3,203 results match your criteria MHR: Basic Science of Reproductive Medicine [Journal]


Metabolic Pathway of Topramezone in Multiple-Resistant Waterhemp () Differs From Naturally Tolerant Maize.

Front Plant Sci 2018 21;9:1644. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States.

Waterhemp [ (Moq.) Sauer] is a problematic dicot weed in maize, soybean, and cotton production in the United States. Waterhemp has evolved resistance to several commercial herbicides that inhibit the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase (HPPD) enzyme in sensitive dicots, and research to date has shown that HPPD-inhibitor resistance is conferred by rapid oxidative metabolism of the parent compound in resistant populations. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Submucosal injection of platelet-rich plasma in endoscopic resection of large sessile lesions.

World J Gastrointest Endosc 2018 Nov;10(11):348-353

Department of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, University Hospital Germans Trias/CIBERehd, Barcelona 08916, Spain.

Aim: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of submucosal injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on endoscopic resection of large sessile lesions.

Methods: Eleven patients were submitted to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) with prior injection of PRP, obtained at the time of endoscopy. Patients were followed during 1 mo. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Structures and gating mechanism of human TRPM2.

Science 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a cation channel associated with numerous diseases. It has a C-terminal NUDT9 homology (NUDT9H) domain responsible for binding ADP-ribose (ADPR), and both ADPR and Ca are required for TRPM2 activation. Here we report cryo-EM structures of human TRPM2, alone, with ADPR, and with ADPR and Ca NUDT9H forms both intra- and inter-subunit interactions with the N-terminal TRPM homology region (MHR1/2/3) in the apo state, but undergoes conformational changes upon ADPR binding, resulting in rotation of MHR1/2 and disruption of the inter-subunit interaction. Read More

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November 2018
12 Reads
31.480 Impact Factor

Rehabilitation via HOMe Based gaming exercise for the Upper-limb post Stroke (RHOMBUS): protocol of an intervention feasibility trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Nov 21;8(11):e026620. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University, London, UK.

Introduction: Effective interventions to promote upper-limb recovery poststroke are characterised by intensive and repetitive movements. However, the repetitive nature of practice may adversely impact on adherence. Therefore, the development of rehabilitation devices that can be used safely and easily at home, and are motivating, enjoyable and affordable is essential to the health and well-being of stroke survivors. Read More

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November 2018
13 Reads

heZEB2, a master regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mediates trophoblast differentiation.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine and Surgery and Center for Abnormal Placentation, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ.

Study Question: Does the upregulation of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) transcription factor in human trophoblast cells lead to alterations in gene expression consistent with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a consequent increase in invasiveness?

Summary Answer: Overexpression of ZEB2 results in an epithelial-mesenchymal shift in gene expression accompanied by a substantial increase in invasive capacity of human trophoblast cells.

What Is Known Already: In-vivo results have shown that cytotrophoblast differentiation into extravillous trophoblast involves an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The only EMT master regulatory factor which shows changes consistent with extravillous trophoblast EMT status and invasive capacity is the ZEB2 transcription factor. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Syst Rev 2018 Nov 20;7(1):204. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GB, UK.

Background: Treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs may cause patients to experience serious adverse effects. Genetic factors, such as polymorphisms of CYP genes, may increase the likelihood of a patient experiencing such adverse drug reactions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we synthesised evidence for associations between CYP genetic variants and anti-tuberculosis drug-related toxicity outcomes. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Exosome-mediated intracellular signalling impacts the development of endometriosis - new avenues for endometriosis research.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

The Robinson Research Institute and Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

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November 2018
1 Read

Phenotypic variations in transferred progeny due to genotype of surrogate mother: Surrogate mother modulates transferred progeny.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Department of Experimental Animal Genetic Resources, Laboratory of the Genetics of Experimental Animals, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Study Question: Does the genotype of the surrogate mother modulate the body composition and immunity of her offspring?

Summary Answer: C57BL/6J (B6) progenies carried by immunodeficient NOD SCID (NS) mothers had increased adaptive, but decreased innate, immune responsiveness in comparison with the same genotype offspring carried by immunocompetent mothers, B6 and BALB/c (C); the B6 progenies carried by the same genotype mothers also showed higher body fat than the others.

What Is Known Already: Differences in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes between mother and foetus is considered as an important factor in prenatal embryo development, whereas the impact of such dissimilarity on the phenotype of the mature progeny is unclear.

Study Design Size, Duration: Transplantation of two-cell mouse embryos into recipient females of the different MHC (H2) genotypes was used as an approach to simulate three variants of the immunogenic mother-foetus interaction: 1) bidirectional immunogenic dialogue between B6 (H2b haplotype) embryos and C (H2d haplotype) surrogate mother; 2) one-way immunogenic interaction between B6 embryos and immunodeficient NS (H2g7 haplotype) surrogate mother; and 3) reduced immunogenetic dialogue between embryos and surrogate mother of the same H2b haplotype resulting in only a maternal response to HY antigens of male foetuses. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

MHR | driving reproductive science.

Authors:

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

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November 2018

Regulation of maternal-fetal heart rates and coupling in mice fetuses.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:5257-5260

The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate if there is any evidence of maternal-fetal heart rate coupling in mice fetuses and how the coupling patterns are regulated by vagal nervous system on beat by beat. Total of 6 pregnant female mice were divided into two groups [control (N=3) and vagal blockade (N=3)]. On 17. Read More

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July 2018
5 Reads

Coupling Analysis of Fetal and Maternal Heart Rates via Transfer Entropy Using Magnetocardiography.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 07;2018:1-4

Recent studies have shown that occasional short term coupling between fetal and maternal cardiac systems occurs. Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a non-invasive technique that records the magnetic fields associated with the electrical activity of the fetal heart through sensors placed over the maternal abdomen. The fMCG allows accurate estimation of fetal heart rates (fHR) due to its high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and temporal resolution. Read More

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A Putative ZnCys Transcription Factor Is Associated With Isoprothiolane Resistance in .

Front Microbiol 2018 31;9:2608. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Isoprothiolane (IPT), a systemic fungicide, has been applied to control rice blast since the 1970s. Although resistance to IPT has been observed, the mechanism of resistance still has not been fully elucidated. In this study, nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between two IPT-resistant mutants generated in the lab, and their parental wild type isolates using a whole-genome sequencing approach. Read More

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October 2018

Macrophages alternatively activated by endometriosis-exosomes contribute to the development of lesions in mice.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Study Question: Do exosomes play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a murine model?

Summary Answer: Exosomes from endometriosis (EMS) can alternatively activate macrophages and thus contribute to the development of lesions in mice.

What Is Known Already: The pathogenesis of endometriosis, an inflammatory disease, possibly involves peritoneal macrophages. Exosomes are recognized as a new communicator among cells and a key modulator in several inflammatory diseases. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Monocyte/HDL Ratio and Lymphocyte/Monocyte Ratio in Patients with Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2018 Nov 13:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

b Meram School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology , Necmettin Erbakan University , Konya , Turkey.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between monocyte count/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (MHR) and lymphocyte count/monocyte count ratio (LMR) with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEXS) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG).

Materials And Methods: A total of 63 participants included in the study. Participants were divided into three groups. Read More

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November 2018

Comparative Analysis of Emergency Medical Service Provider Workload During Simulated Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation Using Standard Versus Experimental Protocols and Equipment.

Simul Healthc 2018 Dec;13(6):376-386

From the Department of Emergency Medicine (N.A., B.C., L.H.M., S.S., K.A.W., J.B., L.K., G.D.J.), Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI; Emergency Department (C.C.P.), Tobey Hospital, Wareham, MA; Lifespan Medical Simulation Center (M.D.); Biostatistics Core (J.T.M.), Rhode Island Hospital; Departments of Diagnostic Imaging (D.L.M., L.H.M.) and Neurosurgery (L.H.M.), Alpert Medical School of Brown University; and School of Engineering (G.D.J.), Brown University, Providence, RI.

Introduction: Protocolized automation of critical, labor-intensive tasks for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation may decrease Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provider workload. A simulation-based assessment method incorporating objective and self-reported metrics was developed and used to quantify workloads associated with standard and experimental approaches to OHCA resuscitation.

Methods: Emergency Medical Services-Basic (EMT-B) and advanced life support (ALS) providers were randomized into two-provider mixed-level teams and fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors for continuous HR and energy expenditure (EE) monitoring. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Studying the nuts and bolts of spermatozoa.

Authors:
Allan Pacey

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Dec;24(12):565-566

Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Level 4, The Jessop Wing, Tree Root Walk, Sheffield, UK.

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December 2018
3 Reads

RHOA activity in expanding blastocysts is essential to regulate HIPPO-YAP signaling and to maintain the trophectoderm-specific gene expression program in a ROCK/actin filament-independent manner.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

1Institute for Biogenesis Research, Department of Anatomy, Biochemistry and Physiology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA.

Study Question: What molecular signals are required to maintain the functional trophectoderm (TE) during blastocyst expansion of the late stage of preimplantation development?

Summary Answer: The activity of ras homology family member A (RHOA) GTPases is necessary to retain the expanded blastocyst cavity and also to sustain the gene expression program specific to TE.

What Is Known Already: At the early stages of preimplantation development, the precursor of the TE lineage is generated through the molecular signals that integrate RHOA, RHO-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), the apicobasal cell polarity, and the HIPPO-Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway. By contrast, molecular mechanisms regulating the maintenance of the TE characteristics at the later stage, which is crucial for blastocyst hatching and implantation, are scarcely understood. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Enhanced expression of TACE contributes to elevated levels of sVCAM-1 in endometriosis.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna, Austria.

Study Question: Are increased sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) activity in endometriosis?

Summary Answer: Here we provide the first functional evidence that induced TACE activity in human endometriotic epithelial cells is at least in part responsible for the enhanced release of sVCAM-1 from these cells.

What Is Known Already: We and others have shown that serum-soluble (s)VCAM-1 levels are significantly higher in women with endometriosis, compared to disease-free controls. Experimental evidence exists suggesting a role of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Probing human sperm metabolism using 13C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Academic Unit of Reproductive & Developmental Medicine, Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Level 4, The Jessop Wing, Tree Root Walk, Sheffield, UK.

Study Question: Can 13C-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of selected metabolites provide useful information about human sperm metabolism and how glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation are used by different sperm populations?

Summary Answer: Sperm populations, prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and incubated with either 13Cu-glucose, 13Cu-fructose or 13C1-pyruvate, showed consistent evidence of metabolism generating principally lactate and more intermittently bicarbonate, and significantly more lactate was produced from 13Cu-glucose by vital or motile sperm recovered from the 40/80% interface compared to those from the pellet, which could not be accounted for by differences in the non-sperm cells present.

What Is Known Already: Previous studies have focused on CO2 or other specific metabolite production by human sperm and there remains considerable debate about whether glycolysis and/or oxidative phosphorylation is the more important pathway for ATP production in sperm.

Study Design Size, Duration: Sperm populations were prepared by DGC and subjected to 13C-MRS to answer the following questions. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Performance of rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion on MHR-SIR agar directly on urine specimens.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Laboratoire de Microbiologie Clinique, Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint-Joseph, Paris, France.

The standard method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections is urine culture that requires 18-48 h for the identification of the bacteria and an additional 24 h until the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are available. We evaluated here a rapid AST method by disc diffusion performed directly on urine samples with a delay of 8 h. A total of 245 urine samples with monobacterial Gram negative observed on microscopy were tested in parallel by two AST methods. Read More

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November 2018

MicroRNAs involved in the HMGA2 deregulation and its co-occurrence with MED12 mutation in uterine leiomyoma.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov;24(11):556-563

Department of Clinical Genetics, Vejle Hospital, Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK, Denmark.

Study Question: Can the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) mutation and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression co-occurrence be explained by the alternative mechanism of HMGA2 dysregulation in uterine leiomyomas (UL)?

Summary Answer: The co-occurrence of MED12 mutation and HMGA2 overexpression, and a negative correlation of five validated or predicted microRNAs that target HMGA2 were reported.

What Is Known Already: The recent stratification of UL, according to recurrent and mutually exclusive genomic alterations affecting HMGA2, MED12, fumarate hydratase (FH) and collagen type IV alpha 5-alpha 6 (COL4A5-COL4A6) pointed out the involvement of distinct molecular pathways. However, the mechanisms of regulation involving these drivers are poorly explored. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Down-regulation of long non-coding RNA MALAT1 inhibits granulosa cell proliferation in endometriosis by up-regulating P21 via activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Oct 27. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Study Question: Is there a specific mechanism underlying the association between lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and endometriosis-related infertility?

Summary Answer: The down-regulation of MALAT1 in endometriosis granulosa cells (GCs) may have an adverse effect on the growth and development of oocytes by inhibiting GC proliferation, due to cell cycle-dependent mechanisms that enhance P21 expression through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.

What Is Known Already: The association between endometriosis and infertility is well supported throughout the literature, and endometriosis per se and its surgical treatment have an adverse effect on the ovarian reserve and on oocyte development. MALAT1, one of the most extensively expressed and evolutionarily conserved transcripts, has been implicated to play a role in human development and many diseases. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Activation of latent transforming growth factor-β1, a conserved function for pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoproteins.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Dec;24(12):602-612

Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Study Question: Do all 10 human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoproteins (PSGs) and murine PSG23 activate latent transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)?

Summary Answer: All human PSGs and murine PSG23 activated latent TGF-β1.

What Is Known Already: Two of the 10 members of the PSG1 family, PSG1 and PSG9, were previously shown to activate the soluble small latent complex of TGF-β1, a cytokine with potent immune suppressive functions.

Study Design, Size, Duration: Recombinant PSGs were generated and tested for their ability to activate the small latent complex of TGF-β1 in a cell-free ELISA-based assay and in a bioassay. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Concordance between different trophectoderm biopsy sites and the inner cell mass of chromosomal composition measured with a next-generation sequencing platform.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Dec;24(12):593-601

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, No. 8, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei City, Taiwan (ROC).

Study Question: In PGS, does chromosomal constitution differ among trophectoderm (TE) biopsy sites and between them and the inner cell mass (ICM)?

Summary Answer: The ploidy concordance between ICM and TE was independent of whether the biopsy site in the TE was near to or far from the ICM.

What Is Known Already: TE biopsies are considered less harmful to developing embryos than blastomere biopsies. Removal of multi-cellular samples permits high-resolution next-generation sequencing (Veriseq NGS) to detect aneuploidy present in a minority of cells (mosaicism of diploid and aneuploid cells). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Reconfigurable sound anomalous absorptions in transparent waveguide with modularized multi-order Helmholtz resonator.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 24;8(1):15678. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

Helmholtz resonators offer an ideal platform for advanced sound absorbers, but their utility has been impeded by inherent frequency range limitations and the lack of function reconfiguration. Here, we introduce a multi-order Helmholtz resonator (MHR) that allows multiple monopolar resonant modes theoretically and experimentally. The combination of these modularized MHRs further creates reconfigurable multi-band anomalous absorbers in a two-port transparent waveguide while maintaining undisturbed air ventilation. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

CYP81A P450s are involved in concomitant cross-resistance to acetolactate synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase herbicides in Echinochloa phyllopogon.

New Phytol 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8572, Japan.

Californian populations of Echinochloa phyllopogon have evolved multiple-herbicide resistance (MHR), posing a threat to rice production in California. Previously, we identified two CYP81A cytochrome P450 genes whose overexpression is associated with resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors from two chemical groups. Resistance mechanisms to other herbicides remain unknown. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Spillover Effects of Massachusetts Health Reform on Mental Health Use by VA and Medicare Dual Enrollees.

Adm Policy Ment Health 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Center for Veteran-Centered and Value-Driven Care, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S. Columbian Way, HSR&D MS-152, Seattle, WA, 98108, USA.

Older veterans can obtain care from the Veterans Affairs Health System (VA), Medicare or both. We examined whether their use of mental health care was impacted by capacity effects stemming from younger, uninsured veterans' enrolling in VA to satisfy the individual mandate within Massachusetts Health Reform (MHR). Using administrative data, we applied a difference-in-difference approach to compare pre-post changes in mental health use following MHR implementation. Read More

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October 2018

Monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein ratio is associated with a decreased compound muscle action potential amplitude in patients with diabetic axonal polyneuropathy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Oct;97(42):e12857

The monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has recently been implemented as an indicator of inflammation and oxidative stress. The present study characterized MHR in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), in which oxidative stress and microvascular damage play a role in pathogenesis, relative to patients with non-DPN, diabetic patients without polyneuropathy, and healthy individuals. We further aimed to evaluate the association between MHR and the decreased compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude of patients with diabetic axonal polyneuropathy. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Errors and pitfalls in reading the cardiotocographic tracing.

Minerva Ginecol 2018 Oct 11. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Reading of fetal heart rate (FHR) tracing during labor remains one of the most controversial and problematic issues in Obstetrics. The incorrect interpretation of CTG can be due to errors and pitfalls. Some common errors are related to the incorrect use of oxytocin, specifically to the failure to recognize tachysystole, to correct it and to use oxytocin to accelerate labor when the fetal heart rate tracing is not reassuring. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

The European Union General Data Protection Regulation (EU 2016/679) and the Australian My Health Record Scheme - A Comparative Study of Consent to Data Processing Provisions.

Authors:
Danuta Mendelson

J Law Med 2018 Oct;26(1):23-38

Chair in Law (Research), School of Law, Deakin University.

As a general rule, lawfulness of data processing under the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (EU 2016/679) (GDPR) is based on affirmative, unambiguous, voluntary, informed, and specific or "granular" consent to processing of their data, including health data, by individuals referred to as data subjects. The GDPR grants data subjects the legal right to specifically agree to (or refuse) having their data processed in any of the ways statutorily defined as "processing". Individuals also have the legal right to be fully informed about each and every intended use of their data by data processors and controllers, and the right to refuse such use. Read More

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October 2018

Analysis of clinical characteristics and S gene sequences in chronic asymptomatic HBV carriers with low-level HBsAg.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Clinical Research, The 117th Hospital of PLA, Hangzhou 310013, PR China; Faculty of Graduate Studies, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: During the natural hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection process, some infected subjects are characterized by a sustained low serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) expression level. Most members in this population are chronic asymptomatic HBV carriers (ASCs). To elucidate the mechanism underlying low-level HBsAg expression in ASCs, we sequenced the HBV S gene in these patients to reveal specific sequence characteristics. Read More

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October 2018

Mammalian sperm contain two factors for calcium release and egg activation: Phospholipase C zeta and a cryptic activating factor.

Authors:
Keith T Jones

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Oct;24(10):465-468

Faculty of Sciences, University of Adelaide, 5005, South Australia, Australia, and School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Southampton, UK.

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October 2018

Age-related gene expression profiles of immature human oocytes.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Oct;24(10):469-477

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Study Question: What is the difference between the gene expression profiles of single human germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes from women of different ages?

Summary Answer: There were no statistically significant differences in gene expression profiles of human GV oocytes from women of different ages (range: 25-43).

What Is Known Already: It is well established that reproductive capacity declines as women age, which is attributed to oocyte quality since this decline is counterbalanced in older women receiving young donor oocytes. Altered gene expression of human oocytes at different stages of development in relation to female age is one of the suggested mechanisms that could explain the decrease in oocyte quality. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read
3.750 Impact Factor

Janus kinase JAK1 maintains the ovarian reserve of primordial follicles in the mouse ovary.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov;24(11):533-542

School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Study Question: Is the Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway involved in ovarian follicle development and primordial follicle activation?

Summary Answer: JAK1 is a key factor involved in the regulation of primordial follicle activation and maintenance of the ovarian reserve.

What Is Known Already: A series of integrated, intrinsic signalling pathways (including PI3K/AKT, mTOR and KITL) are responsible for regulating the ovarian reserve of non-growing primordial follicles and ultimately female fertility. The JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is highly conserved with established roles in cell division and differentiation. Read More

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November 2018
3.750 Impact Factor

Transcriptional landscape changes during human embryonic stem cell derivation.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov;24(11):543-555

Ghent-Fertility and Stem cell Team (G-FaST), Department for Reproductive Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Study Question: What are the transcriptional changes occurring during the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation process, from the inner cell mass (ICM) to post-ICM intermediate stage (PICMI) to hESC stage, that have downstream effects on pluripotency states and differentiation?

Summary Answer: We reveal that although the PICMI is transcriptionally similar to the hESC profile and distinct from ICM, it exhibits upregulation of primordial germ cell (PGC) markers, dependence on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling, upregulation of naïve pluripotency-specific signaling networks and appears to be an intermediate switching point from naïve to primed pluripotency.

What Is Known Already: It is currently known that the PICMI exhibits markers of early and late-epiblast stage. It is suggested that hESCs acquire primed pluripotency features due to the upregulation of post-implantation genes in the PICMI which renders them predisposed towards differentiation cues. Read More

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November 2018
15 Reads

Comparison of two warm-up models for obese and normal-weight adults performing supramaximal cycling exercise.

Biol Sport 2018 Mar 15;35(1):93-98. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Sport Science Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar.

This study examines the impact of two forms of active warm-up on supramaximal cycling performance among sedentary adults. Thirty-seven adults [23.05 (6. Read More

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Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training Is Superior to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Improving Cardiac Autonomic Function in Children.

Cardiology 2018 18;141(1):1-8. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the impact of 3 isocaloric exercise programs on cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning in children.

Methods: One hundred nine children (39% boys and 61% girls) aged 10-13 years (mean 11.07 ± 0. Read More

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September 2018
14 Reads

The functional anatomy of the human spermatozoon: relating ultrastructure and function.

Authors:
David Mortimer

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Dec;24(12):567-592

Oozoa Biomedical Inc., Caulfeild Village, West Vancouver, BC, Canada.

The Internet, magazine articles, and even biomedical journal articles, are full of cartoons of spermatozoa that bear minimal resemblance to real spermatozoa, especially human spermatozoa, and this had led to many misconceptions about what spermatozoa look like and how they are constituted. This review summarizes the historical and current state of knowledge of mammalian sperm ultrastructure, with particular emphasis on and relevance to human spermatozoa, combining information obtained from a variety of electron microscopic (EM) techniques. Available information on the composition and configuration of the various ultrastructural components of the spermatozoon has been related to their mechanistic purpose and roles in the primary aspects of sperm function and fertilization: motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, the acrosome reaction and sperm-oocyte fusion. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective evaluation of rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion on Mueller-Hinton rapid-SIR directly on blood cultures.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Jan 31;93(1):14-21. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Service de Microbiologie Clinique, Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint-Joseph, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: With the worldwide spread of antibiotic resistance, delivering antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results in a timely manner represents a major challenge. In cases of sepsis, rapid AST may facilitate early optimization of empiric antibiotic therapy. Disc diffusion is a well-standardized AST method, however 16 to 24 h are required to achieve an overall AST profile according to antimicrobial societies. Read More

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January 2019
7 Reads

High-intensity physical exercise increases serum -klotho levels in healthy volunteers.

J Circ Biomark 2018 Jan-Dec;7:1849454418794582. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Nephrology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The recently discovered klotho proteins have roles in a diverse range of metabolic processes with the oldest protein, α-klotho, implicated in various cellular pathways in energy, glucose, and phosphate metabolism. Circulating soluble klotho (sKl), derived from membrane α-klotho cleavage, not only has effects on ion channels and insulin signaling pathways, but is inversely associated with mortality. Effects of physical exercise on sKl have not been well studied. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

Predictive value of lymphocyte to monocyte ratio and monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio for acute deep vein thrombosis after total joint arthroplasty: a retrospective study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2018 Aug 24;13(1):211. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Sports Medicine and Adult Reconstructive Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most dangerous complications of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Systemic inflammation has proved to have a great contribution to thrombosis and has been considered as a risk factor for DVT recently. The lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) and monocyte to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (MHR) are two biomarkers used widely for systemic inflammation. Read More

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August 2018
1.580 Impact Factor

Does the molecular and metabolic profile of human granulosa cells correlate with oocyte fate? New insights by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Nov;24(11):521-532

9.baby, Family and Fertility Center, Via Dante, 15, Bologna, Italy.

Study Question: Does the molecular and metabolic profile of human mural granulosa cells (GCs) correlate with oocyte fate?

Summary Answer: A close relation between the metabolic profile of mural GCs and the fate of the corresponding oocyte was revealed by the analysis of selected biomarkers defined by GC Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) analysis.

What Is Known Already: In ART, oocyte selection is mainly based on the subjective observation of its morphological features; despite recent efforts, the success rate of this practice is still unsatisfactory. FTIRM is a well-established vibrational technique recently applied to evaluate oocytes quality in several experimental models, including human. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

ADAM8 localizes to extravillous trophoblasts within the maternal-fetal interface and potentiates trophoblast cell line migration through a β1 integrin-mediated mechanism.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Oct;24(10):495-509

British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, 950 West 28th Ave, Vancouver, Canada.

Study Question: Does A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8) control extravillous trophoblast (EVT) differentiation and migration in early human placental development?

Summary Answer: ADAM8 mRNA preferentially localizes to invasive HLA-G-positive trophoblasts, associates with the acquirement of an EVT phenotype and promotes trophoblast migration through a mechanism requiring β1-integrin.

What Is Known Already: Placental establishment in the first trimester of pregnancy requires the differentiation of progenitor trophoblasts into invasive EVTs that produce a diverse repertoire of proteases that facilitate matrix remodeling and activation of signaling pathways important in controlling cell migration. While multiple ADAM proteases, including ADAM8, are highly expressed by invasive trophoblasts, the role of ADAM8 in controlling EVT-related processes is unknown. Read More

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October 2018

Short-term outcomes after major hepatic resection in patients with cirrhosis: a 75-case unicentric western experience.

HPB (Oxford) 2018 Aug 15. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France; Université Aix-Marseille, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385, Marseille, France.

Background: The benefit of performing major hepatic resection (MHR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis remains controversial because of its high risk of posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF). This study was conducted to assess the risk of MHR for HCC in patients with cirrhosis.

Methods: Patients with Child-Pugh A or B cirrhosis and HCC who underwent MHR from January 2000 to June 2014 were retrospectively identified. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis of rhesus monkey failed-to-mature oocytes: deficiencies in transcriptional regulation and cytoplasmic maturation of the oocyte mRNA population.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Oct;24(10):478-494

Department of Animal Science and Reproductive and Developmental Sciences Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Study Question: Which different pathways and functions are altered in rhesus monkey oocytes that fail to mature after an ovulatory stimulus?

Summary Answer: Failed to mature (FTM) oocytes complete a large portion of the transition in transcriptome composition associated with normal maturation, but also manifest numerous differences that indicate incomplete transcriptional repression and cytoplasmic maturation affecting multiple processes.

What Is Known Already: Oocyte maturation defects contribute to unexplained female infertility. Failure of some oocytes to undergo germinal vesicle breakdown or progress to second meiotic metaphase in response to an ovulatory stimulus can limit the number of high quality oocytes available for ART. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Piezo1 channels are mechanosensors in human fetoplacental endothelial cells.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Oct;24(10):510-520

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, 6 Clarendon Way, Leeds, UK.

Study Question: Does the shear stress sensing ion channel subunit Piezo1 have an important mechanotransduction role in human fetoplacental endothelium?

Summary Answer: Piezo1 is present and functionally active in human fetoplacental endothelial cells, and disruption of Piezo1 prevents the normal response to shear stress.

What Is Known Already: Shear stress is an important stimulus for maturation and function of placental vasculature but the molecular mechanisms by which the force is detected and transduced are unclear. Piezo1 channels are Ca2+-permeable non-selective cationic channels which are critical for shear stress sensing and maturation of murine embryonic vasculature. Read More

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October 2018

A Dolce & Gabbana model in every ART clinic?

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Sep;24(9):431-432

Reproductive and Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

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September 2018

Regulation of the human placental (pro)renin receptor-prorenin-angiotensin system by microRNAs.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Sep;24(9):453-464

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Study Question: Are any microRNAs (miRNAs) that target the placental renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the human placenta suppressed in early gestation?

Summary Answer: Overall, 21 miRNAs with predicted RAS mRNA targets were less abundant in early versus term placentae and nine were more highly expressed.

What Is Known Already: Regulation of human placental RAS expression could alter placental development and therefore normal pregnancy outcome. The expression of genes encoding prorenin (REN), angiotensinogen, (pro)renin receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor are highest in early gestation, at a time when oxygen tension is at its lowest. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

Biomark Med 2018 Sep 25;12(9):953-959. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ordu University Faculty of Medicine, Ordu, Turkey.

Aim: We investigated the relationship of monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) with diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

Methods & Results: A total of 220 diabetes mellitus patients and 70 healthy controls were enrolled. There was no difference in an MHR between normoalbuminuric diabetic patients and the healthy controls. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

A novel transcriptional network for the androgen receptor in human epididymis epithelial cells.

Mol Hum Reprod 2018 Sep;24(9):433-443

Human Molecular Genetics Program, Lurie Children's Research Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Study Question: What is the transcriptional network governed by the androgen receptor (AR) in human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells from the caput region and if the network is tissue-specific, how is this achieved?

Summary Answer: About 200 genes are differentially expressed in the caput HEE cells after AR activation; the AR transcriptional network is tissue-specific and may be mediated in part by distinct AR co-factors including CAAT-enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB) and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1).

What Is Known Already: Little is known about the AR transcriptional program genome wide in HEE cells, nor its co-factors in those cells. AR has been best studied in the prostate gland epithelium and prostate cancer cell lines, due to the important role of this factor in prostate cancer. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads