PvMSP3γ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67222-zDOI Listing

Global prevalence of congenital malaria: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Unaizah College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to pool the prevalence of congenital malaria.

Study Design: The guideline of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was strictly followed. The published studies were searched in international and national databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.06.025DOI Listing

When Is a Plasmodium-Infected Mosquito an Infectious Mosquito?

Trends Parasitol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, and Johns Hopkins Malaria Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Plasmodium parasites experience significant bottlenecks as they transit through the mosquito and are transmitted to their mammalian host. Oocyst prevalence on mosquito midguts and sporozoite prevalence in salivary glands are nevertheless commonly used to confirm successful malaria transmission, assuming that these are reliable indicators of the mosquito's capacity to give rise to secondary infections. Here we discuss recent insights in sporogonic development and transmission bottlenecks for Plasmodium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2020.05.011DOI Listing

Update on malaria.

Med Clin (Barc) 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

ISGlobal, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Maputo, Mozambique; ICREA, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Pediatrics Department, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu (University of Barcelona), Barcelona, Spain; Consorcio de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Despite recent successful efforts to reduce the global malaria burden, this disease remains a significant global health problem. Only in 2018, malaria caused 228 million clinical episodes, 2-4 million of which were severe malaria cases, and 405,000 were fatal. Most of the malaria attributable mortality occurred among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Temporospatial shifts within commercial laboratory mouse gut microbiota impact experimental reproducibility.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):83. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.

Background: Experimental reproducibility in mouse models is impacted by both genetics and environment. The generation of reproducible data is critical for the biomedical enterprise and has become a major concern for the scientific community and funding agencies alike. Among the factors that impact reproducibility in experimental mouse models is the variable composition of the microbiota in mice supplied by different commercial vendors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00810-7DOI Listing

Measuring of IgG2c isotype instead of IgG2a in immunized C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium vivax TRAP as a subunit vaccine candidate in order to correct interpretation of Th1 versus Th2 immune response.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Jun 30:107944. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Malaria and Vector Research Group (MVRG), Biotechnology Research Center (BRC), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Evaluation of the murine isotype antibodies is essential in subunit vaccine development because inbred mouse strains with diverse genetic backgrounds respond different to recombinant proteins. In this regard, the main goal of this study was to measuring and comparing the profile of IgG isotype responses in C57BL/6 mice. For this purpose, the extracellular region of plasmodium vivax thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (PvTRAP) gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)-pET23a. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107944DOI Listing

Endothelial Activation, Acute Kidney Injury, and Cognitive Impairment in Pediatric Severe Malaria.

Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Disease and Global Health, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Objectives: Evaluate the relationship between endothelial activation, malaria complications, and long-term cognitive outcomes in severe malaria survivors.

Design: Prospectively cohort study of children with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, or community children.

Setting: Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004469DOI Listing

Adherence to Mass Drug Administration with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine and Clearance in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Mass drug administration (MDA) with artemisinin combination therapy is a potentially useful tool for malaria elimination programs, but its success depends partly on drug effectiveness and treatment coverage in the targeted population. As part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia evaluating the impact of MDA and household focal MDA (fMDA) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAp), sub-studies were conducted investigating population drug adherence rates and effectiveness of DHAp as administered in clearing infections following household mass administration. Adherence information was reported for 181,534 of 336,821 DHAp (53. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0667DOI Listing

Evidence of Microbiome-Drug Interactions between the Antimalarial Lumefantrine and Gut Microbiota in Mice.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.

The antimalarial drug lumefantrine (LF) exhibits erratic pharmacokinetics (PK). Intersubject variability might be attributed, in part, to differences in the gut microbiome-mediated drug metabolism. We assessed LF disposition in healthy mice stratified by enterotype to explore associations between the gut microbiota and LF PK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0333DOI Listing

Moving from Malaria Burden Reduction toward Elimination: An Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Malaria Control Centre, Zambia Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia.

From December 2014 to February 2016, a cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in 60 health facility catchment areas along Lake Kariba in Zambia's Southern Province. The trial sought to evaluate the impact of four rounds of a mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) or focal MDA with DHAP at the household level compared with a control population that received the standard of care. This study was the first randomized controlled trial with DHAP for MDA in sub-Saharan Africa and was conducted through a collaboration between the National Malaria Elimination Programme in the Zambian Ministry of Health, the PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa, and the Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation at Tulane University. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0669DOI Listing

The Role of Mass Drug Administration of Antimalarials.

Authors:
Pedro L Alonso

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Global Malaria Program, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

The Role of Mass Drug Administration of Antimalarials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0729DOI Listing

Prevalence of Asymptomatic and/or Low-Density Malaria Infection among High-Risk Groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Asymptomatic and/or low-density malaria infection has been acknowledged as an obstacle to achieving a malaria-free country. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and/or low-density malaria infection in previously reported malarious localities using nested PCR in four states, namely, Johor, Pahang, Kelantan, and Selangor, between June 2019 and January 2020. Blood samples ( = 585) were collected and were extracted using a QIAamp blood kit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0268DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of Measles, Rubella, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Antibodies among Children in Haiti, 2017.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

In Haiti, measles, rubella, and maternal and neonatal tetanus have been eliminated, but a diphtheria outbreak is ongoing as of 2019. We conducted a national representative, household-based, two-stage cluster survey among children aged 5-7 years in 2017 to assess progress toward maintenance of control and elimination of selected vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). We stratified Haiti into west region (west department, including the capital city) and non-west region (all other departments). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0112DOI Listing

Evidence for Reduced Malaria Parasite Population after Application of Population-Level Antimalarial Drug Strategies in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

A mass drug administration trial was carried out in Southern Province, Zambia, between 2014 and 2016, in conjunction with a standard of care package that included improved surveillance, increased access to malaria case management, and sustained high levels of vector control coverage. This was preceded by mass test and treatment in the same area from 2011 to 2013. Concordant decreases in malaria prevalence in Southern Province and deaths attributed to malaria in Zambia over this time suggest that these strategies successfully reduced the malaria burden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0666DOI Listing

Prevalence of and Non- Infections by Photo-Induced Electron Transfer-PCR in a Longitudinal Cohort of Individuals Enrolled in a Mass Drug Administration Trial in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), Lusaka, Zambia.

Malaria burden in Zambia has significantly declined over the last decade because of improved coverage of several key malaria interventions (e.g., vector control, case management, bed net distributions, and enhanced surveillance/responses). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0668DOI Listing

Treatment Coverage Estimation for Mass Drug Administration for Malaria with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Mass drug administration (MDA) is currently being considered as an intervention in low-transmission areas to complement existing malaria control and elimination efforts. The effectiveness of any MDA strategy is dependent on achieving high epidemiologic coverage and participant adherence rates. A community-randomized controlled trial was conducted from November 2014 to March 2016 to evaluate the impact of four rounds of MDA or focal MDA (fMDA)-where treatment was given to all eligible household members if anyone in the household had a positive malaria rapid diagnostic test-on malaria outcomes in Southern Province, Zambia (population approximately 300,000). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0665DOI Listing

Recent Travel History and Malaria Infection in a Region of Heterogenous Transmission in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

As Zambia continues to reduce its malaria incidence and target elimination in Southern Province, there is a need to identify factors that can reintroduce parasites and sustain malaria transmission. To examine the relative contributions of types of human mobility on malaria prevalence, this analysis quantifies the proportion of the population having recently traveled during both peak and nonpeak transmission seasons over the course of 2 years and assesses the relationship between short-term travel and malaria infection status. Among all residents targeted by mass drug administration in the Lake Kariba region of Southern Province, 602,620 rapid diagnostic tests and recent travel histories were collected during four campaign rounds occurring between December 2014 and February 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0660DOI Listing

Cost-Effectiveness of Focal Mass Drug Administration and Mass Drug Administration with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Malaria Prevention in Southern Province, Zambia: Results of a Community-Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

PATH MACEPA, Lusaka, Zambia.

Community-wide administration of antimalarial drugs in therapeutic doses is a potential tool to prevent malaria infection and reduce the malaria parasite reservoir. To measure the effectiveness and cost of using the antimalarial drug combination dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAp) through different community-wide distribution strategies, Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre conducted a three-armed community-randomized controlled trial. The trial arms were as follows: 1) standard of care (SoC) malaria interventions, 2) SoC plus focal mass drug administration (fMDA), and 3) SoC plus MDA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0661DOI Listing

Implications of the MDA Trial in Southern Province, Zambia, for Malaria Control and Elimination.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Malaria Control Centre, Zambia Ministry of Health, Chainama Hospital Grounds, Lusaka, Zambia.

Implications of the MDA Trial in Southern Province, Zambia, for Malaria Control and Elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0673DOI Listing

Impact of Four Rounds of Mass Drug Administration with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Implemented in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), Lusaka, Zambia.

Over the past decade, Zambia has made substantial progress against malaria and has recently set the ambitious goal of eliminating by 2021. In the context of very high vector control and improved access to malaria diagnosis and treatment in Southern Province, we implemented a community-randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of four rounds of community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) and household-level MDA (focal MDA) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) implemented between December 2014 and February 2016. The mass treatment campaigns achieved relatively good household coverage (63-79%), were widely accepted by the community (ranging from 87% to 94%), and achieved very high adherence to the DHAP regimen (81-96%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0659DOI Listing

A Longitudinal Cohort to Monitor Malaria Infection Incidence during Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Center for Applied Malaria Research and Evaluation, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Rigorous evidence of effectiveness is needed to determine where and when to apply mass drug administration (MDA) or focal MDA (fMDA) as part of a malaria elimination strategy. The Zambia National Malaria Elimination Centre recently completed a community-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province to evaluate MDA and fMDA for transmission reduction. To assess the role of MDA and fMDA on infection incidence, we enrolled a longitudinal cohort for an 18-month period of data collection including monthly malaria parasite infection detection based on polymerase chain reaction and compared time to first infection and cumulative infection incidence outcomes across study arms using Cox proportional hazards and negative binomial models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0657DOI Listing

Pyrethroid and Carbamate Resistance in Giles along Lake Kariba in Southern Zambia.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

SADC Malaria Elimination Eight Secretariat, Windhoek, Namibia.

Whereas data on insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms exist for parts of Zambia, data remain limited in the southern part of the country. This study investigated the status of insecticide resistance, metabolic mechanisms, and parasite infection in along Lake Kariba in southern Zambia. Indoor-resting mosquitoes were collected from 20 randomly selected houses within clusters where a mass drug administration trial was conducted and raised to F1 progeny. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0664DOI Listing

Assessment of the Acceptability of Testing and Treatment during a Mass Drug Administration Trial for Malaria in Zambia Using Mixed Methods.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

PATH Malaria Control and Elimination Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), Lusaka, Zambia.

From 2014 to 2016, a community-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia, compared mass drug administration (MDA) and focal MDA (fMDA) with the standard of care. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed quantitatively using closed-ended and Likert scale-based questions posed during three household surveys conducted from April to May in 2014, 2015, and 2016 in 40 health catchments that implemented MDA and fMDA and 20 catchments that served as trial controls. In 2014 and 2015, 47 households per catchment were selected, targeting 1,880 households in MDA and fMDA trial arms; in 2016, 55 households per catchment were selected for a target of 2,200 households in MDA and fMDA trial arms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0663DOI Listing

Achieving accurate estimates of fetal gestational age and personalised predictions of fetal growth based on data from an international prospective cohort study: a population-based machine learning study.

Lancet Digit Health 2020 Jul 23;2(7):e368-e375. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Background: Preterm birth is a major global health challenge, the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age, and a key measure of a population's general health and nutritional status. Current clinical methods of estimating fetal gestational age are often inaccurate. For example, between 20 and 30 weeks of gestation, the width of the 95% prediction interval around the actual gestational age is estimated to be 18-36 days, even when the best ultrasound estimates are used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30131-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323599PMC

Antimalarial Plants Used across Kenyan Communities.

Authors:
Timothy Omara

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 12;2020:4538602. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Africa Centre of Excellence II in Phytochemicals, Textiles and Renewable Energy (ACE II PTRE), Moi University, Uasin Gishu County, P.O. Box 3900-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

Malaria is one of the serious health problems in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Its treatment has been met with chronic failure due to pathogenic resistance to the currently available drugs. This review attempts to compile phytotherapeutical information on antimalarial plants in Kenya based on electronic data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4538602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306085PMC

Defining multiplicity of vector uptake in transfected Plasmodium parasites.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10894. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.

The recurrent emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum increases the urgency to genetically validate drug resistance mechanisms and identify new targets. Reverse genetics have facilitated genome-scale knockout screens in Plasmodium berghei and Toxoplasma gondii, in which pooled transfections of multiple vectors were critical to increasing scale and throughput. These approaches have not yet been implemented in human malaria species such as P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67791-zDOI Listing

Estimation of parasite age and synchrony status in Plasmodium falciparum infections.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10925. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Human malaria parasites have complex but poorly understood population dynamics inside their human host. In some but not all infections, parasites progress synchronously through the 48 h lifecycle following erythrocyte invasion, such that at any one time there is a limited spread of parasites at a particular time (hours) post-invasion. Patients presenting with older parasites, and with asynchronous infections, have been reported to have higher risks of fatal outcomes, associated with higher parasite biomass and multiplication rates respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67817-6DOI Listing

Selective whole genome amplification of Plasmodium malariae DNA from clinical samples reveals insights into population structure.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10832. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

The genomic diversity of Plasmodium malariae malaria parasites is understudied, partly because infected individuals tend to present with low parasite densities, leading to difficulties in obtaining sufficient parasite DNA for genome analysis. Selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) increases the relative levels of pathogen DNA in a clinical sample, but has not been adapted for P. malariae parasites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67568-4DOI Listing

Evaluating fidelity of community health worker roles in malaria prevention and control programs in Livingstone District, Zambia-A bottleneck analysis.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jul 2;20(1):612. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Zambia, P. O. Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.

Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) are an important human resource in improving community malaria intervention coverages and success in reducing malaria incidence has been attributed to them. However, despite this attribution, malaria resurgence cases have been reported in various countries including Zambia. This study aims to evaluate the implementation fidelity of CHW roles in malaria prevention and control programs in Livingstone through performance and service quality assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05458-1DOI Listing

Communal Innovations: Inspiring Neighborhoods of Hope and Advocacy.

J Health Commun 2020 Jul 2:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University , University Park, PA, USA.

Innovations promise a better future, which may generate feelings of hope and inspire advocacy. Some innovations are more communal in nature: attempting to address a social problem, through community engagement and wide-spread adoption. For such innovations, the social processes that involve collective aspects of community life may play important roles in fostering hope and interpersonal advocacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2020.1785059DOI Listing

Spatiotemporal Trends of Malaria in Relation to Economic Development and Cross-Border Movement along the China-Myanmar Border in Yunnan Province.

Korean J Parasitol 2020 Jun 26;58(3):267-278. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The heterogeneity and complexity of malaria involves political and natural environments, socioeconomic development, cross-border movement, and vector biology; factors that cannot be changed in a short time. This study aimed to assess the impact of economic growth and cross-border movement, toward elimination of malaria in Yunnan Province during its pre-elimination phase. Malaria data during 2011-2016 were extracted from 18 counties of Yunnan and from 7 villages, 11 displaced person camps of the Kachin Special Region II of Myanmar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2020.58.3.267DOI Listing

Anopheles sundaicus  complex and the presence of Anopheles epiroticus in Indonesia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jul 2;14(7):e0008385. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, IN, United States of America.

Anopheles sundaicus s.l. is an important malaria vector primarily found in coastal landscapes of western and central Indonesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008385DOI Listing

Knowledge, attitudes and bite prevention practices and estimation of productivity of vector breeding sites using a Habitat Suitability Score (HSS) among households with confirmed dengue in the 2014 outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jul 2;14(7):e0007278. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania.

Background: The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics has increased dramatically throughout the tropics in the past 40 years due to unplanned urbanization, globalization and lack of effective mosquito control. The commercial capital of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, is now experiencing regular dengue outbreaks. Three dengue serotypes have been detected in Dar es Salaam (DNV 1, 2 and 3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007278DOI Listing

Clinical features and treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis patients admitted to three centers in Oromia, Ethiopia.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2020 Jun 29;14(6.1):42S-47S. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

KalaCORE Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction: In three health care facilities in the Oromia region, the aim of this study is to report on 1) the number of VL cases registered over time (2013-2018) and 2) the clinical profile, type of treatment used and response to treatment.

Methodology: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all VL cases admitted with a diagnosis of VL.

Results: A total of 434 VL cases were registered at the three health facilities, but patient files were available for only 188. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.11731DOI Listing