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    Impact of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in prevention of macular edema following cataract surgery in diabetic patients.
    Int J Ophthalmol 2018 18;11(4):616-622. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.
    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic administration of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on macular edema following cataract surgery in diabetic patients, and to compare between types of NSAIDs (ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% and nepafenac 0.1%). Read More

    Recovery from Diabetic Macular Edema in a Diabetic Patient After Minimal Dose of a Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor.
    Am J Case Rep 2018 Apr 19;19:462-466. Epub 2018 Apr 19.
    Wakisaka Internal Medicine Clinic, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka, Japan.
    BACKGROUND Diabetic macular edema (DME) causes serious visual impairments in diabetic patients. The standard treatments of DME are intra-vitreous injections of corticosteroids or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies and pan-photocoagulation. These treatments are unsatisfactory in their effects and impose considerable physical and economic burdens on the patients. Read More

    Intravitreal Ziv-Aflibercept for Diabetic Macular Edema: 48-Week Outcomes.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2018 Apr;49(4):245-250
    Background And Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (IVI-ZA) (Zaltrap; Sanofi-Aventis and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY) during a period of 48 weeks in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME).

    Patients And Methods: Seven consecutive patients with DME were enrolled and submitted to 12 consecutive IVI-ZA with a 4-week interval. The safety parameters included changes in full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and systemic or ocular complications, and the efficacy parameters were the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT). Read More

    Frequency of Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab Injections for Diabetic Macular Edema in Medicare Beneficiaries.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2018 Apr;49(4):241-244
    Background And Objective: To describe the frequency and variation of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) use for diabetic macular edema (DME) in the United States.

    Patients And Methods: The authors obtained a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries from the Medicare Part B claims files from 2010 to 2013 and identified beneficiaries with DME using the ICD-9-CM code (362.07). Read More

    The effects of repeated Ozurdex injections on ocular hypertension.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2018 3;12:639-642. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Medical Center Ophthalmology Associates, San Antonio, TX, USA.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to correlate the degree of ocular hypertension with the number of Ozurdex injections.

    Methods: Intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations for a total of 183 injections were studied over a period of at least 12 months. The main indications for treatment were uveitis, diabetic macular edema, and retinal vein occlusion. Read More

    Estimating Medicare and patient savings from the use of bevacizumab for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.
    Purpose: The Medicare cost savings from the use of bevacizumab in the United States for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were estimated by replacing the use of bevacizumab with ranibizumab and aflibercept.

    Design: Retrospective trend study.

    Methods: Main outcome measures were spending by Medicare as tracked by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for intravitreal injections (67028) and treatment-specific J-codes (J0178, J2778, J9035, J3490 and J3590) for inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor. Read More

    Subthreshold Photocoagulation Using Endpoint Management in the PASCAL® System for Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema.
    J Ophthalmol 2018 31;2018:7465794. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.
    We evaluated subthreshold photocoagulation using endpoint management (EPM) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). The study enrolled 10 eyes from 10 patients (6 men and 4 women) with DME. The entry criteria included central macular thickness (CMT) ≥ 300 m and decimal visual acuity (VA) ≤ 0. Read More

    The prevalence and systemic risk factors of diabetic macular edema: a cross-sectional study from Turkey.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Apr 12;18(1):91. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.
    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetic macular edema (DME) utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to clarify the effects of the systemic findings and risk factors on the development of DME.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the departments of ophthalmology and endocrinology at the Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine in Izmir, Turkey. The demographics, type and duration of diabetes mellitus, treatment modality, smoking and alcohol consumption habits, as well as the systemic blood pressure, renal functional tests, hemoglobulin A1c level, serum lipid profile, and 24-h urine albumin level were noted and statistically analyzed. Read More

    Identification of factors to increase efficacy of telemedicine screening for diabetic retinopathy in endocrinology practices using the Intelligent Retinal Imaging System (IRIS) platform.
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018 Apr 9;140:265-270. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Blanton Eye Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA; Retina Consultants of Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Aims: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) can be evaluated using telemedicine systems, such as the Intelligent Retinal Imaging Systems (IRIS), in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM). In an endocrinology-based population utilizing IRIS we determine prevalence rates of DR and DME, and identify associated epidemiologic correlations.

    Methods: This is a multicenter, retrospective chart review using screening data from IRIS. Read More

    The Correlation between Changes in Biochemical Parameters and Central Macular Thickness in Patients with Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol 2018 ;7(1):10-16
    Associate Professor, University of Health Sciences, Ankara Ulucanlar Eye Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    This study aimed at evaluating the correlation between changes in Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting serum lipids, and Central Macular Thickness (CMT) in patients with Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR). In the current research, both eyes of 68 patients with mild or moderate NPDR, without clinically significant macular edema, were studied. Levels of fasting serum lipids, HbAlc, and CMT were measured during the first visit and at the end of the follow-up period (3 months). Read More

    New observation of microcystic macular edema as a mild form of cystoid macular lesions after standard phacoemulsification: Prevalence and risk factors.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Apr;97(15):e0355
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University.
    We present the new observations of postoperative microcystic macular edema (MME) as a mild form of cystoid macular lesions (CMLs) after standard phacoemulsification.To report the incidence, risk factors, and pathophysiology of MME compared to conventional concept of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME), we retrospectively reviewed patients' records. Pseudophakic CMLs were defined as any cystic fluid collections that were newly formed after cataract surgery, confirmed by preoperative and postoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations. Read More

    A Pathogenetic Classification of Diabetic Macular Edema.
    Ophthalmic Res 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to define a new pathogenetic classification of diabetic macular edema (DME) and to present the results of its application in common clinical practice.

    Methods: One hundred and seventy-seven consecutive patients with center-involving DME, central retinal thickness (CRT) ≥250 µm, were prospectively enrolled. A complete ophthalmological examination included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) assessment, fundus photography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Read More

    Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among self-reported adult diabetics in districts of Eastern Nepal in a community based study.
    Nepal J Ophthalmol 2017 Jul;9(18):136-142
    Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among working age adults around the world. Each year more and more people live with this condition, which can result in life-changing complications.

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a large community based screening programme, in order to estimate the future burden of the disease. Read More

    Intravitreal dexamethasone implant versus triamcinolone acetonide for macular oedema of central retinal vein occlusion: quantifying efficacy and safety.
    Int J Retina Vitreous 2018 26;4:13. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    3Army Hospital Research and Referral, Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, 110010 India.
    Purpose: Among the retinal vascular diseases, burden of retinal vein occlusion is most common immediately after diabetic retinopathy. Intravitreal corticosteroids are gaining popularity in managing macular edema (ME) of RVO. Our study compares efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA) and dexamethasone implant (IVD) over 6 months. Read More

    Metamorphopsia and vision-related quality of life among patients with age-related macular degeneration.
    Can J Ophthalmol 2018 Apr 25;53(2):168-172. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Queen's University, Hotel Dieu Hospital, Kingston, Ont.. Electronic address:
    Objective: To assess subjective and quantified metamorphopsia, as well as vision-related quality of life (QOL), in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to determine whether there is a correlation between quantified metamorphopsia and vision-related QOL in patients with AMD.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with AMD. Patients who had a best-corrected visual acuity less than 20/200, vitreomacular adhesion, vitreomacular traction, epiretinal membrane, macular hole, macular edema by causes other than AMD, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, previous retinal surgery, glaucoma, amblyopia, or strabismus were excluded. Read More

    Clinical application of multicolour scanning laser imaging in diabetic retinopathy.
    Lasers Med Sci 2018 Apr 7. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, No. 600 Yishan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200233, China.
    To compare the visualization of the lesions of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using multicolour scanning laser imaging (MSLI) and conventional colour fundus photography (CFP). The paired images of diabetic patients who underwent same-day MSLI and CFP examinations were reviewed. Combined multicolour (MC) images were acquired simultaneously using three laser wavelengths: blue reflectance (BR, λ = 488 nm), green reflectance (GR, λ = 518 nm) and infrared reflectance (IR, λ = 820 nm). Read More

    Venous beading in two or more quadrants might not be a sensitive grading criterion for severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China.
    Purpose: To determine whether venous beading (VB) in two or more quadrants is an appropriate grading criterion for severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).

    Methods: A hospital-based, retrospective, cross-sectional study. A total of 806 patients admitted with diabetic retinopathy (DR) from January 2014 to April 2017 were included in this study. Read More

    Changes in Blood Pressure and Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio in a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, and Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Mar;59(3):1199-1205
    Joslin Diabetes Center, Beetham Eye Institute, Harvard Department of Ophthalmology Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
    Purpose: To compare blood pressure and urine albumin-creatinine ratio over time for participants receiving aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab.

    Methods: Preplanned secondary analyses from a randomized trial comparing aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema (DME). The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR. Read More

    Short-Term Results of Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Combined with Cataract Surgery for Diabetic Macular Edema in Japan: In the Era of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy.
    Ophthalmologica 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan.
    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection (IVTA) combined with cataract surgery for diabetic macular edema (DME) resistant to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy.

    Procedure: IVTA combined with cataract surgery was performed on 29 eyes of patients with DME (aged 70.5 ± 6. Read More

    Clinical Decision-Making when Treating Diabetic Macular Edema Patients with Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implants.
    Ophthalmologica 2018 Apr 4. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Albacete, Spain.
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease frequently associated with comorbidities that include diabetic macular edema (DME). The current medical approach to treating DME involves intravitreal injections with either anti-vascular endothelial growth factors or steroids. However, the burden associated with intravitreal injections and DM-derived complications is high, underlining the need to find optimal treatment regimens. Read More

    Potential Interplay between Hyperosmolarity and Inflammation on Retinal Pigmented Epithelium in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Int J Mol Sci 2018 Apr 2;19(4). Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Laboratory of Pathophysiological and Nutritional Biochemistry, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Diabetic retinopathy is a frequent eyesight threatening complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Under physiological conditions, the inner and the outer blood-retinal barriers protect the retina by regulating ion, protein, and water flux into and out of the retina. During diabetic retinopathy, many factors, including inflammation, contribute to the rupture of the inner and/or the outer blood-retinal barrier. Read More

    Peroxisome Proliferated Activated Receptors (PPARs): Opportunities and Challenges for Ocular Therapy.
    Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2018 ;35(1):65-97
    Adina Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, b17km Stone, NH-2, Mathura-Delhi Road P.O. Chaumuhan, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh 281406, India.
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors. They exist in three isoforms (PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-Υ) in humans, but mainly PPAR-Υ, and they are expressed in retinal epithelial pigment. PPARs are involved in mediating numerous pathological implications in eye such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), choroidal neovascularization (CNV), glaucoma, diabetic macular edema, and other retinal diseases. Read More

    Macular OCT Classification Using a Multi-Scale Convolutional Neural Network Ensemble.
    IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2018 Apr;37(4):1024-1034
    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of retinal pathologies is a current active area in medical image analysis. Due to the increasing use of retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technique, a CAD system in retinal OCT is essential to assist ophthalmologist in the early detection of ocular diseases and treatment monitoring. This paper presents a novel CAD system based on a multi-scale convolutional mixture of expert (MCME) ensemble model to identify normal retina, and two common types of macular pathologies, namely, dry age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic macular edema. Read More

    Treatment outcomes and predicting factors for diabetic macular edema treated with ranibizumab - One-year real-life results in Taiwan.
    J Formos Med Assoc 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To report the one-year outcomes of diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with ranibizumab under a real-life setting in Taiwan, and to identify the prognostic factors.

    Methods: Between July 2013 and January 2015, 119 eyes receiving intravitreal ranibizumab for DME were retrospectively recruited. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) measured with optical coherence tomography were collected at baseline and at Month 3, 6, and 12. Read More

    Cost Evaluation of Early Vitrectomy versus Panretinal Photocoagulation and Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Ophthalmology 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To evaluate costs and cost-utility of early vitrectomy (pars plana vitrectomy [PPV]) compared with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) without diabetic macular edema.

    Design: A decision analysis model of cost-utility.

    Participants: There were no participants. Read More

    Regional differences in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy: a multi center study in Brazil.
    Diabetol Metab Syndr 2018 14;10:17. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    1Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Boulevard 28 de Setembro, 77, Vila Isabel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Zip Code: 20551-030 Brazil.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy has a significant impact in every healthcare system. Despite that fact, there are few accurate estimates in the prevalence of DR in Brazil's different geographic regions, particularly proliferative DR and diabetic macular edema. This study aims to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Brazil's five continental regions and its determinant factors. Read More

    Current Advances in Pharmacotherapy and Technology for Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review.
    J Ophthalmol 2018 17;2018:1694187. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yan'an People's Hospital, Bei Da Jie, Baota Qu, Yan'an, Shaanxi 716000, China.
    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is classically defined by its vascular lesions and damage in the neurons of the retina. The cellular and clinical elements of DR have many features of chronic inflammation. Understanding the individual cell-specific inflammatory changes in the retina may lead to novel therapeutic approaches to prevent vision loss. Read More

    Impact of Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy on Vision-Specific Functioning.
    Ophthalmology 2018 Mar 20. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Duke-NUS Medical School, Office of Clinical Sciences, Singapore. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To investigate the independent impact of the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on visual functioning (VF).

    Design: Population-based cohort study.

    Participants: A total of 518 participants aged 40 to 80 years (baseline visit 2007-2009 and second visit 6 years later, 2013-2015), with diabetes, clinical data, and VF information at both visits. Read More

    Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses on Systemic Adverse Events Associated With Intravitreal Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Medication Use.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Pharmacology, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire Tours, France.
    Importance: The systemic safety of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) medications is still a matter of debate.

    Objective: This overview of systematic reviews evaluates systemic adverse events associated with intravitreal anti-VEGF treatments in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, or retinal vein occlusion.

    Design, Evidence, And Reporting: This systematic search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database includes meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Read More

    Automatic diagnosis of abnormal macula in retinal optical coherence tomography images using wavelet-based convolutional neural network features and random forests classifier.
    J Biomed Opt 2018 Mar;23(3):1-10
    Noor Eye Hospital, Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
    The present research intends to propose a fully automatic algorithm for the classification of three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of patients suffering from abnormal macula from normal candidates. The method proposed does not require any denoising, segmentation, retinal alignment processes to assess the intraretinal layers, as well as abnormalities or lesion structures. To classify abnormal cases from the control group, a two-stage scheme was utilized, which consists of automatic subsystems for adaptive feature learning and diagnostic scoring. Read More

    Preexisting epiretinal membrane is associated with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema.
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50924, Cologne, Germany.
    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether preexisting epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a significant risk factor for developing pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME).

    Methods: Two hundred four consecutive eyes and 153 consecutive eyes without preexisting epiretinal membranes were retrospectively compared regarding PCME development following phacoemulsification with posterior chamber lens implantation. Patients with vascular retinal diseases, uveitis, trauma, neovascular macular degeneration, chronic inflammatory conditions, diabetic retinopathy, endophthalmitis, eventful cataract surgery, and combination of cataract surgery and vitrectomy during the observation period were excluded. Read More

    Individuals' Perspectives on Coping with Vision Loss from Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Optom Vis Sci 2018 Apr;95(4):362-372
    Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
    Significance: People with vision loss from diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) use problem-focused and emotion-regulation strategies that may influence their short- and longer-term adaptation and psychological outcomes. Our findings can assist the development of models of adjustment to DR/DME-related vision loss and treatments focused on adaptation.

    Purpose: To qualitatively determine the coping strategies used by participants with vision loss resulting from DR/DME. Read More

    Prognostic Factors for Functional and Anatomic Outcomes in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema Treated with Dexamethasone Implant.
    Korean J Ophthalmol 2018 Apr 13;32(2):116-125. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic factors of visual and anatomic outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implant.

    Methods: We retrospectively studied 32 eyes of 31 patients with DME for best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness, and height and width of both intraretinal fluid (IRF) and subretinal fluid. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine correlations between the baseline characteristics and outcomes at 3 and 6 months. Read More

    Clinical applications of optical coherence tomography angiography: What we have learnt in the first 3 years.
    Eur J Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 1:1120672117753704. Epub 2018 Mar 1.
    1 Ophthalmological Center for Imaging and Laser, Paris, France.
    A review of the literature from 2014 to 2016 was conducted, focusing on the results of optical coherence tomography angiography in different chorioretinal diseases. In only 3 years, optical coherence tomography angiography has been shown to be an effective tool for diagnosing choroidal neovascularization complicating age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, and inflammatory conditions. The technique has sometimes been considered superior to conventional multimodal imaging, for example, in choroidal neovascularization associated with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy or multifocal choroiditis. Read More

    Appointment Compliance in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema and Exudative Macular Degeneration.
    Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2018 Mar;49(3):186-190
    Background And Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare cancellation and no-show rates in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and exudative macular degeneration (wet AMD).

    Patients And Methods: An anonymous survey was sent to 1,726 retina specialists inquiring as to the number of appointments their patients with DME and wet AMD attended, cancelled, or did not show up for in 2014 and 2015.

    Results: Data were obtained on 109,599 appointments. Read More

    Effects of crocin on diabetic maculopathy; a placebo controlled randomized clinical trial.
    Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Objective: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the most important sight-threatening complications in patients with diabetes. Due to neuroprotective properties, crocin, as the main constituent in saffron, is thought to be useful in the treatment and prevention of diabetic maculopathy. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effects of crocin as a supplement on reducing inflammation in patients with diabetic maculopathy. Read More

    Diabetic Retinopathy Awareness and Associations with Multiple Comorbidities: Insights from DIAMOND Study.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jan-Feb;22(1):30-35
    Chairman and Medical Director, Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is leading cause of visual impairment in working-age adults. Macular edema can occur with or without other signs of retinopathy.

    Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study conducted over 2 years in patients (>40 years of age) having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Read More

    Recent clinically relevant highlights from the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network.
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 May;29(3):199-205
    Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: To present some recent clinically relevant results from Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research (DRCR) Network trials that may guide management of diabetic macular edema (DME) or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

    Recent Findings: Among eyes with DME and visual acuity 20/50 or worse, aflibercept, on average, had greater improvement in visual acuity over 2 years compared with bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Aflibercept is associated with higher rates of improvements in diabetic retinopathy severity among eyes with PDR and vision-impairing DME at baseline compared with bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Read More

    A Prospective Randomized Comparative Dosing Trial of Ranibizumab In Bevacizumab-Resistant Diabetic Macular Edema: The REACT Study.
    Ophthalmol Retina 2018 Mar;2(3):217-224
    Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195.
    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of ranibizumab for persistent diabetic macular edema (DME) previously treated with bevacizumab and compare monthly vs treat-and-extend (TAE) dosing.

    Design: 12-month, open-label, prospective randomized comparative dosing study.

    Participants: 27 participants with persistent foveal-involving DME recently treated with bevacizumab. Read More

    Plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentrations after Intravitreous Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema.
    Ophthalmology 2018 Mar 7. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Retina Consultants of Houston, Blanton Eye Institute, Houston, Texas.
    Purpose: To assess systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A levels after treatment with intravitreous aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab.

    Design: Comparative-effectiveness trial with participants randomly assigned to 2 mg aflibercept, 1.25 mg bevacizumab, or 0. Read More

    Vitreous IL-8 and VEGF levels in diabetic macular edema with or without subretinal fluid.
    Int Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 9. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kocaeli University Medical School, Kocaeli, Turkey.
    Purpose: To determine the cytokine levels in vitreous samples of diabetic macular edema (DME) patients in comparison with nondiabetic patients, and to evaluate the effect of subretinal fluid on the cytokine levels of vitreous samples.

    Methods: In this prospective case-control study, 11 eyes of 11 patients with DME and subretinal fluid, 11 eyes of 11 patients with DME without subretinal fluid, and 14 eyes of 14 patients who had undergone vitreoretinal surgery for the epiretinal membrane or a macular hole (control group) were evaluated. The blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were determined. Read More

    Aqueous Humor Cytokine Levels and Anatomic Response to Intravitreal Ranibizumab in Diabetic Macular Edema.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Importance: Variability in response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in diabetic macular edema (DME) remains a significant clinical challenge. Biomarkers could help anticipate responses to anti-VEGF therapy.

    Objectives: To investigate aqueous humor cytokine level changes in response to intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for the management of DME, and to determine the association between baseline aqueous levels and anatomic response. Read More

    Stable and Long-Lasting, Novel Bicyclic Peptide Plasma Kallikrein Inhibitors for the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.
    J Med Chem 2018 Apr 15;61(7):2823-2836. Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Thrombogenics N.V., Gaston Geenslaan 1 , 3001 Leuven , Belgium.
    Plasma kallikrein, a member of the kallikrein-kinin system, catalyzes the release of the bioactive peptide bradykinin, which induces inflammation, vasodilation, vessel permeability, and pain. Preclinical evidence implicates the activity of plasma kallikrein in diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of visual loss in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Employing a technology based on phage-display combined with chemical cyclization, we have identified highly selective bicyclic peptide inhibitors with nano- and picomolar potencies toward plasma kallikrein. Read More

    Intralenticular Ozurdex® - One Year Later.
    Case Rep Ophthalmol 2017 Sep-Dec;8(3):590-594. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    Reported here is a case of intralenticular sustained-release dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®, Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) present for 1 year with effective treatment of refractory diabetic macular edema without rapid cataract formation. The crystalline lens remained stable for 12 months on exam despite the presence of the steroid-secreting foreign body. The diabetic macular edema resolved on exam and on optical coherence tomography. Read More

    Subclinical Macular Edema as a Predictor of Progression to Central-Involved Macular Edema in Type 2 Diabetes.
    Ophthalmic Res 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    AIBILI - Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between subclinical diabetic macular edema (SCME) and the development of central-involved macular edema (CIME) in patients with diabetes mellitus type-2 and mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), from 2 populations of different ethnicities.

    Methods: Two hundred and five patients with diabetes mellitus type-2 and mild NPDR with no prior laser or intravitreal treatment were followed for 2 years or until the development of CIME. Ophthalmological examinations, including BCVA, fundus photography with RetmarkerDR analysis, and optical coherence tomography were performed at baseline and months 6, 12, and 24. Read More

    INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR INJECTIONS FOR EXUDATIVE RETINAL ARTERIAL MACROANEURYSMS.
    Retina 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Purpose: There is no established therapy for exudative-hemorrhagic complications in primary retinal arteriolar macroaneurysm (RAM).

    Methods: Retrospective multicenter interventional study of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor in symptomatic RAMs. Central macular thickness in μm and best-corrected visual acuity in logMar were correlated with the RAM size and distance to the macula. Read More

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