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    Malakoplakia after kidney transplantation: Case report and literature review.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 May 31. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Pathology, Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, Medellin, Colombia.
    Malakoplakia is a granulomatous disease associated with an infectious etiology, usually involving the urinary tract. It reveals itself as a recurrent urinary tract infection (r-UTI), and in some cases, it is associated with impairment of renal function. Immunosuppression is one of its main associated factors, and it has been increasingly described in patients with solid organ transplantation (SOT), mainly kidney transplantation. Read More

    Successful treatment of vaginal malakoplakia in a young cat.
    JFMS Open Rep 2016 Jul-Dec;2(2):2055116916674871. Epub 2016 Nov 4.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, USA.
    Case Summary: A 3-year-old, female, spayed, domestic shorthair cat presented for dysuria and haematuria, unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. A small, fleshy, erythematous mass protruded from the vaginal vault. Ultrasound identified a vaginal mass effect with mixed echogenicity measuring in excess of 3 cm. Read More

    Isolated urachal malakoplakia mimicking malignancy.
    Urol Ann 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):92-95
    Department of Urology, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Malakoplakia is an unusual inflammatory disease with uncertain pathogenesis affecting any organ in the body, but predominantly genitourinary tract, with specific predilection to the bladder. We report a rare case of isolated malakoplakia of the urachus in a 29-year-old male patient who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms without any hematuria. Investigations revealed sterile pyuria with no bacterial growth in urine. Read More

    A case of gallbladder mass: Malakoplakia (The tumor mimicker).
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2017 Jan-Mar;60(1):122-124
    Department of Pathology, 166 Military Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
    Diagnosis of malakoplakia presenting as gall bladder mass is a diagnostic dilemma faced by pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons. Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disorder and tumor mimicker usually occurring in the urinary tract, may occasionally be found in gall bladder. Here, we present a rare case, presenting as gall bladder mass in a known case of gallstone disease, clinically suspected as carcinoma and later turned out to be malakoplakia in gall bladder. Read More

    Granulomatous & histiocytic dermatitides.
    Semin Diagn Pathol 2017 May 14;34(3):301-311. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Section of Dermatopathology, Division of Surgical & Cytological Pathology, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Electronic address:
    Granulomas of the skin may be classified in several ways. They are either infectious or non-infectious in character, and they contain areas of necrobiosis or necrosis, or not. Responsible infectious agents may be mycobacterial, fungal, treponemal, or parasitic organisms, and each case of granulomatous dermatitis should be assessed histochemically for those microbes. Read More

    A Case of Cutaneous Malakoplakia in the Head and Neck Region and Review of the Literature.
    Head Neck Pathol 2016 Dec 6;10(4):444-450. Epub 2016 May 6.
    Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, UK.
    Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory condition that typically occurs in the urinary tract. The cutaneous form is less prevalent, and most commonly occurs in the perianal or genital regions. Here we present a 61 year old lady with cutaneous malakoplakia of the neck, which was successfully treated with surgical excision and a prolonged course of ciprofloxacin. Read More

    Malakoplakia of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Under Ibrutinib Therapy: A Case Report.
    Anticancer Res 2016 09;36(9):4759-62
    Department of Anatomic Pathology, Evangelismos General Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Malakoplakia, a rare granulomatous disease of infectious etiology, is commonly observed in immunocompromised patients. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by profound immune dysregulation resulting in significant infection-related morbidity and mortality, and several drugs used in CLL treatment have a severe immunosuppressive effect. Ibrutinib, has become a new standard-of-care in patients with CLL, especially for those harboring unfavorable genetic characteristics such as 17 p deletion, with however, unknown long-term immunological consequences. Read More

    Cutaneous malakoplakia masquerading as pyoderma gangrenosum.
    Int Wound J 2017 Aug 15;14(4):658-660. Epub 2016 Aug 15.
    Department of Dermatology, "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez" General Hospital, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Cutaneous malakoplakia is a rare infection-related granulomatous disease frequently associated with immunocompromised states. Foamy macrophages containing basophilic granules, called the Michaelis-Gutman bodies, are pathognomonic. We report a case of cutaneous malakoplakia in a 77-year-old male with pyoderma gangrenosum and a 2-year history of a non-healing malleolar ulcer treated successfully with cotrimoxazole. Read More

    Beyond ureterolithiasis: gamut of abnormalities affecting the ureter.
    Clin Imaging 2016 Jul-Aug;40(4):678-90. Epub 2016 Jan 8.
    The Ottawa hospital, Department of Radiology, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8L6. Electronic address:
    Nephrolithiasis is the most common condition involving the ureters. However, various other entities can affect the ureters, albeit less frequently. Imaging plays a crucial role in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of ureteral pathology. Read More

    Malakoplakia associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma: Report of 4 cases and literature review.
    Ann Diagn Pathol 2016 Jun 14;22:33-7. Epub 2016 Mar 14.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Calgary Laboratory Service and University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:
    Malakoplakia is an inflammatory process that has been rarely reported in the prostate. Malakoplakia in association with prostatic carcinoma is exceedingly rare with only 4 previously reported cases. We describe the clinical features and the associated pathology in 4 patients who demonstrated malakoplakia of the prostate in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Read More

    Co-existing malakoplakia and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis of kidney: Two different spectrum of same disease process.
    Urol Ann 2016 Apr-Jun;8(2):252-4
    Department of Urology, Institute of Post-Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) and malakoplakia (MKP) are chronic inflammatory condition of kidney characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells. We are presenting a rare case of concomitant XGP and MKP in the same kidney. This signifies that the two are different spectrums of the same disease process. Read More

    Complicated Genitourinary Tract Infections and Mimics.
    Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2017 Jan - Feb;46(1):74-83. Epub 2016 Feb 11.
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO.
    This article provides pictorial review of complicated upper and lower genitourinary infections and their mimics. Imaging features of upper urinary tract infections including uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN), emphysematous pyelonephritis, perirenal abscess, and pyonephrosis are first reviewed and then followed by pictorial review of their mimics including contrast-associated nephrotoxicity, renal infarcts, malakoplakia, renal cell cancer, leukemia or lymphoma and Castleman's disease. Next, imaging features of lower urinary tract infections including cystitis, emphysematous cystitis, enterovesical, colovesical and vesicovaginal fistulas, Fournier gangrene, prostatitis, epididymitis, and orchitis are reviewed and then followed by pictorial review of their mimics including gas in the bladder and perineum related to instrumentation, radiation cystitis, bladder cancer, testicular torsion, testicular trauma, and testicular cancer and lymphoma. Read More

    Malakoplakia Associated With Multiple Adenomas of the Colon: An Extremely Rare Incidental Finding.
    Int J Surg Pathol 2016 Sep 23;24(6):548-51. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
    Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Malakoplakia in the colon has been described either as part of a systemic disease with a diffuse presentation or as a rare incidental finding associated usually with an adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, the association of malakoplakia with colonic adenoma is very rare and only 5 cases, including the present case, have been reported so far. Here, we describe a case of malakoplakia coexisting with multiple sigmoid colonic adenomas in a 67-year-old patient without any underlying inflammatory or infectious disease and with no history of immunosuppressive treatment. Read More

    A 13-Month-Old With Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis With Features of Renal Malakoplakia.
    J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2016 Jan-Mar;4(1):2324709616630573. Epub 2016 Feb 5.
    University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA.
    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon chronic inflammatory renal disorder caused by chronic infection with gram-negative bacteria leading to destruction of the renal parenchyma and replacement with foamy lipid-laden macrophages. Renal malakoplakia is another rare form of chronic inflammatory granulomatous disease in the kidney associated with infection usually occurring in adults with immunocompromised status or debilitating disease. It is hallmarked by the finding of foamy histiocytes with distinctive basophilic inclusions (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies). Read More

    Malakoplakia of the prostate masquerading as locally advanced prostate cancer on mpMRI.
    Can Urol Assoc J 2015 Nov-Dec;9(11-12):E910-2. Epub 2015 Dec 14.
    Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia (UBC);
    A 66-year-old man was referred for urological evaluation for an abnormal digital rectal exam (cT2a, subtle nodule at left base, 121 cc prostate) and an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) of 8.0 ng/ml. Subsequent 12-core transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy revealed Gleason 3+4 adenocarcinoma in seven of 12 cores, including all six cores on the right side and one core at the left apex. Read More

    Malakoplakia of the Urogenital Tract.
    Urol Case Rep 2015 Jan 18;3(1):6-8. Epub 2014 Nov 18.
    Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2WB, UK.
    Malakoplakia is a rare, granulomatous condition most commonly found in the genitourinary tract. It can present in a myriad of ways depending on the organ involved, thus presenting a huge diagnostic challenge. We present 4 patients with genitourinary malakoplakia, who manifested with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and hematuria in all except one, who presented with hydronephrosis secondary to a large pelvic mass. Read More

    [Malakoplakia of the submandibular gland in a renal transplant patient].
    Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac Chir Orale 2015 Dec 28;116(6):384-7. Epub 2015 Nov 28.
    Service de chirurgie maxillo-faciale, hôpital Saint-Louis, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5, rue Thomas-Mann, 75013 Paris, France.
    Introduction: Malakoplakia (MP) is a rare granulomatous disease, usually occurring in immunocompromised patients, linked to Escherichia coli infection. The lesions are usually located in the genitourinary tract, but there is a great variability in the topography and the clinical presentation.

    Case Report: A 70-year-old diabetic kidney transplant patient under immunosuppressive treatment presented with a voluminous submandibular chronic lesion, involving the skin, associated with a burgeoning lesion of the oral mucosa. Read More

    Benign Conditions That Mimic Prostate Carcinoma: MR Imaging Features with Histopathologic Correlation.
    Radiographics 2016 Jan-Feb;36(1):162-75. Epub 2015 Nov 20.
    From the Departments of Medical Imaging (Y.X.K.) and Urology (C.V.), Macquarie University Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Department of Radiology, Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, Brazil (A.P.); Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill (G.S.K., A.O.); and Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology, Sydney, Australia (F.M.).
    Multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging combines anatomic and functional imaging techniques for evaluating the prostate and is increasingly being used in diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. A wide spectrum of anatomic and pathologic processes in the prostate may masquerade as prostate cancer, complicating the imaging interpretation. The histopathologic and imaging findings of these potential mimics are reviewed. Read More

    Disseminated Mycobacterium Simiae with Pelvic Malakoplakia in an AIDS Patient.
    Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2015 12;8:89-91. Epub 2015 Oct 12.
    Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Malakoplakia in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient with disseminated Mycobacterium simiae infection presented with a large pelvic mass that caused organ dysfunction from mimicking a tumor. Malakoplakia is a rare, chronic granulomatous abnormal host response toward infectious agents, presenting as a tumor-like lesion. This is the first report of pelvic malakoplakia after disseminated M. Read More

    Urothelial Carcinoma Concomitant With Malakoplakia In Non-Functioning Nephrolithic Kidneys.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2015 Jan-Mar;57(1):78-9
    Nephrolithic non-functioning kidney and malakoplakia are major health problems. Kidney function cannot be fulfilled and also this leads to a high risk of development of urothelial neoplasm. We report herein a case of urothelial carcinoma concomitant with malakoplakia in non-functioning nephrolithic kidneys. Read More

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis with malacoplakia, leading to spontaneous intraperitoneal perforation of the urinary bladder in a 9-year-old girl.
    BMJ Case Rep 2015 Aug 13;2015. Epub 2015 Aug 13.
    Department of Urology, CSM Medical University (Upgraded KGMC), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    A 9-year-old girl presented with sudden onset continuous abdomen pain, oliguria and constipation for 2 days. Ultrasound of the abdomen and voiding cystourethrography revealed intraperitoneal perforation of the urinary bladder. Cystoscopy showed two perforations at the dome of the bladder. Read More

    Coexistence of Malakoplakia and Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder.
    Int J Surg Pathol 2015 Oct 20;23(7):575-8. Epub 2015 Jul 20.
    Changi General Hospital, Singapore.
    Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease that commonly involves the genitourinary tract, with the urinary bladder being the most frequently affected site. Grossly, malakoplakia can present as soft yellow plaques, nodules, bladder mass, or even without any visible lesion. In this article, we present a 74-year-old female with a background of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and poorly controlled diabetes who presented with sepsis of unknown origin. Read More

    Renal malakoplakia mimicking a malignant renal carcinoma: a patient case with literature review.
    BMJ Case Rep 2015 Jul 15;2015. Epub 2015 Jul 15.
    Department of Urology, Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.
    Malakoplakia, a medical, surgical, pathological and radiological enigma, is an infrequent chronic inflammatory condition that can affect many organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, integument, skeletal system and genitourinary tract. Review of the literature has shown that malakoplakia presents in paediatric as well as adult populations, and that it is associated with impaired immune function. Variable clinical manifestations as well as the sometimes non-specific radiological findings of malakoplakia can be misleading, making diagnosis quite difficult. Read More

    Malakoplakia of the Pancreas with Simultaneous Colon Involvement: Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    Case Rep Pathol 2015 21;2015:649136. Epub 2015 May 21.
    Geisinger Medical Center, 100 North Academy Avenue, Danville, PA 17821, USA.
    Although malakoplakia has been reported to occur at various body sites, pancreatic malakoplakia with simultaneous colonic involvement is very rare. Lesions of malakoplakia can masquerade as tumor masses leading to unwanted resections. Nevertheless, malakoplakia can occur in association with frank carcinomas, especially in the colon. Read More

    Colonic Carcinoma Associated with Malakoplakia.
    West Indian Med J 2014 Jul 3;63(6):664-6. Epub 2014 Jul 3.
    Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Malakoplakia is an unusual chronic inflammatory response first described in the genitourinary tract by Michaelis and Gutmann in 1902. It is now known to occur in other locations including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, lungs and the central nervous system. Malakoplakia has been frequently misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant lesion. Read More

    Histiocytic disorders of the chest: imaging findings.
    Radiographics 2015 Mar-Apr;35(2):357-70
    From the Departments of Radiology (J.A., S.N.J.P., J.O.S., J.D.G.) and Pathology (R.A.S.), University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St, UW Mailbox 357115, Seattle, WA 98195; and Department of Radiology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis (J.P.K., C.A.M.).
    Histiocytic disorders of the chest comprise a broad spectrum of diseases. The lungs may be involved in isolation or as part of systemic disease. Some of these disorders are primary and have unknown etiology, and others result from a histiocytic response to a known cause. Read More

    A Case of Urachal Malacoplakia that Seems Like Urachal Cancer.
    Balkan Med J 2015 Jan 1;32(1):114-7. Epub 2015 Jan 1.
    Department of Urology, Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Edirne, Turkey.
    Background: Urachal masses observed in adults should be considered malignant unless they are confuted. It is very difficult to differentiate between malignant or benign lesions, including especially calcified foci and solid areas.

    Case Report: Our case was a 63-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as Behçet's Disease 26 years ago. Read More

    Renal failure caused by malakoplakia lesions of the urinary bladder.
    Nephrourol Mon 2014 Jul 5;6(4):e18522. Epub 2014 Jul 5.
    Department of Pathology, "Tzaneion" General Hospital of Piraeus, Athens, Greece.
    Μalakoplakia is a rare inflammatory condition of the urogenital tract. The most frequently affected organ is urinary bladder. This condition has features of a granulomatous inflammation, the pathogenesis of which is not well understood. Read More

    An unusual large abdominal malakoplakia following trauma: Diagnosed on FNAC.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2015 Jun 19;43(6):490-4. Epub 2015 Feb 19.
    Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital, Delhi, India.
    Malakoplakia is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease, related to immune deficiency and impaired bactericidal macrophage activity. Common sites of involvement include urinary bladder and kidney followed by gastrointestinal tract. We present an unusual case of abdominal malakoplakia diagnosed preoperatively on ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Read More

    Colorectal malakoplakia in a child presenting as multiple polyposis coli.
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2015 Jan-Mar;58(1):86-8
    Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Autonomous Institution of Government of Karnataka, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
    Malakoplakia of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder, usually affecting the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. It is commonly seen in adults. Only few cases have been reported in children. Read More

    Malakoplakia of the thyroid gland: a case report and review of literature.
    Int J Surg Pathol 2015 Jun 6;23(4):308-12. Epub 2015 Feb 6.
    Hofstra North Shore-LIJ Health System, Lake Success, NY, USA.
    Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease that most commonly occurs in the urinary tract. It is characterized by sheets of histiocytes with granular basophilic inclusions and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. We present an exceedingly rare case of malakoplakia of the thyroid in a 54-year-old Caucasian woman on immunosuppressive therapy for renal transplant performed in 1994. Read More

    The normal and pathologic renal medulla: a comprehensive overview.
    Pathol Res Pract 2015 Apr 24;211(4):271-80. Epub 2014 Dec 24.
    Department of Urology, Getafe University Hospital, European University of Madrid, Getafe, Madrid, Spain.
    The renal medulla comprises an intricate system of tubules, blood vessels and interstitium that is not well understood by most general pathologists. We conducted an extensive review of the literature on the renal medulla, in both normal and pathologic conditions. We set out in detail the points of key interest to pathologists: normal and pathological development, physiology, microscopic anatomy, histology and immunohistochemistry; and the specific and most common other types of disease associated with this part of the kidney: developmental abnormalities, (multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, medullary cystic kidney disease), inflammatory conditions (xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, malakoplakia), hyperplasia and dysplasia, and neoplastic processes (oncocytoma, atypical oncocytic tumors, chromophobe cell carcinoma, collecting duct carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, other carcinomas, renal medullary fibroma and metastatic tumors). Read More

    Testicular malakoplakia: a rare sonographic mimic of malignancy.
    J Clin Ultrasound 2015 Mar 19;43(3):199-202. Epub 2014 Sep 19.
    UCSF Department of Radiology, L374, University of California, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0628.
    Testicular malakoplakia is a rare, benign condition that most often occurs in an immunocompromised patient with chronic infection. Its occurrence is acute, with pain and testicular enlargement. Sonography is commonly performed to evaluate the patient for epididymitis or torsion. Read More

    Primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type with malakoplakia in the urinary bladder: a case report.
    Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014 15;7(8):5280-4. Epub 2014 Jul 15.
    Department of Surgical Pathology, Hyogo College of Medicine Hyogo, Japan.
    Primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder is a rare disease constituting less than 1% of neoplasms of the urinary bladder. The most prevalent histological subtype is extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma). It is frequently associated with chronic cystitis and predominantly occurs in females. Read More

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