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    Early response to intravitreal dexamethasone implant therapy in diabetic macular edema may predict visual outcome.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To determine whether early visual acuity response to intravitreal dexamethasone implant therapy in diabetic macular edema (DME) is associated with long-term outcome.

    Design: Retrospective case series METHODS: Multicenter (eight sites) retrospective review of medical records of eyes with DME treated with 0.7mg intravitreal dexamethasone implant and minimum eighteen-month follow-up. Read More

    VEGF-A gene polymorphisms and responses to intravitreal ranibizumab treatment in patients with diabetic macular edema.
    Int Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Dumlupinar University School of Medicine, 43270, Kutahya, Turkey.
    Purpose: To investigate the association between VEGF gene polymorphisms and the responses to treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME).

    Methods: This prospective study, conducted at the Kutahya Dumlupinar University Faculty of Medicine, included 95 patients with DME that were treated with IVR and 32 patients without DME despite proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The participants were divided into three groups: DME with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, DME with PDR, and PDR without DME; patients with DME who were treated with IVR were further divided into two groups based on their response to the treatment. Read More

    Changes in aqueous concentrations of various cytokines after intravitreal bevacizumab and subtenon triamcinolone injection for diabetic macular edema.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University, Gil Hospital, #21 774 Beon-gil, Namdong-daero, Namdong-gu, Incheon, 405-760, South Korea.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the aqueous cytokine levels after intravitreal bevacizumab with those after combined intravitreal bevacizumab and subtenon triamcinolone injection in diabetic macular edema (DME).

    Methods: This study examined 24 eyes of 23 patients with DME. Each patient with DME received randomly either an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVBe) or IVBe with a subtenon triamcinolone injection (IVBe + STTA). Read More

    [Change in Therapy of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Maculopathy and Macular Edema after Retinal Vein Occlusion].
    Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg.
    Background Therapy of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic maculopathy and macular edema after retinal vein occlusion has changed fundamentally since the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy more than 10 years ago. With the technological progress in ocular coherence tomography (OCT) functional criteria have been replaced by more morphological criteria. Contract law and administrative problems have been improved but not solved totally. Read More

    Improvement of Recalcitrant Diabetic Macular Edema After Peritoneal Dialysis.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Oct;48(10):834-837
    Nephropathy may be an independent and contributory risk factor for diabetic macular edema (DME). A 69-year-old man who had previously been treated with panretinal laser photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy as well as with steroid and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for DME declined additional treatment for the DME, which was worse in the right eye. The DME was observed without further treatment for the next 36 months. Read More

    Novel Therapeutic Targets in Diabetic Macular Edema: Beyond VEGF.
    Vision Res 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Surgery, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, United States; Department of Cell Biology & Physiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, United States; New Mexico VA Health Care System, Albuquerque, NM, United States. Electronic address:
    The leading cause of major vision loss in diabetic persons is diabetic macular edema (DME). The hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy is the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Inflammation plays a crucial role in DME with involvement of several chemokines and cytokines including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Read More

    Neurodegeneration in Diabetic Retinopathy: potential for novel therapies.
    Vision Res 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Unite de recherche Ecophysiologie et Procedes Agroalimentaires (EPA) UR11ES44, Institut Superieur de Biotechnologie Sidi Thabet, Universite de la Manouba, BiotechPole Sidi Thabet 2020, Sidi Thabet, Tunisia.
    The complex pathology of diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects both vascular and neural tissue. The characteristics of neurodegeneration are well-described in animal models but have more recently been confirmed in the clinical setting, mostly by using non-invasive imaging approaches such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The most frequent observations report loss of tissue in the nerve fiber layer and inner plexiform layers, confirming earlier findings from animal models. Read More

    Diabetic Choroidopathy: Choroidal Vascular Density and Volume in Diabetic Retinopathy with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Retina Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To compare choroidal vascular density (CVD) and volume (CVV) in diabetic eyes and controls, using en face swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT).

    Design: Prospective cross-sectional study.

    Methods: ▪▪▪ SETTING: Multicenter PATIENT POPULATION: 143 diabetic eyes - 27 with no diabetic retinopathy (DR), 47 with nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 51 with NPDR and diabetic macular edema (DME), and 18 with proliferative DR (PDR), and 64 age-matched non-diabetic control eyes. Read More

    Comparison of treatment response to intravitreal injection of triamcinolone, bevacizumab and combined form in patients with central retinal vein occlusion: A randomized clinical trial.
    Electron Physician 2017 Aug 1;9(8):5068-5074. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    MSc Student of Epidemiology, Student Research Committee, Department of Epidemiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
    Background: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), is the second-most common disorder after diabetic retinopathy that threatens the vision related to retinal vessels. One of the main reasons of vision loss is CRVO in acute and chronic forms.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the response to intravitreal injection of triamcinolone, bevacizumab, and a combined form in patients with CRVO. Read More

    Quantitative evaluation of hard exudates in diabetic macular edema after short-term intravitreal triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant or bevacizumab injections.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 3;17(1):182. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: To quantitatively compare short-term hard exudates (HEs) alteration in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) after intravitreal triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant or bevacizumab injections.

    Methods: This retrospective study enrolled DME eyes with HEs that underwent a single-dose intravitreal injection of triamcinolone (25 eyes), dexamethasone implant (20 eyes), or three monthly injections of bevacizumab (25 eyes) and completed at least three months of follow-up. All patients were examined before and after 1, 2 and 3 months of injections. Read More

    Evaluating the Relationship Between Visual Acuity and Utilities in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema Enrolled in Intravitreal Aflibercept Studies.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 Sep;58(11):4818-4825
    Department of Economics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between visual acuity and utility (health-related quality of life) in diabetic macular edema (DME) using intravitreal aflibercept data.

    Methods: The relationship between visual acuity in the best-seeing eye (BSE) and worse-seeing eye (WSE) and utility was explored using ordinary least squares (OLS) and random-effects models adjusted for different covariates (age, age2, sex, body mass index, smoking status, glycated hemoglobin, diabetes severity, comorbidities, and geographic region). Utility was measured using the EuroQoL-five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Visual Functioning Questionnaire-Utility Index (VFQ-UI). Read More

    Intravitreal Ziv-Aflibercept: Clinical Effects and Economic Impact.
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Centre for Vitreo-Retinal Diseases, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.
    During the past decade, drugs that inhibit the actions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have become standard-of-care treatment for a variety of chorioretinal vascular conditions. The off-label, intravitreal use of ziv-aflibercept (Zaltrap) has provided clinicians with an additional cost-effective drug. The commercial preparation of ziv-aflibercept contains the same aflibercept (VEGF-trap) molecule as Eylea but has a much higher osmolarity (1000 mOsm/kg vs 300 mOsm/kg). Read More

    Long-term effects of pancreas transplantation on diabetic retinopathy and incidence and predictive risk factors for early worsening.
    Transplantation 2017 Sep 29. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    1Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea 2Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Limited data are available regarding the long-term effects of pancreas transplantation on the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the incidence of and associated risk factors for early worsening of DR.

    Methods: Patients who underwent successful pancreas transplantation between January 2007 and October 2015 and were followed for ≥ 1 year were consecutively enrolled. Variables regarding demographic, systemic, metabolic, and surgical factors were reviewed for each patient. Read More

    Neutralization of placental growth factor as a novel treatment option in diabetic retinopathy.
    Exp Eye Res 2017 Sep 28;165:136-150. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    ThromboGenics NV, Gaston Geenslaan 1, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium. Electronic address:
    The current standard of care in clinical practice for diabetic retinopathy (DR), anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, has shown a significant improvement in visual acuity. However, treatment response can be variable and might be associated with potential side effects. This study was designed to investigate inhibition of placental growth factor (PlGF) as a possible alternative therapy for DR. Read More

    Choroidal Variations in Diabetic Macular Edema: Fluorescein Angiography and Optical Coherence Tomography.
    Curr Eye Res 2017 Sep 22:1-7. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    a Department of Ophthalmology , Shanghai Jiaotong University , Shanghai , China.
    Purposes: To (i) evaluate variations in choroidal thickness (CT) and choroidal volume (CV) in diabetic macular edema (DME), as demonstrated by fluorescein angiography (FA) and enhanced depth-imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) (EDI-OCT) and (ii) correlate these variations with visual acuity.

    Methods: This study was a retrospective observational case series of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and DME. The study groups comprised 77 DR patients (n = 87), all of whom underwent color fundus photography, FA, and OCT on the same day. Read More

    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA AND THE PRESENCE AND SEVERITY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.
    Retina 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    *Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; and †Department of Ophthalmology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

    Methods: Three hundred seventeen patients with International Classification of Diseases diagnoses of both DR and OSA were evaluated retrospectively. Diabetic retinopathy severity and diabetic macular edema status were determined by diagnostic coding and medical records. Read More

    Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers as Functional Outcome Predictors in Diabetic Macular Edema Treated with Dexamethasone Implant.
    Ophthalmology 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Division of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Incumbent, Sydney A. Fox Chair in Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Purpose: Identification and characterization of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) are important for individualizing treatment and optimizing outcome. We investigated optical coherence tomography (OCT) biomarkers for DME treated by intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) implant.

    Design: Multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study. Read More

    Reversible retinal vessel closure from VEGF-induced leukocyte plugging.
    JCI Insight 2017 Sep 21;2(18). Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology and.
    Clinical trials in patients with macular edema due to diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion (RVO) have shown that suppression of VEGF not only improves macular edema, but also reopens closed retinal vessels, prevents progression of vessel closure, and improves retinopathy. In this study, we show the molecular basis for those clinical observations. Increased retinal levels of VEGF in mice cause plugging of retinal vessels with leukocytes, vessel closure, and hypoxia. Read More

    Semi-automated quantification of hard exudates in colour fundus photographs diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Sep 20;17(1):172. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Centre, L.V.Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, 500034, India.
    Background: Hard exudates (HEs) are the classical sign of diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is one of the leading causes of blindness, especially in developing countries. Accordingly, disease screening involves examining HEs qualitatively using fundus camera. However, for monitoring the treatment response, quantification of HEs becomes crucial and hence clinicians now seek to measure the area of HEs in the digital colour fundus (CF) photographs. Read More

    Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularizations: Clinical Study of 3 Cases.
    Case Rep Ophthalmol 2017 May-Aug;8(2):429-435. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
    Background: We report 3 patients with laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

    Method: Retrospective, observational case series. Medical charts and photographs were reviewed. Read More

    Systemic Effects of Repeated Intraocular Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant in Diabetic Patients: A Retrospective Study.
    Diabetes Ther 2017 Sep 16. Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Retina Service, Ophthalmology Department, Clínico San Carlos University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.
    Introduction: The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of repeated intraocular dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) injections on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Methods: Retrospective study of 165 type 2 diabetic patients starting Ozurdex treatment who received no less than three consecutive injections. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) were evaluated during 15 months of follow-up after Ozurdex treatment onset. Read More

    Switching Anti-VEGF Drugs in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Sep;48(9):748-754
    Since their introduction in the late 2000s, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents have become the first-line choice for center-involved diabetic macular edema (DME). Even with its proven effectiveness, there are still cases that do not respond satisfactorily. In those cases, a treatment option is to change to another anti-VEGF drug. Read More

    Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Effectiveness of Intravitreal Injections of Bevacizumab, Triamcinolone, or Their Combination in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2017 Sep;48(9):734-740
    Background And Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of combined bevacizumab-triamcinolone intravitreal injection in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) compared to monotherapy.

    Patients And Methods: At eight clinical sites, 111 patients with DME were randomly assigned to receive an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA), triamcinolone (Ophthalmos Pharmaceutical Industry, São Paulo-SP, Brazil), or their combination. The primary outcome was visual acuity (VA) at 6 months' follow-up. Read More

    Switching to Aflibercept in Diabetic Macular Edema Not Responding to Ranibizumab and/or Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant.
    J Ophthalmol 2017 16;2017:8035013. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Ophthalmology Department, Avicenne Hospital, DHU Vision and Handicaps, Paris XIII University, 125 rue de Stalingrad, 93000 Bobigny, France.
    Purpose: To assess short-term functional and anatomical outcomes of refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) following a switch from ranibizumab or dexamethasone to aflibercept.

    Methods: We included retrospectively eyes with persistent DME after at least 3 ranibizumab and/or one dexamethasone implant intravitreal injections (IVI). The primary endpoint was the mean change in visual acuity (VA) at month 6 (M6) after switching. Read More

    Combined Phacoemulsification and Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex®) in Diabetic Patients with Coexisting Cataract and Diabetic Macular Edema.
    J Ophthalmol 2017 13;2017:4896036. Epub 2017 Aug 13.
    Department of Medical Science, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, Eye Clinic, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of combined phacoemulsification and dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with cataract and diabetic macular edema.

    Methods: In this two-center, retrospective, single-group study, the charts of 16 consecutive patients who underwent combined phacoemulsification and intravitreal dexamethasone implant were retrospectively reviewed. These 16 patients, 7 men and 9 women, were observed at least 3 months of follow-up. Read More

    Patterns of retinal thickness prior to and following treatment with fluocinolone acetonide 190 µg intravitreal implant for diabetic macular edema.
    Curr Med Res Opin 2017 Oct 7;33(sup2):33-43. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    c School of Medicine , Swansea University , Swansea , UK.
    Objectives: To compare retinal thickness before and after treatment with the fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant in people with diabetic macular edema (DME) using data from the Iluvien Clinical Evidence study in the UK (ICE-UK).

    Methods: For this retrospective cohort study, data on people attending any one of 13 participating ophthalmology departments and treated with FAc intravitreal implant between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015 were collected for 12 months prior to and at least 12 months after implantation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of central foveal thickness (CFT) were compared before and after FAc implant. Read More

    Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness in routine practice of fluocinolone acetonide 190 µg intravitreal implant in people with diabetic macular edema.
    Curr Med Res Opin 2017 Oct 7;33(sup2):5-17. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    c School of Medicine , Swansea University , Swansea , UK.
    Objective: The aim of the Iluvien Clinical Evidence study in the UK (ICE-UK) was to assess the real-world effectiveness of fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant for the treatment of clinically significant chronic diabetic macular edema (DME) in routine clinical practice.

    Methods: This retrospective study collected data from patient medical records in 13 ophthalmology centers for people with DME prescribed FAc intravitreal implant between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015. Visual acuity (VA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were collected for 12 months prior to and after implant. Read More

    Health-economic evaluation of fluocinolone acetonide 190 µg implant in people with diabetic macular edema.
    Curr Med Res Opin 2017 Oct 7;33(sup2):45-52. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    c Swansea University , Swansea , UK.
    Objectives: To assess healthcare resource use and costs of treating people with clinically significant diabetic macular edema (DME) with fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant in routine clinical practice.

    Methods: The retrospective Iluvien Clinical Evidence (ICE-UK) study collected data on people prescribed the FAc implant in any one of 13 ophthalmology centers between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015. Data were collected for 12 months before and after implantation. Read More

    Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of fluocinolone acetonide 190 µg intravitreal implant in diabetic macular edema: a comparison between study and fellow eyes.
    Curr Med Res Opin 2017 Oct 7;33(sup2):19-31. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    c School of Medicine , Swansea University , Swansea , UK.
    Objectives: To compare visual and anatomical outcomes between eyes treated with fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) 190 µg intravitreal implant for clinically significant chronic diabetic macular edema (DME) and fellow eyes not treated with FAc implant using data from the Iluvien Clinical Evidence study in the UK (ICE-UK) study.

    Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data on people attending hospital eye services and treated with the FAc implant between April 1, 2013 and April 15, 2015 were collected. Changes in visual acuity (VA), central foveal thickness (CFT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were compared between study eyes (intervention) and fellow eyes. Read More

    Widening use of dexamethasone implant for the treatment of macular edema.
    Drug Des Devel Ther 2017 16;11:2359-2372. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Sustained-release intravitreal 0.7 mg dexamethasone (DEX) implant is approved in Europe for the treatment of macular edema related to diabetic retinopathy, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, and non-infectious uveitis. The implant is formulated in a biodegradable copolymer to release the active ingredient within the vitreous chamber for up to 6 months after an intravitreal injection, allowing a prolonged interval of efficacy between injections with a good safety profile. Read More

    Secretogranin III: a diabetic retinopathy-selective angiogenic factor.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Everglades Biopharma, Miami, FL, 33156, USA.
    Secretogranin III (Scg3) is a member of the granin protein family that regulates the biogenesis of secretory granules. Scg3 was recently discovered as an angiogenic factor, expanding its functional role to extrinsic regulation. Unlike many other known angiogenic factors, the pro-angiogenic actions of Scg3 are restricted to pathological conditions. Read More

    ReLayNet: retinal layer and fluid segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography using fully convolutional networks.
    Biomed Opt Express 2017 Aug 13;8(8):3627-3642. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Computer Aided Medical Procedures, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for non-invasive diagnosis of diabetic macular edema assessing the retinal layers. In this paper, we propose a new fully convolutional deep architecture, termed ReLayNet, for end-to-end segmentation of retinal layers and fluid masses in eye OCT scans. ReLayNet uses a contracting path of convolutional blocks (encoders) to learn a hierarchy of contextual features, followed by an expansive path of convolutional blocks (decoders) for semantic segmentation. Read More

    Comparison of 12-month therapeutic effect of conbercept and ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: a real-life clinical practice study.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 25;17(1):158. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 389 Xincun Road, Shanghai, 200065, China.
    Background: To compare the efficacy of intravitreal conbercept and ranibizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) in a real-life clinical practice.

    Methods: This was a retrospective study. Among 62 Chinese patients with DME, 32 patients (36 eyes) received intravitreal conbercept (IVC) injections and 30 patients (32 eyes) received intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injections, once a month for 3 months followed by as needed therapy. Read More

    Combined Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant And Micropulse Yellow Laser For Treatment Of Anti-VEGF Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema.
    Open Ophthalmol J 2017 21;11:164-172. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Ophthalmology Department, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.
    Purpose: To report the efficacy and safety of combined intravitreal dexamethasone implant and micropulse laser for anti-VEGF resistant diabetic macular edema.

    Patients And Methods: Prospective, non-controlled study that was conducted for twenty eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema not responding to anti-VEGF therapy. Ozurdex intravitreal implant was injected to all eyes with subsequent micropulse yellow laser one month after the injection. Read More

    Aflibercept, bevacizumab or ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema: recent clinically relevant findings from DRCR.net Protocol T.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;28(6):636-643
    Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: The aim of this study was to provide clinically relevant findings from the DRCR.net Protocol T, a multicentre randomized clinical trial comparing intravitreous aflibercept, repackaged (compounded) bevacizumab and ranibizumab for vision-impairing centre-involved diabetic macular oedema (DME).

    Recent Findings: At 1 year, all three antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs, on average, improved visual acuity. Read More

    Long-Term Intravitreal Dexamethasone Treatment in Eyes with Pretreated Chronic Diabetic Macular Edema.
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2017 Oct 24;33(8):620-628. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    1 Swiss Eye Institute and Berner Augenklinik am Lindenhofspital , Bern, Switzerland .
    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of repeated injections of dexamethasone implants in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) despite prior therapies.

    Methods: This retrospective interventional study involved 47 DME-afflicted eyes, which were administered ≥2 intravitreal injections of dexamethasone. Group 1 (34 eyes) received a dexamethasone monotherapy, whereas group 2 (13 eyes) received a combination therapy with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor as needed. Read More

    Sustained intraocular pressure elevation in eyes treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema in a real-life setting.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 22;255(11):2165-2171. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Ophthalmology Department, Avicenne Hospital, APHP, DHU Vision and Handicaps, Paris 13 University, 125 rue de Stalingrad, 93000, Bobigny, France.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after repeated anti-VEGF intravitreal injections (IVI) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME).

    Methods: A retrospective study included 140 eyes without prior glaucoma, treated with at least three anti-VEGF injections for DME between 2012 and 2016. IOP elevation was defined by an increase above baseline IOP by ≥6 mmHg. Read More

    Systemic Associations with Residual Subretinal Fluid after Ranibizumab in Diabetic Macular Edema.
    J Ophthalmol 2017 27;2017:4834201. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei, Taiwan.
    Purpose: To investigate the impact of systemic diseases on the occurrence of subretinal fluid (SRF) in diabetic macular edema (DME) and prognostic factors for residual SRF following three consecutive monthly intravitreal ranibizumab.

    Methods: Ninety-seven eyes from 68 patients with DME who completed 3 consecutive monthly injections of ranibizumab were enrolled. Systemic parameters mainly included chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension, HbA1c, and insulin dependence. Read More

    Diabetic retinopathy: reversibility of epigenetic modifications and new therapeutic targets.
    Cell Biosci 2017 15;7:42. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Tongren Hospital, Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Lab, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730 People's Republic of China.
    In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the molecular mechanisms of epigenetics in disease development and progression, the reversible characteristics of epigenetic modification provide new insights for the treatment of such diseases. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) has not yet been fully understood, treatment of refractory and recurrent diabetic macular edema remains a big change in clinical practice. This review emphasizes that reversibility of epigenetic modification could provide a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Read More

    Long-term outcomes with as-needed aflibercept in diabetic macular oedema: 2-year outcomes of the ENDURANCE extension study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Retina-Vitreous Associates Medical Group, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Background/aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of individualised 2.0 mg intravitreal aflibercept retreatment for diabetic macular oedema (DME) through the fifth year of management.

    Methods: This is a phase IV, 2-year, open-label extension study. Read More

    Foveal Microstructure Analysis in Eyes with Diabetic Macular Edema Treated with Vitrectomy.
    Adv Ther 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Ophthalmology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline and postoperative factors affecting outcomes after vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema (DME) using optical coherence tomography (OCT).

    Methods: Vitrectomy combined with inner limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and additional laser photocoagulation therapy was performed on 36 eyes of 30 DME patients. Evaluations included the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and OCT parameters at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Read More

    The Distribution of Leakage on Fluorescein Angiography in Diabetic Macular Edema: A New Approach to Its Etiology.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 Aug;58(10):3986-3990
    Vienna Reading Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Purpose: To determine the distribution of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA) and explore the clinically protective role of astrocytes against damage to the inner blood retinal barrier (iBRB) in diabetic macular edema (DME).

    Methods: A consecutive case series of 87 eyes of 87 patients with DME was included. We measured the leakage area in each field of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid on late-phase FA images. Read More

    The quinic acid derivative KZ-41 prevents glucose-induced caspase-3 activation in retinal endothelial cells through an IGF-1 receptor dependent mechanism.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(8):e0180808. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UTHSC College of Pharmacy, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.
    Retinal microaneurysms, an early disease manifestation of diabetic retinopathy, are associated with retinal endothelial cell (REC) death and macular edema. We previously demonstrated that a quinic acid (QA) analog, KZ-41, promoted REC survival by blunting stress-induced p38 MAPK activation. Herein, we sought to expand our understanding of the pro-survival signal transduction pathways actuated by KZ-41. Read More

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