89,722 results match your criteria Malaria


Genomic sequence capture of haemosporidian parasites: Methods and prospects for enhanced study of host-parasite evolution.

Mol Ecol Resour 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Museum of Southwestern Biology and Department of Biology, MSC03 2020, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131-0001, USA.

Avian malaria and related haemosporidians (Plasmodium, [Para]Haemoproteus, and Leucocytoozoon) represent an exciting multi-host, multi-parasite system in ecology and evolution. Global research in this field accelerated after 1) the publication in 2000 of PCR protocols to sequence a haemosporidian mitochondrial (mtDNA) barcode, and 2) the development in 2009 of an open-access database to document the geographic and host ranges of parasite mtDNA haplotypes. Isolating haemosporidian nuclear DNA from bird hosts, however, has been technically challenging, slowing the transition to genomic-scale sequencing techniques. Read More

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December 2018

De novo transcriptome assembly and preliminary analyses of two avian malaria parasites, Plasmodium delichoni and Plasmodium homocircumflexum.

Genomics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dept. of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132, USA.

Parasites of the genus Plasmodium infect a wide array of hosts, causing malaria in all major groups of terrestrial vertebrates including primates, reptiles, and birds. Molecular mechanisms explaining why some Plasmodium species are virulent, while other closely related malaria pathogens are relatively benign in the same hosts, remain unclear. Here, we present the RNA sequencing and subsequent transcriptome assembly of two avian Plasmodium parasites which can eventually be used to better understand the genetic mechanisms underlying Plasmodium species pathogenicity in an avian host. Read More

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December 2018

Potent inhibitors of malarial P. Falciparum protein kinase G: Improving the cell activity of a series of imidazopyridines.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Centre for Therapeutics Discovery, LifeArc, Accelerator Building, Open Innovation Campus, Stevenage SG1 2FX, UK.

Development of a class of bicyclic inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG), starting from known compounds with activity against a related parasite PKG orthologue, is reported. Examination of key sub-structural elements led to new compounds with good levels of inhibitory activity against the recombinant kinase and in vitro activity against the parasite. Key examples were shown to possess encouraging in vitro ADME properties, and computational analysis provided valuable insight into the origins of the observed activity profiles. Read More

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November 2018

The efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in Africa: a systematic review.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Vaccines and Immunity Theme, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Banjul, The Gambia; Centre of International Child Health, Section of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London, UK. Electronic address:

The burden of influenza in Africa is substantial and underappreciated. Although surveillance has increased, the medical community's understanding of seasonal influenza vaccine performance remains limited. We did a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42017058107), on the efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations within Africa with the aim of identifying key data gaps to help direct future research. Read More

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December 2018

Opening the toolkit for genetic analysis and control of Anopheles mosquito vectors.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Dec 26;30:8-18. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

Anopheles is the only genus of mosquitoes that transmit human malaria and consequently the focus of large scale genome and transcriptome-wide association studies. Genetic tools to define the function of the candidate genes arising from these analyses are vital. Moreover, genome editing offers the potential to modify Anopheles population structure at local and global scale to provide complementary tools towards the ultimate goal of malaria elimination. Read More

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December 2018

Correction to: Current scenario and future strategies to fight artemisinin resistance.

Parasitol Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

National Institute of Malaria Research, Dwarka Sector 8, New Delhi, 110077, India.

Author Atul Yadav would like to present his name as Atul only to be the same with his previous publications. The original article has been corrected. Read More

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December 2018

Author Correction: A human monoclonal antibody prevents malaria infection by targeting a new site of vulnerability on the parasite.

Nat Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

In the version of this article originally published, data were incorrectly ascribed to monoclonal antibody CIS34 because of a labeling error. The data were generated with monoclonal antibody CIS04. Full details can be found in the correction notice. Read More

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December 2018

Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes can bind to host receptors integrins αVβ3 and αVβ6 through DBLδ1_D4 domain of PFL2665c PfEMP1 protein.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17871. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Science, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Major complications and mortality from Plasmodium falciparum malaria are associated with cytoadhesion of parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE). The main parasite ligands for cytoadhesion are members of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. Read More

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December 2018
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Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte-infected erythrocytes do not adhere to human primary erythroblasts.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17886. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Inserm U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris, France.

Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the sexual stages responsible for malaria parasite transmission, develop in the human bone marrow parenchyma in proximity to the erythroblastic islands. Yet, mechanisms underlying gametocytes interactions with these islands are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIE) adhere to erythroid precursors, and whether a putative adhesion may be mediated by a mechanism similar to the adhesion of erythrocytes infected with P. Read More

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December 2018

Malaria, mental disorders, immunity and their inter-relationships - A cross sectional study in a household population in a health and demographic surveillance site in Kenya.

EBioMedicine 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kenya.

Background: Both malaria and mental disorders are associated with immune changes. We have previously reported the associations between malaria and mental disorders. We now report associations between malaria, mental disorders and immunity. Read More

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December 2018

[Malaria in an immigrant patient traveling back to his country].

Semergen 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Centro de Salud Panaderas, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, España.

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December 2018

Fighting Cancer Using an Oncofetal Glycosaminoglycan-Binding Protein from Malaria Parasites.

Trends Parasitol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Medical Parasitology at Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen and Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Malaria research has led to the discovery of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate, which appears to be shared between placental trophoblasts and cancer cells and can be detected by the evolutionary refined malaria protein VAR2CSA. Interestingly, using recombinant VAR2CSA to target oncofetal chondroitin sulfate shows promise for novel cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Read More

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December 2018

Saliva of hematophagous insects: a multifaceted toolkit.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Oct 24;29:102-109. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

Transcriptomic, proteomic and genomic studies significantly improved our understanding of the complexity of blood feeding insect saliva providing unparalleled evolutionary insights. Salivary genes appeared to be under strong selective pressure with gene duplication and functional diversification being a powerful driver in the evolution of novel salivary genes/functions. The first insect salivary proteins responsible for complement inhibition were identified and a widespread mechanism of action shared by unrelated salivary protein families was recognized and named kratagonism. Read More

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October 2018

Do avian malaria parasites reduce vector longevity?

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 25;28:113-117. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio, 26, E-41092 Seville, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Seville, Spain.

Avian Plasmodium and malaria-like parasites of the genus Haemoproteus are widespread vector-borne parasites commonly found infecting birds. These parasites impose deleterious effects on their vertebrate hosts compromising their survival. While the interaction between these parasites and their vertebrate hosts has received much attention, the study of those factors determining the consequences of parasite infections in the insect vectors has been traditionally neglected. Read More

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Challenging diagnosis of congenital malaria in non-endemic areas.

Malar J 2018 Dec 14;17(1):470. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unit of Parasitology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Piazza Sant'Onofrio 4, 00165, Rome, Italy.

Background: Congenital malaria is usually defined as the detection of asexual forms of Plasmodium spp. in a blood sample of a neonate during perinatal age if there is no possibility of postpartum infection by a mosquito bite. The incidence of congenital malaria is highly variable and seems related to several factors, such as different diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. Read More

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December 2018

The burden and epidemiology of polyparasitism among rural communities in Kano State, Nigeria.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya,Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem worldwide, particularly among underprivileged communities in developing countries including Nigeria. The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology of polyparasitism (multiple parasitic infections) among rural communities in Kano State, North Central Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 551 individuals were screened for the presence of intestinal, urogenital and blood parasites by using different diagnostic techniques. Read More

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December 2018
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Let's 'cut to the chase' on malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

Authors:
Sean E Hewitt

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

VBDC Consulting Ltd., Fronteifi House, Cardigan, United Kingdom.

The Greater Mekong Subregion has made remarkable progress towards eliminating malaria in recent years, but efforts are now faltering in some areas. The development of tools to control forest-based transmission is taking too long and efforts to control malaria among high-risk mobile people are failing. If countries are to meet their elimination targets and prevent the spread of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria, urgent and radical changes will be required. Read More

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December 2018

Three monophyletic clusters in Retortamonas species isolated from vertebrates.

Parasitol Int 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Parasitology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan. Electronic address:

Retortamonas spp. has been reported as an intestinal parasite among various host organisms, including humans; however, its intra-genus molecular diversity has not yet been elucidated. Haplotypes of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA locus (1836-1899 bp) of Retortamonas spp. Read More

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December 2018
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Predictors of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests' utilisation among healthcare workers in Zamfara State.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0200856. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Abuja, Nigeria.

Introduction: Early diagnosis and prompt and effective treatment is one of the pillars of malaria control. Malaria case management guidelines recommend diagnostic testing before treatment using malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) or microscopy and this was adopted in Nigeria in 2010. However, despite the deployment of mRDT, the use of mRDTs by health workers varies by settings. Read More

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December 2018

Serological and PCR-based markers of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis transmission in northern Ghana after elimination of trachoma as a public health problem.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 14;12(12):e0007027. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is based on clinical indicators, using the WHO simplified grading system. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and anti-Ct antibody responses (anti-Pgp3) have both been evaluated as alternative indicators in settings with varying levels of trachoma. There is a need to evaluate the feasibility of using tests for Ct infection and anti-Pgp3 antibodies at scale in a trachoma-endemic country and to establish the added value of the data generated for understanding transmission dynamics in the peri-elimination setting. Read More

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December 2018

Has doxycycline, in combination with anti-malarial drugs, a role to play in intermittent preventive treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in pregnant women in Africa?

Malar J 2018 Dec 14;17(1):469. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unité Parasitologie et Entomologie, Département Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, 19-21 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005, Marseille, France.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy is responsible for deleterious consequences for the mother and her child. The administration of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at each antenatal care visit as early as 13 weeks of gestation until the time of delivery is a strategy that is currently recommended by WHO for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. However, the emergence and the spread of the resistance to SP in Africa raise the question of the short-term effectiveness of the strategy. Read More

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December 2018

Diagnostic capacity, and predictive values of rapid diagnostic tests for accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in febrile children in Asante-Akim, Ghana.

Malar J 2018 Dec 14;17(1):468. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Worldwide Universities Network, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 13, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Background: This study seeks to compare the performance of HRP2 (First Response) and pLDH/HRP2 (Combo) RDTs for falciparum malaria against microscopy and PCR in acutely ill febrile children at presentation and follow-up.

Methods: This is an interventional study that recruited children < 5 years who reported to health facilities with a history of fever within the past 72 h or a documented axillary temperature of 37.5 °C. Read More

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December 2018

Effectiveness of repellent delivered through village health volunteers on malaria incidence in villages in South-East Myanmar: a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14;18(1):663. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: To combat emerging drug resistance in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) the World Health Organization and GMS countries have committed to eliminating malaria in the region by 2030. The overall approach includes providing universal access to diagnosis and treatment of malaria, and sustainable preventive measures, including vector control. Topical repellents are an intervention that can be used to target residual malaria transmission not covered by long lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying. Read More

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December 2018

The Micronemal Proteins P36 and P52 Act in Concert to Establish the Replication-Permissive Compartment Within Infected Hepatocytes.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 27;8:413. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Within the liver, sporozoites traverse cells searching for a "suitable" hepatocyte, invading these cells through a process that results in the formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), within which the parasite undergoes intracellular replication as a liver stage. It was previously established that two members of the s48/45 protein family, P36 and P52, are essential for productive invasion of host hepatocytes by sporozoites as their simultaneous deletion results in growth-arrested parasites that lack a PV. Recent studies point toward a pathway of entry possibly involving the interaction of P36 with hepatocyte receptors EphA2, CD81, and SR-B1. Read More

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November 2018

AaABF3, an Abscisic Acid-Responsive Transcription Factor, Positively Regulates Artemisinin Biosynthesis in .

Front Plant Sci 2018 28;9:1777. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic and Developmental Sciences, Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture, Plant Biotechnology Research Center, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R&D Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Artemisinin is well known for its irreplaceable curative effect on the devastating parasitic disease, Malaria. This sesquiterpenoid is specifically produced in Chinese traditional herbal plant Earlier studies have shown that phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in increasing the artemisinin content, but how ABA regulates artemisinin biosynthesis is still poorly understood. In this study, we identified that AaABF3 encoded an ABRE (ABA-responsive elements) binding factor. Read More

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November 2018

Saliva Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression at Bite Sites.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2779. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Gonçalo Moniz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Brazil.

Sand flies bite mammalian hosts to obtain a blood meal, driving changes in the host inflammatory response that support the establishment of infection. This effect is partially attributed to components of sand fly saliva, which are able to recruit and activate leukocytes. Our group has shown that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) favors survival in infected cells by reducing inflammatory responses. Read More

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November 2018

Fresh-blood-free diet for rearing malaria mosquito vectors.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17807. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Global Health and Tropical Medicine, GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNL, Rua da Junqueira 100, 1349-008, Lisboa, Portugal.

Mosquito breeding depends on the supply of fresh vertebrate blood, a major bottleneck for large-scale production of Anopheles spp. Feeding alternatives to fresh blood are thus a priority for research, outdoor large-cage trials and control interventions. Several artificial meal compositions were tested and Anopheles oogenesis, egg laying and development into the next generation of adult mosquitoes were followed. Read More

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December 2018

Human erythrocyte band 3 is a host receptor for Plasmodium falciparum glutamic acid-rich protein.

Blood 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Graduate Program in Molecular Microbiology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States

Malaria remains a major global threat to human health and economic development. Microvascular lesions caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected human erythrocytes/RBCs are hallmarks of severe pathogenesis contributing to high mortality, particularly in children from sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we used a phage display cDNA library screening strategy to identify Plasmodium falciparum glutamic acid-rich protein (PfGARP) as a secreted ligand that recognizes an ectodomain of human erythrocyte anion-exchanger, Band 3/AE1, as a host receptor. Read More

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December 2018
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First report of natural Wolbachia infection in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Dec 13;11(1):635. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.

Background: Natural infections of the endosymbiont bacteria Wolbachia have recently been discovered in populations of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in Burkina Faso and Mali, West Africa. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of a PH domain-containing protein which is localized to crystalloid bodies of Plasmodium ookinetes.

Malar J 2018 Dec 13;17(1):466. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Molecular Parasitology, Proteo-Science Center, Ehime University, Toon, Ehime, 791-0295, Japan.

Background: For the success of the malaria control and eradication programme it is essential to reduce parasite transmission by mosquito vectors. In the midguts of mosquitoes fed with parasite-infected blood, sexual-stage parasites fertilize to develop into motile ookinetes that traverse midgut epithelial cells and reside adjacent the basal lamina. Therefore, the ookinete is a promising target of transmission-blocking vaccines to break the parasite lifecycle in mosquito vectors. Read More

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December 2018

Mitochondrial gene sequence variants in children with severe malaria anaemia with or without lactic acidosis: a case control study.

Malar J 2018 Dec 13;17(1):467. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pathology and Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Evolutionary pressure by Plasmodium falciparum malaria is known to have favoured a large number of human gene adaptations, but there is surprisingly little investigation of the effect of malaria on human mitochondrial sequence variation. Plasmodium falciparum infection can cause severe malaria anaemia (SMA) with insufficient tissue oxygenation, lactic acidosis and death. Despite equal degrees of severe anaemia, some individuals develop lactic acidosis while others do not. Read More

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December 2018

Safety of atovaquone-proguanil during pregnancy.

J Travel Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Malaria Branch, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA USA.

Background: Malaria during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal and fetal complications. There are very limited options available for prophylaxis in pregnant travelers. Atovaquone-Proguanil (AP or Malarone®) is an effective and well-tolerated antimalarial medication, but is not recommended for use in pregnancy due to limited data on safety. Read More

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December 2018

In silico identification and evaluation of potential interaction of Azadirachta indica phytochemicals with Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 90.

J Mol Graph Model 2018 Dec 4;87:144-164. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 90 (PfHsp90) has been investigated as a potential target of antimalarial drug action using naturally occurring compounds. In this study, we performed in silico screening of 236 phytochemicals of Azadirachta indica, a plant known to possess antimalarial activity, and identified fourteen (14) potential non-carcinogenic, non-mutagenic, non-teratogenic and non-genotoxic phytochemicals. These phytochemicals were docked into the ATP-binding site of PfHsp90 using Autodock vina, and docked poses were rescored using PLANTS ChemPlp, X-Score version 1. Read More

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December 2018

Method for the separation of mitochondria and apicoplast from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Parasitol Int 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Graduate School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; Department of Host-Defense Biochemistry, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

The growth and the survival of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are critically dependent on the functions of the two organelles - the mitochondrion and the apicoplast. However, these two organelles have been known to be difficult to separate from each other when they are released from Plasmodium cell. We have been searching for the conditions with which separation of the mitochondrion and the apicoplast is achieved. Read More

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December 2018

Heterogeneity in the acquisition of naturally acquired antibodies to cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS) and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) of Plasmodium falciparum in naturally infected patients from unstable malaria areas in Iran.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Malaria and Vector Research Group (MVRG), Biotechnology Research Center (BRC), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Currently, there is no subunit malaria vaccine capable of providing long-lasting protection, and a vaccine based on a single-antigen has shown moderate to unsatisfactory efficacies in clinical trials. As in malaria elimination and eradication strategies, the primary objective is reduction in disease and death due to P. falciparum, in the present investigation, for the first time, we attempted to determine and compare the naturally acquired immune responses to two well-recognized sporozoite antigens, cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS) and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP), in P. Read More

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December 2018
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Schistosomiasis is associated with incident HIV transmission and death in Zambia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 13;12(12):e0006902. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine and Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Background: We examined relationships between schistosome infection, HIV transmission or acquisition, and all-cause death.

Methods: We retrospectively tested baseline sera from a heterosexual HIV-discordant couple cohort in Lusaka, Zambia with follow-up from 1994-2012 in a nested case-control design. Schistosome-specific antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Unresolved Splenomegaly in Recently Resettled Congolese Refugees - Multiple States, 2015-2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 12 14;67(49):1358-1362. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

In 2014, panel physicians from the International Organization for Migration (IOM), who conduct Department of State-required predeparture examinations for U.S.-bound refugees at resettlement sites in Uganda, noticed an unusually high number of Congolese refugees with enlarged spleens, or splenomegaly. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of a Single Dose of Azithromycin for Trachoma in Low-Prevalence Communities.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec 13:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

a Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , GA , USA.

Purpose: Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and is targeted for elimination as a public health problem. We sought to determine whether a one-time azithromycin mass treatment would reduce trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) levels below the elimination threshold of 5% in communities with disease prevalence between 5 and 9.9%. Read More

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December 2018

Genomic and transcriptomic comparisons of closely related malaria parasites differing in virulence and sequestration pattern.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 2;3:142. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Malaria Immunology laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, London, NW1 1AT, UK.

Malaria parasite species differ greatly in the harm they do to humans. While kills hundreds of thousands per year, kills much less often and is relatively benign. Strains of the rodent malaria parasite show phenotypic variation in virulence during infections of laboratory mice. Read More

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November 2018

Structure of Plasmodium falciparum Rh5-CyRPA-Ripr invasion complex.

Nature 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Plasmodium falciparum causes the severe form of malaria that has high levels of mortality in humans. Blood-stage merozoites of P. falciparum invade erythrocytes, and this requires interactions between multiple ligands from the parasite and receptors in hosts. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
42.351 Impact Factor

Accessibility of substituted cysteines in TM2 and TM10 transmembrane segments in the equilibrative nucleoside transporter PfENT1.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Physiology and Biophysics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States.

Infection with species parasites causes malaria. Plasmodium parasites are purine auxotrophic. They import purines via an equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT). Read More

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December 2018

centrin CEN-4 localizes to the putative MTOC and is dispensable for malaria parasite proliferation.

Biol Open 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Life Sciences, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

Centrins are calmodulin-like phosphoproteins present in the centrosome and play an active role in the duplication, separation and organization of centrosomal structures such as the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC) during mitosis. They are also major components of the basal body of flagella and cilia. In spp. Read More

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December 2018

A point-of-care diagnostic for differentiating Ebola from endemic febrile diseases.

Sci Transl Med 2018 Dec;10(471)

Becton, Dickinson and Company, 21 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Hemorrhagic fever outbreaks such as Ebola are difficult to detect and control because of the lack of low-cost, easily deployable diagnostics and because initial clinical symptoms mimic other endemic diseases such as malaria. Current molecular diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction require trained personnel and laboratory infrastructure, hindering diagnostics at the point of need. Although rapid tests such as lateral flow can be broadly deployed, they are typically not well-suited for differentiating among multiple diseases presenting with similar symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

Pre-travel counseling for immunocompromised travelers: A 12-year single-center retrospective review.

Infect Dis Health 2018 Oct 26. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st St SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Immunocompromised travelers (ICTs) are medically complex and challenging for travel medicine providers. Our study hypothesizes that ICTs have high-risk travel itineraries and do not have adequate immunity against vaccine-preventable infections.

Methods: This retrospective review of 321 ICTs from 2004 to 2015 included patients with solid organ transplant (SOT, n = 134), connective tissue disease (CTD, n = 121), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, n = 46), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, n = 20). Read More

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October 2018

Development of a data collection and management system in West Africa: challenges and sustainability.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Nov 16;7(1):125. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Departments of Biostatistics (1440 Canal St., Suite 1610) and Tropical Medicine, (#8317 1430 Tulane Avenue, J.B. Johnston Building, Room 510), New Orleans, LA, 70112-2699, USA.

Background: Developing and sustaining a data collection and management system (DCMS) is difficult in malaria-endemic countries because of limitations in internet bandwidth, computer resources and numbers of trained personnel. The premise of this paper is that development of a DCMS in West Africa was a critically important outcome of the West African International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research. The purposes of this paper are to make that information available to other investigators and to encourage the linkage of DCMSs to international research and Ministry of Health data systems and repositories. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Expression and functional analysis of the TatD-like DNase of Plasmodium knowlesi.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Dec 12;11(1):629. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Shenyang Agricultural University, Dongling Road 120, Shenyang, 110866, China.

Background: In recent years, human infection by the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has increased in Southeast Asia, leading to growing concerns regarding the cross-species spread of the parasite. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the biology of P. knowlesi is necessary in order to develop tools for control of the emerging disease. Read More

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December 2018

Data and tools to integrate climate and environmental information into public health.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Nov 29;7(1):126. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

The International Research Institute for Climate and Society, The Earth Institute, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Lamont-Doherty, Palisades, NY, 10964, USA.

Background: During the last 30 years, the development of geographical information systems and satellites for Earth observation has made important progress in the monitoring of the weather, climate, environmental and anthropogenic factors that influence the reduction or the reemergence of vector-borne diseases. Analyses resulting from the combination of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing have improved knowledge of climatic, environmental, and biodiversity factors influencing vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, Rift Valley fever, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease and leptospirosis. These knowledge and products developed using remotely sensed data helped and continue to help decision makers to better allocate limited resources in the fight against VBDs. Read More

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November 2018

The Plasmodium falciparum cytoplasmic translation apparatus: a promising therapeutic target not yet exploited by clinically approved anti-malarials.

Malar J 2018 Dec 12;17(1):465. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: The continued spectre of resistance to existing anti-malarials necessitates the pursuit of novel targets and mechanisms of action for drug development. One class of promising targets consists of the 80S ribosome and its associated components comprising the parasite translational apparatus. Development of translation-targeting therapeutics requires a greater understanding of protein synthesis and its regulation in the malaria parasite. Read More

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December 2018
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Conduct of vaccination in hard-to-reach areas to address potential polio reservoir areas, 2014-2015.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1312. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

World Health Organization, Country Representative Office, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) seeks to achieve the total realization of its vision through equitable access to immunization as well as utilizing the immunization systems for delivery of other primary healthcare programs. The inequities in accessing hard-to-reach areas have very serious implications for the prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases, especially the polio eradication initiative. The Government of Nigeria implemented vaccination in hard-to-reach communities with support from the World Health Organization (WHO) to address the issues of health inequities in the hard-to-reach communities. Read More

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December 2018

Safety and effectiveness of antimalarial therapy in sickle cell disease: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12;18(1):650. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Tropical Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: About 80% of all reported sickle cell disease (SCD) cases in children anually are recorded in Africa. Although malaria is considered a major cause of death in SCD children, there is limited data on the safety and effectiveness of the available antimalarial drugs used for prophylaxis. Also, previous systematic reviews have not provided quantitative measures of preventive effectiveness. Read More

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December 2018
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