101,005 results match your criteria Malaria

3C-GAN: class-consistent CycleGAN for malaria domain adaptation model.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Electrical and Computer Engineering, North South University, Plot, 15, Block B Kuril - NSU Rd, Dhaka, Dhaka, Dhaka, 1229, BANGLADESH.

Unpaired domain translation models with distribution matching loss such as CycleGAN are now widely being used to shift domain in medical images. However, synthesizing medical images using CycleGAN can lead to misdiagnosis of a medical condition as it might hallucinate unwanted features, especially if there's a data bias. This can potentially change the original class of the input image, which is a very serious problem. Read More

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Increasing proportions of relapsing parasite species among imported malaria in China's Guangxi Province from Western and Central Africa.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Jun 21:102130. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650500, China. Electronic address:

Background: Travel-related malaria in non-endemic areas returning from endemic areas presents important challenges to diagnosis and treatment. Imported malaria to newly malaria-free countries poses further threats of malaria re-introduction and potential resurgence. For those traveling to places with high Plasmodium falciparum prevalence, prophylaxis against this parasite is recommended, whereas causal prophylaxis against relapsing malaria is often overlooked. Read More

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Plasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic vaccines.

Parasitol Int 2021 Jun 21:102411. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK; Instituto Politécnico Nacional, IPN, Av. Luis Enrique Erro s/n, Unidad Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

An estimated 229 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2019. Both, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are responsible for most of the malaria disease burden in the world. Read More

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Malaria in Pregnancy: Considerations for Health Care Providers in Nonendemic Countries.

J Midwifery Womens Health 2021 May;66(3):343-350

Division of Midwifery and Community Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Malaria is a common infection world-wide, which carries significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Health care providers in the United States may lack experience in recognizing and treating this disease. The pathophysiology of malaria differs during pregnancy, resulting in increased risk for serious morbidity and mortality for the woman and her fetus. Read More

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Evidence for in vitro and in vivo activity of the antimalarial pyronaridine against Schistosoma.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 24;15(6):e0009511. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Africa. Praziquantel is effective against adult schistosomes but leaves prepatent stages unaffected-which is a limit to patient management and elimination. Given the large-scale use of praziquantel, development of drug resistance by Schistosoma is feared. Read More

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Influence of insecticide resistance on the biting and resting preferences of malaria vectors in the Gambia.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(6):e0241023. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia at The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Banjul, The Gambia.

Background: The scale-up of indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets, together with other interventions have considerably reduced the malaria burden in The Gambia. This study examined the biting and resting preferences of the local insecticide-resistant vector populations few years following scale-up of anti-vector interventions.

Method: Indoor and outdoor-resting Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were collected between July and October 2019 from ten villages in five regions in The Gambia using pyrethrum spray collection (indoor) and prokopack aspirator from pit traps (outdoor). Read More

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Steroid response to malaria.

Kirsty Minton

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Nature Reviews Immunology, .

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Functional human IgA targets a conserved site on malaria sporozoites.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jun;13(599)

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibodies play a critical role in protection against mucosal pathogens. However, the role of serum IgA in immunity to nonmucosal pathogens, such as , is poorly characterized, despite being the second most abundant isotype in blood after IgG. Here, we investigated the circulating IgA response in humans to sporozoites that are injected into the skin by mosquitoes and migrate to the liver via the bloodstream to initiate malaria infection. Read More

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Health inequities and clustering of fever, acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea and wasting in children under five in low- and middle-income countries: a Demographic and Health Surveys analysis.

BMC Med 2021 Jun 24;19(1):144. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria are responsible for over one third of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years in low and middle sociodemographic index countries; many of these deaths are also associated with malnutrition. We explore the co-occurrence and clustering of fever, acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea and wasting and their relationship with equity-relevant variables.

Methods: Multilevel, multivariate Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to Demographic and Health Survey data from over 380,000 children in 39 countries. Read More

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Community-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Burkina Faso: a qualitative study.

Malar J 2021 Jun 23;20(1):277. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Burkina Faso is among ten countries with the highest rates of malaria cases and deaths in the world. Delivery and coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is insufficient in Burkina Faso; In a 2016 survey, only 22% of eligible women had received their third dose of IPTp. It is also an extremely rural country and one with an established cadre of community healthcare workers (CHWs). Read More

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Improved Plasmodium falciparum dilution cloning through efficient quantification of parasite numbers and c-SNARF detection.

Malar J 2021 Jun 23;20(1):279. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Parasitology, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Molecular and genetic studies of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites require limiting dilution cloning and prolonged cultivation in microplates. The entire process is laborious and subject to errors due to inaccurate dilutions at the onset and failed detection of parasite growth in individual microplate wells.

Methods: To precisely control the number of parasites dispensed into each microplate well, parasitaemia and total cell counts were determined by flow cytometry using parasite cultures stained with ethidium bromide or SYBR Green I. Read More

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The Plasmodium falciparum Rh5 invasion protein complex reveals an excess of rare variant mutations.

Malar J 2021 Jun 23;20(1):278. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, P.O. Box 230, Kilifi, 80108, Kenya.

Background: The invasion of the red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites involves the interplay of several proteins that are also targets for vaccine development. The proteins PfRh5-PfRipr-PfCyRPA-Pfp113 assemble into a complex at the apical end of the merozoite and are together essential for erythrocyte invasion. They have also been shown to induce neutralizing antibodies and appear to be less polymorphic than other invasion-associated proteins, making them high priority blood-stage vaccine candidates. Read More

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Safety and Tolerability of Mosquito-Bite Induced Controlled Human Infection with P. vivax in Malaria-Naïve Study Participants - Clinical Profile and Utility of Molecular Diagnostic Methods.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Malaria Biologics Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Plasmodium vivax controlled-human-malaria-infection (PvCHMI) is an important tool for the evaluation of drugs, vaccines and pathologies associated with this parasite. However, there is little data on its safety due to the limited number of PvCHMIs performed to-date.

Methods: We report clinical and laboratory data collected, to include hematological and biochemical profiles and adverse-events, following mosquito-bite induced PvCHMI in malaria-naïve study-participants (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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A field test of the dilution effect hypothesis in four avian multi-host pathogens.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 23;17(6):e1009637. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Wetland Ecology, Doñana Biological Station (EBD-CSIC), Seville, Spain.

The Dilution Effect Hypothesis (DEH) argues that greater biodiversity lowers the risk of disease and reduces the rates of pathogen transmission since more diverse communities harbour fewer competent hosts for any given pathogen, thereby reducing host exposure to the pathogen. DEH is expected to operate most intensely in vector-borne pathogens and when species-rich communities are not associated with increased host density. Overall, dilution will occur if greater species diversity leads to a lower contact rate between infected vectors and susceptible hosts, and between infected hosts and susceptible vectors. Read More

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Ameliorative effects of Schisandrin B on Schistosoma mansoni-induced hepatic fibrosis in vivo.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 23;15(6):e0009554. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

Schistosomiasis is second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease in the world. It is caused by the helminths Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni), S. Read More

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IgG Antibody Responses Are Preferential Compared With IgM for Use as Serological Markers for Detecting Recent Exposure to Infection.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 22;8(6):ofab228. Epub 2021 May 22.

Population Health and Immunity Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia.

To achieve malaria elimination, new tools are required to explicitly target . Recently, a novel panel of proteins were identified and validated as serological markers for detecting recent exposure to within the last 9 months. In order to improve the sensitivity and specificity of these markers, immunoglobulin M (IgM) in addition to immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses were compared with a down-selected panel of 20 proteins. Read More

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Expanded dengue syndrome with small-medium-vessel vasculitis: A case report.

Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1):39-42. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Expanded dengue syndrome (EDS) is a well-described entity in the literature (after 2009), with various new atypical presentations being identified each year. We report a case of 38-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with high-grade, intermittent fever for 7 days along with myalgia and headache. He had multiple painless palpable purpura over both lower limbs and breathlessness from the 4 day of fever. Read More

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Adapting active case-finding for TB during the COVID-19 pandemic in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Public Health Action 2021 Jun;11(2):41-49

Centre of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

The COVID-19 pandemic and response measures, including lockdowns and the reorientation of health services, have disrupted essential health services for other diseases, including TB, HIV and malaria. For TB, reductions in case detection due to the COVID-19 pandemic are projected to result in increased TB transmission, morbidity and mortality. Active case-finding (ACF) for TB using community-based approaches is a potential strategy to offset reductions in TB detection by obviating the need for patients to seek care at a health facility. Read More

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Abundance and Distribution of Malaria Vectors in Various Aquatic Habitats and Land Use Types in Kakamega County, Highlands of Western Kenya.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2021 Mar;31(2):247-256

School of Natural Sciences, Biological Sciences Department, Masinde Muliro University of Science & Technology, Kenya.

Background: Management of malaria transmission relies heavily on vector control. Implementation and sustenance of effective control measures require regular monitoring of malaria vector occurrences, species abundance and distribution. The study assessed mosquito larval species composition, distribution and productivity in Kakamega County, western Kenya. Read More

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Maternal Death Review at a Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2021 Jan;31(1):35-42

Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: There is conflicting data on the rate and trends of maternal mortality in Ethiopia. There is no previous study done on the magnitude and trends of maternal death at Saint Paul's Hospital, an institution providing the largest labor and delivery services in Ethiopia. The objective of this study is to determine the magnitude, causes and contributing factors for maternal deaths in the institution. Read More

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January 2021

Pyriproxyfen-treated bed nets reduce reproductive fitness and longevity of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae under laboratory and field conditions.

Malar J 2021 Jun 22;20(1):273. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

Background: The efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (PPF) and pyrethroid insecticides (PPF-ITNs) is being assessed in clinical trials to determine whether they provide greater protection from malaria than standard pyrethroid-treated ITNs in areas where mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids. Understanding the entomological mode of action of this new ITN class will aide interpretation of the results from these trials.

Methods: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s. Read More

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Impact of Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions on malaria control worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Malar J 2021 Jun 22;20(1):276. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Malaria and Neglected Diseases Laboratory, National Centre of Tropical Medicine, Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Deletion of pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes cause false negatives in malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and threating malaria control strategies. This systematic review aims to assess the main methodological aspects in the study of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions and its global epidemiological status, with special focus on their distribution in Africa; and its possible impact in RDT.

Methods: The systematic review was conducted by examining the principal issues of study design and methodological workflow of studies addressing pfhrp2 deletion. Read More

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Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine and polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum kelch13-propeller gene in Equatorial Guinea.

Malar J 2021 Jun 22;20(1):275. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

World Health Organization, Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are the currently recommended first- and second-line therapies for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Equatorial Guinea. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of these artemisinin-based combinations and detect mutations in P. falciparum kelch13-propeller domain gene (Pfkelch13). Read More

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Nutritional status in young children prior to the malaria transmission season in Burkina Faso and Mali, and its impact on the incidence of clinical malaria.

Malar J 2021 Jun 22;20(1):274. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de La Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Malaria and malnutrition remain major problems in Sahel countries, especially in young children. The direct effect of malnutrition on malaria remains poorly understood, and may have important implications for malaria control. In this study, nutritional status and the association between malnutrition and subsequent incidence of symptomatic malaria were examined in children in Burkina Faso and Mali who received either azithromycin or placebo, alongside seasonal malaria chemoprevention. Read More

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Antimalarial Activity of 2,6-Dibenzylidenecyclohexanone Derivatives.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Jun 19:128216. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40508, USA.

Malaria remains one of the deadliest diseases on the planet, infecting an estimated 229 million individuals in 2019 with more than 400,000 associated deaths, primarily in young children and pregnant women. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasite infection of the liver and blood, with P. falciparum accounting for the vast majority of deaths. Read More

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Subpatent Plasmodium with mutant pfmdr1, pfcrt and pvmdr1 alleles from endemic provinces in Mindanao, The Philippines: implications for local malaria elimination.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Dept of Infection Biology, Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK; PHE Malaria Reference Laboratory, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study identifies and characterises circulating Plasmodium species in three provinces of Mindanao approaching malaria elimination.

Methods: RDT, microscopic examination and PCR were used to detect malaria parasites. PCR-positive isolates were genotyped for polymorphisms in loci of interest. Read More

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Capture of high numbers of Simulium vectors can be achieved with Host Decoy Traps to support data acquisition in the onchocerciasis elimination endgame.

Acta Trop 2021 Jun 19:106020. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, UK. Electronic address:

Onchocerciasis elimination is within reach in many countries but requires enhanced surveillance of the Simulium vectors of Onchocerca volvulus. Collection of sufficient numbers of adult Simulium to detect infective O. volvulus larvae is hindered by limited sampling tools for these flies. Read More

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Larval habitat selection by females of two malaria vectors in response to predation risk.

Acta Trop 2021 Jun 19:106016. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; MIVEGEC, Univ. Montpellier, IRD, CNRS, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

For species lacking parental care, selection of a suitable habitat for their offspring, with a limited predation risk, is important. The ability of two African malaria mosquito females to detect a predation threat for their larvae was assessed through an oviposition choice test design. Our results suggest that gravid females of both Anopheles gambiae s. Read More

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