717 results match your criteria Lymphatic System Overview


The glymphatic system and subarachnoid hemorrhage: disruption and recovery.

Explor Neuroprotective Ther 2022 21;2(3):118-130. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.

The glymphatic system, or glial-lymphatic system, is a waste clearance system composed of perivascular channels formed by astrocytes that mediate the clearance of proteins and metabolites from the brain. These channels facilitate the movement of cerebrospinal fluid throughout brain parenchyma and are critical for homeostasis. Disruption of the glymphatic system leads to an accumulation of these waste products as well as increased interstitial fluid in the brain. Read More

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Effects of Sound Interventions on the Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Meningeal Lymphatic Clearance.

Brain Sci 2022 Jun 5;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

The meningeal lymphatic, or glymphatic, system is receiving increasing attention from the scientific community. Recent work includes noninvasive techniques to demonstrate relationships between blood-brain barrier (BBB) activity and the glymphatic system in the human central nervous system. One potential technique is the use of music/sound to enhance BBB permeability regarding the movement of small molecules in and out of the brain. Read More

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Development of Human ILCs and Impact of Unconventional Cytotoxic Subsets in the Pathophysiology of Inflammatory Diseases and Cancer.

Front Immunol 2022 26;13:914266. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine (BioMeTra), University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were firstly described by different independent laboratories in 2008 as tissue-resident innate lymphocytes mirroring the phenotype and function of T helper cells. ILCs have been subdivided into three distinct subgroups, ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3, according to their cytokine and transcriptional profiles. Subsequently, also Natural Killer (NK) cells, that are considered the innate counterpart of cytotoxic CD8 T cells, were attributed to ILC1 subfamily, while lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells were attributed to ILC3 subgroup. Read More

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Lymphatic Phenotype of Noonan Syndrome: Innovative Diagnosis and Possible Implications for Therapy.

J Clin Med 2022 May 31;11(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Radboudumc Amalia Children's Hospital, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Dysregulation of the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is suggested to play a pivotal role in the development of the lymphatic system in patients with Noonan Syndrome (NS). Pathogenic gene variants in the Ras/MAPK pathway can therefore lead to various lymphatic diseases such as lymphedema, chylo-thorax and protein losing enteropathy. Diagnosis and treatment of the lymphatic phenotype in patients with NS remain difficult due to the variability of clinical presentation, severity and, probably, underlying unknown pathophysiologic mechanism. Read More

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Reactive Oxygen Species in Regulating Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Function.

Cells 2022 05 26;11(11). Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38017, USA.

The lymphatic system is pivotal for immunosurveillance and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels from pre-existing vessels, has both physiological and pathological roles. Recent advances in the molecular mechanisms regulating lymphangiogenesis have opened a new area of research on reparative lymphangiogenesis for the treatment of various pathological disorders comprising neurological disorders, cardiac repair, autoimmune disease, obesity, atherosclerosis, etc. Read More

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Imaging perivascular space structure and function using brain MRI.

Neuroimage 2022 Aug 21;257:119329. Epub 2022 May 21.

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.

In this article, we provide an overview of current neuroimaging methods for studying perivascular spaces (PVS) in humans using brain MRI. In recent years, an increasing number of studies highlighted the role of PVS in cerebrospinal/interstial fluid circulation and clearance of cerebral waste products and their association with neurological diseases. Novel strategies and techniques have been introduced to improve the quantification of PVS and to investigate their function and morphological features in physiological and pathological conditions. Read More

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Critical Review of the Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery in Malignant Melanoma.

J Drugs Dermatol 2022 05;21(5):510-516

Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive solid tumors but has low morbidity if treated at an early stage. Over the past decade, the advent of targeted therapy and immunotherapy have productively enriched the treatment options for advanced melanomas and further improved the prognosis. The treatment of melanoma is a rapidly evolving field. Read More

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Axillary lymph node characteristics in breast cancer patients versus post-COVID-19 vaccination: Overview of current evidence per imaging modality.

Eur J Radiol 2022 Jul 30;152:110334. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands; GROW - School for Oncology and Reproduction, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Medical Imaging, Zuyderland Medical Center, Sittard-Geleen, the Netherlands.

Background: Axillary lymph node characteristics on axillary ultrasound (US), breast MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT are relevant at breast cancer diagnosis. Axillary lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination has been frequently reported. This may cause a diagnostic dilemma, particularly in the ipsilateral axilla in women who have a either a recent diagnosis of breast cancer or a history of breast cancer. Read More

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Primary lymphatic tuberculosis in children - Literature overview and case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 May 21;17(5):1656-1664. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Radiology, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Tuberculosis bacilli can enter the human body through the digestive system, the skin, and the mucous membranes, although they mainly enter through the respiratory tract. TB bacilli can enter the bloodstream and attack other organs including the lymphatic system. The TB bacillus can cause miliary tuberculosis once they have entered the bloodstream and infiltrated the lymphatic system, which can then manifest as large lymph nodes in the hilum, mediastinum, and lung. Read More

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Interventional Treatment Options in Children with Extracranial Vascular Malformations.

Hamostaseologie 2022 Apr 9;42(2):131-141. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Radiology, Ludwig Maximilian University Hospital, Munich, München, Germany.

Extracranial vascular malformations vary greatly and belong to the complex field of orphan diseases and can involve all segments of the vascular tree: arteries, capillaries, and veins, and similarly the lymphatic system. The classification according to the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) represents an important guidance for selecting appropriate therapy. Although many of the principles of endovascular treatment, including image-guided sclerotherapy and embolization, are similar in adult and pediatric practice, there are some distinct differences regarding the treatment of vascular malformations of children. Read More

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Understanding Lymphatic Anatomy and Abnormalities at Imaging.

Radiographics 2022 Mar-Apr;42(2):487-505. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

From the Department of Radiology, Divisions of Cardiothoracic Imaging (E.L., P.P.A.), Interventional Radiology (W.S.), and Body Imaging (W.R.M.), University of Michigan, University Hospital Floor B1, Reception C, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, SPC 5030, Ann Arbor, MI 48109; University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pa (D.M.B.); and Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, Mich (M.L.T.).

Lymphatic abnormalities encompass a wide range of disorders spanning solitary common cystic lymphatic malformations (LMs) to entities involving multiple organ systems such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Many of these disorders are rare, yet some, such as secondary lymphedema from the treatment of malignancy (radiation therapy and/or lymph node dissection), affect millions of patients worldwide. Owing to complex and variable anatomy, the lymphatics are not as well understood as other organ systems. Read More

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Clearance Systems in the Brain, From Structure to Function.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 31;15:729706. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

As the most metabolically active organ in the body, there is a recognized need for pathways that remove waste proteins and neurotoxins from the brain. Previous research has indicated potential associations between the clearance system in the brain and the pathological conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), due to its importance, which has attracted considerable attention recently. In the last decade, studies of the clearance system have been restricted to the glymphatic system. Read More

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January 2022

A Brief Overview of the Cerebrospinal Fluid System and Its Implications for Brain and Spinal Cord Diseases.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 21;15:737217. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Comparative Medicine Lab, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

A comprehensive understanding of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system is essential for our understanding of health and disease within the central nervous system (CNS). The system of CSF refers to all components involved in CSF production, movement, and absorption. In recent years, extensive research has resulted in vastly improved understanding of the CSF system in health and disease. Read More

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January 2022

Germinal Centers.

Annu Rev Immunol 2022 04 3;40:413-442. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA; email:

Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomical sites of B cell clonal expansion and antibody affinity maturation. Therein, B cells undergo the Darwinian process of somatic diversification and affinity-driven selection of immunoglobulins that produces the high-affinity antibodies essential for effective humoral immunity. Here, we review recent developments in the field of GC biology, primarily as it pertains to GCs induced by infection or immunization. Read More

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Supermicrosurgical treatment for lymphedema: a systematic review and network meta-analysis protocol.

Syst Rev 2022 02 1;11(1):18. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of Plastic, Hand, and Reconstructive Microsurgery, BG-Trauma Hospital Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Background: Lymphedema is a condition that affects up to 130 million subjects worldwide. Since it is related to several complications and a significant reduction in terms of quality of life, it is a heavy burden not only to the patients but also for the healthcare system worldwide. Despite the development of supermicrosurgery, such as vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) and lymphovenous anastomosis LVA, the indications and outcomes of these complex groups of interventions remain a controversial topic in the field of reconstructive plastic surgery. Read More

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February 2022

Laparoscopic versus open distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Surgery 2022 Jun 31;171(6):1552-1561. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Location VU Medical Center, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Location VU Medical Center, the Netherlands.

Objective: Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) with adequate lymph node dissection for gastric cancer is increasingly being applied worldwide. Several randomized trials have been conducted regarding this surgical approach. The aim of this meta-analysis is to present an updated overview comparing laparoscopic distal gastrectomy and open distal gastrectomy (ODG) with regard to short-term results, long-term follow-up, and oncological outcomes. Read More

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The VASCERN European Reference Network: An overview.

Eur J Med Genet 2022 Mar 13;65(3):104420. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

VASCERN Coordination Team, Hopital Bichat, Paris, France.

Established since 2017 and co-funded by the European commission, VASCERN is the European Reference Network aiming at improving and homogenizing care of patients with rare multisystemic vascular diseases throughout Europe. It gathers 31 expert teams from 26 highly specialized multidisciplinary HCPs, plus 7 Affiliated Partner centers, from 16 EU Member States, as well as more than 65 patient organisations (ePAG). It is structured around 5 main RDWGs, each specialized in a specific disease or group of diseases. Read More

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Nanotechnology-Based Approaches to Promote Lymph Node Targeted Delivery of Cancer Vaccines.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2022 02 10;8(2):406-423. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, The Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

Vaccines are a promising immunotherapy that awakens the human immune system to inhibit and eliminate cancer with fewer side effects compared with traditional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although cancer vaccines have shown some efficacy, there are still troublesome bottlenecks to expand their benefits in the clinic, including weak immune effects and limited therapeutic outcomes. In the past few years, in addition to neoantigen screening, a main branch of the efforts has been devoted to promoting the lymph nodes (LNs) targeting of cancer vaccines and the cross-presentation of antigens by dendritic cells (DCs), two cardinal stages in effective initiation of the immune response. Read More

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February 2022

Oral delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins: Technology landscape of lipid-based nanocarriers.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2022 03 7;182:114097. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

The oral administration of therapeutic peptides and proteins is favoured from a patient and commercial point of view. In order to reach the systemic circulation after oral administration, these drugs have to overcome numerous barriers including the enzymatic, sulfhydryl, mucus and epithelial barrier. The development of oral formulations for therapeutic peptides and proteins is therefore necessary. Read More

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The Tumor Immune Landscape and Architecture of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Urothelial Cancer.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:793964. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Candidate immune biomarkers have been proposed for predicting response to immunotherapy in urothelial cancer (UC). Yet, these biomarkers are imperfect and lack predictive power. A comprehensive overview of the tumor immune contexture, including Tertiary Lymphoid structures (TLS), is needed to better understand the immunotherapy response in UC. Read More

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February 2022

Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy for gynecologic cancers.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2022 02;34(1):15-19

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Stanford Women's Cancer Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford 94305, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an overview of the current knowledge and recent advances of sentinel lymph node (SLN) assessment in uterine, cervical, vulvar, and ovarian cancers.

Recent Findings: In endometrial cancer, SLN evaluation has become increasingly utilized as part of the treatment of early-stage disease, with data showing improved detection of pelvic lymph node metastasis. In cervical cancer, SLN biopsy has also gained increasing traction with studies demonstrating the feasibility and accuracy of SLN detection. Read More

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February 2022

A comprehensive overview of tumour deposits in colorectal cancer: Towards a next TNM classification.

Cancer Treat Rev 2022 Feb 21;103:102325. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Sorbonne Université, Service d'Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologiques, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, 184 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:

The management of colorectal cancer (CRC) highly relies on the TNM staging system. Tumour deposits (TDs), important histoprognostic factors, are detected in approximately 20% of CRCs and associated with poor prognosis. Integration of TDs in the TNM staging remains a subject of lively debate and differs over the successive TNM classifications. Read More

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February 2022

Follicular dendritic cells.

J Cell Physiol 2022 04 17;237(4):2019-2033. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine (QU Health), Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are unique accessory immune cells that contribute to the regulation of humoral immunity. They are multitasker cells essential for the organization and maintenance of the lymphoid architecture, induction of germinal center reaction, production of B memory cells, and protection from autoimmune disorders. They perform their activities through both antigen-driven and chemical signaling to B cells. Read More

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MRI for Rectal Cancer: Staging, mrCRM, EMVI, Lymph Node Staging and Post-Treatment Response.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2022 03 14;21(1):10-18. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Rectal cancer is a relatively common malignancy in the United States. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of rectal cancer has evolved tremendously in recent years, and has become a key component of baseline staging and treatment planning. In addition to assessing the primary tumor and locoregional lymph nodes, rectal MRI can be used to help with risk stratification by identifying high-risk features such as extramural vascular invasion and can assess treatment response for patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Read More

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A clinical primer for the glymphatic system.

Brain 2022 04;145(3):843-857

Departments of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 USA.

The complex and dynamic system of fluid flow through the perivascular and interstitial spaces of the CNS has new-found implications for neurological diseases. CSF movement throughout the CNS parenchyma is more dynamic than could be explained via passive diffusion mechanisms alone. Indeed, a semistructured glial-lymphatic (glymphatic) system of astrocyte-supported extracellular perivascular channels serves to directionally channel extracellular fluid, clearing metabolites and peptides to optimize neurological function. Read More

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Limitations and Possibilities of Transarterial Chemotherapeutic Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 2;22(23). Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.

Because diagnostic tools for discriminating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and advanced cirrhosis are poor, HCC is often detected in a stage where transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the best treatment option, even though it provides a poor survival gain. Despite having been used worldwide for several decades, TACE still has many limitations. First, there is a vast heterogeneity in the cellular composition and metabolism of HCCs as well as in the patient population, which renders it difficult to identify patients who would benefit from TACE. Read More

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December 2021

Management of sinonasal cancers: Survey of UK practice and literature overview.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2022 Jan 19;48(1):32-43. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester and Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: Sinonasal malignancy is a rare and heterogenous disease, with limited evidence to guide management. This report summarises the findings of a UK survey and expert workshop discussion which took place to inform design of a proposed UK trial to assess proton beam therapy versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

Method: A multidisciplinary working group constructed an online survey to assess current approaches within the UK to surgical and non-surgical practice. Read More

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January 2022

Aging-Related Cellular, Structural and Functional Changes in the Lymph Nodes: A Significant Component of Immunosenescence? An Overview.

Cells 2021 11 12;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Human Epigenetics, Mossakowski Medical Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

Aging affects all tissues and organs. Aging of the immune system results in the severe disruption of its functions, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections, an increase in autoimmune disorders and cancer incidence, and a decreased response to vaccines. Lymph nodes are precisely organized structures of the peripheral lymphoid organs and are the key sites coordinating innate and long-term adaptive immune responses to external antigens and vaccines. Read More

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November 2021

The Multifaceted Roles of B Cells in the Thymus: From Immune Tolerance to Autoimmunity.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:766698. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Fundación Ciencia y Vida, Santiago, Chile.

The thymus is home to a significant number of resident B cells which possess several unique characteristics regarding their origin, phenotype and function. Evidence shows that they originate both from precursors that mature intrathymically and as the entry of recirculating mature B cells. Under steady-state conditions they exhibit hallmark signatures of activated B cells, undergo immunoglobulin class-switch, and express the Aire transcription factor. Read More

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February 2022

Cumulative Roles for Epstein-Barr Virus, Human Endogenous Retroviruses, and Human Herpes Virus-6 in Driving an Inflammatory Cascade Underlying MS Pathogenesis.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:757302. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Pathology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, VUMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Roles for viral infections and aberrant immune responses in driving localized neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) are the focus of intense research. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as a persistent and frequently reactivating virus with major immunogenic influences and a near 100% epidemiological association with MS, is considered to play a leading role in MS pathogenesis, triggering localized inflammation near or within the central nervous system (CNS). This triggering may occur directly viral products (RNA and protein) and/or indirectly antigenic mimicry involving B-cells, T-cells and cytokine-activated astrocytes and microglia cells damaging the myelin sheath of neurons. Read More

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