633 results match your criteria Lymphatic System Overview

Mechanosensation and Mechanotransduction by Lymphatic Endothelial Cells Act as Important Regulators of Lymphatic Development and Function.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 12;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physiology, Semmelweis University School of Medicine, 1094 Budapest, Hungary.

Our understanding of the function and development of the lymphatic system is expanding rapidly due to the identification of specific molecular markers and the availability of novel genetic approaches. In connection, it has been demonstrated that mechanical forces contribute to the endothelial cell fate commitment and play a critical role in influencing lymphatic endothelial cell shape and alignment by promoting sprouting, development, maturation of the lymphatic network, and coordinating lymphatic valve morphogenesis and the stabilization of lymphatic valves. However, the mechanosignaling and mechanotransduction pathways involved in these processes are poorly understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sarcoidosis: A Clinical Overview from Symptoms to Diagnosis.

Cells 2021 Mar 31;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Internal Medicine, Lyon University Hospital, 69007 Lyon, France.

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown etiology characterized by the formation of granulomas in various organs. It affects people of all ethnic backgrounds and occurs at any time of life but is more frequent in African Americans and Scandinavians and in adults between 30 and 50 years of age. Sarcoidosis can affect any organ with a frequency varying according to ethnicity, sex and age. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lymphoedema after head and neck cancer treatment: an overview for clinical practice.

Br J Community Nurs 2021 Apr;26(Sup4):S24-S29

Speech Pathology Manager, Speech Pathology Department, John Hunter Hospital and Belmont Hospital, New South Wales, Australia; Conjoint Associate Professor School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia; Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, Hunter Medical Research Institute, New South Wales, Australia.

Lymphoedema is a disorder of the lymphatic system that presents as an atypical swelling and accumulation of protein-rich fluid within the interstitial spaces. Head and neck lymphoedema (HNL) is highly prevalent in patients who have been treated for head and neck cancer (HNC) and may manifest externally on the face and neck; internally within the oral cavity, pharynx or larynx; or as a combination of both. HNL is known to contribute to a wide range of physical, functional and psychological issues, and presents several unique challenges in terms of its management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Clinical Pearls for Providers.

Curr Oncol 2020 Dec 1;27(6):336-340. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Lymphedema is a chronic inflammatory condition that results from damage to the lymphatic system. Lymphedema is classified as either primary or secondary, the former being caused by a malformation of lymph vessels or nodes, and the latter resulting from trauma, chronic lymphatic system overload, or the sequelae of cancer treatments. In the present article, we focus on secondary cancer-related lymphedema (CRL), a potential survivorship treatment-related effect. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Use of technology to facilitate a prospective surveillance program for breast cancer-related lymphedema at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

Mhealth 2021 20;7:11. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a negative sequela of breast cancer (BC) caused by trauma to the lymphatic system during surgery or radiation to the axillary lymph nodes. BCRL affects approximately one in five patients treated for BC, and patients are at a lifelong risk for BCRL after treatment. Early diagnosis of BCRL may prevent its progression and reduce negative effects on quality of life, necessitating comprehensive prospective screening. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Abdominal Imaging in Small Ruminants: Liver, Spleen, Gastrointestinal Tract, and Lymph Nodes.

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2021 Mar;37(1):55-74

Department of Clinical Sciences, Carlson College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Magruder Hall, 700 Southwest 30th Street, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Ultrasonography and radiography are the most frequently used imaging techniques to evaluate abdominal pathology in domestic animals. Ultrasonography can often achieve a diagnosis in small ruminants, with ease of use and virtually no contraindications. Radiography also provides a relatively comprehensive overview, but reduced penetration of the abdomen in larger animals and summation of abdominal organs can limit its diagnostic value. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Epigenetic landscape of Circulating tumour cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 Apr 23;1875(2):188514. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Pathology, Otago Medical School-Dunedin Campus, New Zealand; Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, Level 2, 3A Symonds Street, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Cancer metastasis is the main reason for the high mortality in patients, contributing to 90% of cancer-related deaths. Biomarkers for early detection and therapeutic monitoring are essential to improve cancer outcomes. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) arise from solid tumours and are capable of metastatic dissemination via the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prenatal diagnosis of abdominal lymphatic malformations.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):13-19

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical and Community Health Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Abdominal lymphatic malformations (LM) are rare congenital malformations of the lymphatic system, representing only 2% of all LM in newborns. They may arise from intra-abdominal solid organs (such as the liver, pancreas, kidneys, spleen, adrenal glands, and gastrointestinal tract), mesentery, omentum, and retroperitoneum. Mesenteric LM are the most commonly seen, with retroperitoneal LM being the second most common. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The ABCESS System for Chronic Wound Management: A New Acronym for Lower Extremity Wound Management.

Wounds 2020 Nov;32(suppl 11):S1-S25

Resident, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

The authors propose a new acronym to promote teaching and learning evidence-based care for wounds of the lower extremity, maximizing healing potential, and assuring the ability to adapt to everchanging new technologies. ABCESS is a comprehensive framework for the assessment of a patient with a lower extremity wound. Wound care clinicians benefit from a system that is broad enough to include new guidelines and technologies as they appear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

When to suspect a thymoma: clinical point of view.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Dec;12(12):7613-7618

Division of General Thoracic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The thymus plays a crucial role in the development of immune system, regulating the maturation, selection and migration of T lymphocytes. Alterations in lymphatic content and structure of the thymus are observed in many autoimmune diseases. Moreover, changes of the epithelial component may cause the development of thymic tumours. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

[Vascular malformations of the head and neck].

Laryngorhinootologie 2021 01 5;100(1):65-76. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Vascular malformations are congenital anomalies of the vascular system that often affect the head and neck region. Vascular malformations are typically present at birth and proportionately grow with the patient. In contrast to vascular tumors, they are composed of dysplastic vessels rather than proliferating cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Cancer-related lymphedema: clinical pearls for providers.

Curr Oncol 2020 12 1;27(6):336-340. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Family Medicine, Secondary Care and Oncology Departments, McGill University Health Centre, and McGill University, Montreal, QC.

Lymphedema is a chronic inflammatory condition that results from damage to the lymphatic system. Lymphedema is classified as either primary or secondary, the former being caused by a malformation of lymph vessels or nodes, and the latter resulting from trauma, chronic lymphatic system overload, or the sequelae of cancer treatments. In the present article, we focus on secondary cancer-related lymphedema (crl), a potential survivorship treatment-related effect. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

An Overview of Five-Year Survival in Rectal Cancer in Relation to Lymph Node Status.

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2020 Nov-Dec;115(6):747-755

Lymph node metastasis is regarded as an important prognostic factor for predicting disease recurrence and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Several studies suggest that the lymph node ratio has a greater importance in survival than the number of metastatic lymph nodes. The scope of this study is to examine the 5-year survival of rectal cancer patients, examining several prognostic factors with emphasis on lymph node status. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Strategies for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer with Bulky Pelvic Lymph Nodes: An Overview of the Current Evidence.

J UOEH 2020 ;42(4):317-325

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan.

Cervical cancer commonly metastasizes first to the pelvic lymph nodes and then subsequently spreads to distant organs, making lymph node metastases the most significant prognostic factor in cervical cancer, and the strategy for its treatment directly influences prognosis. This review focuses on the treatment strategies for cases of cervical cancer with bulky pelvic lymph nodes. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment modality for patients with pelvic lymph node metastases, but it is inadequate for bulky pelvic lymph nodes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Glymphatic Cerebrospinal Fluid and Solute Transport Quantified by MRI and PET Imaging.

Neuroscience 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Laboratory for Neuroimaging, NIAAA, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Over the past decade there has been an enormous progress in our understanding of fluid and solute transport in the central nervous system (CNS). This is due to a number of factors, including important developments in whole brain imaging technology and computational fluid dynamics analysis employed for the elucidation of glymphatic transport function in the live animal and human brain. In this paper, we review the technical aspects of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in combination with administration of Gd-based tracers into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for tracking glymphatic solute and fluid transport in the CNS as well as lymphatic drainage. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Postoperative chylothorax review.

M Szkorupa

Rozhl Chir 2020 ;99(10):427-437

The spectrum of causes of chylothorax is wide, including an injury to the thoracic duct in various thoracosurgical procedures, especially in esopha-geal, lung and heart surgery. Late diagnosis or inadequate treatment of chylothorax still has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. This is mainly related to high losses of chyle which is rich in minerals, plasma proteins, fats and lymphocytes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Pulmonary Manifestations of Genetic Disorders in Children.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2021 02;68(1):1-24

Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Nutley, NJ 07110, USA.

Congenital bronchopulmonary malformations are relatively common and arise during various periods of morphogenesis. Although some are isolated or sporadic occurrences, others may result from single gene mutations or cytogenetic imbalances. Single gene mutations have been identified, which are etiologically related to primary pulmonary hypoplasia, lung segmentation defects as well as pulmonary vascular and lymphatic lesions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Astrocytes, HIV and the Glymphatic System: A Disease of Disrupted Waste Management?

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 29;10:523379. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

The discovery of the glial-lymphatic or glymphatic fluid clearance pathway in the rodent brain led researchers to search for a parallel system in humans and to question the implications of this pathway in neurodegenerative diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed that several features of the glymphatic system may be present in humans. In both rodents and humans, this pathway promotes the exchange of interstitial fluid (ISF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the arterial perivascular spaces into the brain parenchyma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

A Case Report of Oculoglandular Tularemia-Chasing Zebras Among Potential Diagnoses.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 25;79(3):629-636. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Head of Department, Department of Oral, Craniomaxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, Leipzig University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany.

A 60-year-old man was admitted to a university hospital complaining of progressive orbital cellulitis and lymph-node swelling. Empiric treatment with sulbactam/ampicillin failed. The patient's cervical lymph nodes were removed and histologically examined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Conceptual Analysis of solid Self-emulsifying drug Delivery System and its Associate Patents for the Treatment of Cancer.

Recent Pat Nanotechnol 2020 Sep 9. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

ISF College of Pharmacy, GT Road (NH-95), Ghal Kalan, Moga, Punjab 142001. India.

Background: About two-third of new drugs reveal low solubility in water due to that; it becomes difficult for formulation scientists to develop oral solid dosage forms with a pharmaceutically acceptable range of therapeutic activity. In such cases, S-SMEEDS are the best carrier used universally for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. SEDDS were also used, but due to its limitations, S-SMEDDS used widely. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Tumour budding in solid cancers.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2021 02 8;18(2):101-115. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Pathology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Tumour budding is an emerging prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer (CRC) and other solid cancers. Tumour buds are usually defined as isolated single cancer cells or clusters of up to four cancer cells located at the invasive tumour front. The prognostic value of tumour budding is now supported by a large body of evidence, whereas the utility of this phenotype as a predictive biomarker remains under investigation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Current advances in lymphoedema management.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2020 Aug 10;81(8):1-10. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Lymphoedema is the accumulation of protein-rich interstitial fluid within subcutaneous tissue and skin as a result of dysfunction of the lymphatic system. It is an underestimated, widely neglected and debilitating chronic condition. This article presents an overview of lymphoedema and recent advances in its management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Overview of Lymphedema for Physicians and Other Clinicians: A Review of Fundamental Concepts.

Mayo Clin Proc 2020 Aug 20. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Lymphedema has historically been underrated in clinical practice, education, and scholarship to the detriment of many patients with this chronic, debilitating condition. The mechanical insufficiency of the lymphatic system causes the abnormal accumulation of protein-rich fluid in the interstitium, which triggers a cascade of adverse consequences such as fat deposition and fibrosis. As the condition progresses, patients present with extremity heaviness, itchiness, skin infections, and, in later stages, dermal fibrosis, skin papillomas, acanthosis, and other trophic skin changes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The critical role of germinal center-associated nuclear protein in cell biology, immunohematology, and hematolymphoid oncogenesis.

Exp Hematol 2020 10 20;90:30-38. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan. Electronic address:

Germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) is a unique and multifunctional protein that plays a critical role in cell biology, neurodegenerative disorders, immunohematology, and oncogenesis. GANP is an orthologue of Saccharomyces Sac3, one of the components of the transcription export 2 (TREX-2) complex and a messenger RNA (mRNA) nuclear export factor. GANP is widely conserved in all mammals, including humans. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Biomaterial Based Strategies for Engineering New Lymphatic Vasculature.

Adv Healthc Mater 2020 09 30;9(18):e2000895. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

The lymphatic system is essential for tissue regeneration and repair due to its pivotal role in resolving inflammation, immune cell surveillance, lipid transport, and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Loss of functional lymphatic vasculature is directly implicated in a variety of diseases, including lymphedema, obesity, and the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Strategies that stimulate the formation of new lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) could provide an appealing new approach to reverse the progression of these diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Antigen Cross-Presentation by Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2020 8;11:1276. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

The contribution of dendritic cell (DC) antigen cross-presentation to the activation of CD8 T lymphocytes for immune defense against tumors, viruses, and intracellular pathogens has been recognized widely. Although originally thought to be an exclusive characteristic of DCs, recently also other immune cells, particularly macrophages, have been shown capable of cross-presentation. Here we provide an overview of and evidence on cross-presentation by macrophages. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chyluria: what does the clinician need to know?

Ther Adv Urol 2020 Jan-Dec;12:1756287220940899. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Urology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon, UK.

Chyluria is secondary to the presence of chyle in the urine. The classical appearance on inspection is of milky white urine, which is caused by a fistulous communication between the lymphatic system and the urinary tract. Worldwide, it is most commonly associated with the parasite , which is prevalent in Asia, most extensively in India but also China and Taiwan. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of the sentinel lymph node in vulvar cancer.

Minerva Ginecol 2020 Dec 17;72(6):361-366. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Maternal, Child Health and Urologic Sciences, Umberto I Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

The aim of this study was to update clinical practice applications and technical procedures regarding sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in vulvar cancer considering European experts' opinions from this field. Systematic data search performed using PubMed/medline database up to May 20, 2020. Focus was only for English language publications of original studies on SLN biopsy in vulvar cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Cell Fate Determination of Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

Young Jae Lee

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 6;21(13). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea.

The lymphatic vasculature, along with the blood vasculature, is a vascular system in our body that plays important functions in fluid homeostasis, dietary fat uptake, and immune responses. Defects in the lymphatic system are associated with various diseases such as lymphedema, atherosclerosis, fibrosis, obesity, and inflammation. The first step in lymphangiogenesis is determining the cell fate of lymphatic endothelial cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Possible effects of titanium dioxide particles on human liver, intestinal tissue, spleen and kidney after oral exposure.

Nanotoxicology 2020 09 3;14(7):985-1007. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Centre for Safety of Substances and Products, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Recent studies reported adverse liver effects and intestinal tumor formation after oral exposure to titanium dioxide (TiO). Other oral toxicological studies, however, observed no effects on liver and intestine, despite prolonged exposure and/or high doses. In the present assessment, we aimed to better understand whether TiO can induce such effects at conditions relevant for humans. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020