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    The Lyme disease as the increasing health problem in Małopolskie voivodeship compared with Poland in 1998-2014
    Przegl Epidemiol 2016 ;70(4):529-538
    Department of Hygiene and Dietetics, Jagiellonian University Medical College
    Objective: Lyme disease is one of the most known tick borne diseases in Poland caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia burgdorferi. Most cases of Lyme disease are diagnosed in the northeastern Poland and the south of Poland, in Śląskie, Małopolskie, Podkarpackie voivodeship. The aim of the study was to evaluate epidemiological data of Lyme disease in Małopolskie voivodeship and other voivodeships in Poland and frequency analysis of the Lyme disease as an occupational disease. Read More

    A high-throughput genetic screen identifies previously uncharacterized Borrelia burgdorferi genes important for resistance against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 17;13(2):e1006225. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in humans, is exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in both the tick vector and vertebrate reservoir hosts. B. burgdorferi contains a limited repertoire of canonical oxidative stress response genes, suggesting that novel gene functions may be important for protection of B. Read More

    Tick-borne pathogens induce differential expression of genes promoting cell survival and host resistance in Ixodes ricinus cells.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 15;10(1):81. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Woodham Lane, New Haw, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK.
    Background: There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. The primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. Read More

    Plasmid diversity and phylogenetic consistency in the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Feb 15;18(1):165. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Biology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York City, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Bacteria from the genus Borrelia are known to harbor numerous linear and circular plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 236 plasmids present in fourteen independent isolates of the Lyme disease agent B. burgdorferi. Read More

    Infection-derived lipids elicit an immune deficiency circuit in arthropods.
    Nat Commun 2017 Feb 14;8:14401. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.
    The insect immune deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumour necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties activate the IMD signalling cascade remains unknown. Here, we show that infection-derived lipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl diacylglycerol (PODAG) stimulate the IMD pathway of ticks. Read More

    A Serosurvey of Diseases of Free-Ranging Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota.
    J Wildl Dis 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    7   1854 Treaty Authority, Resource Management Division, 4428 Haines Rd., Duluth, Minnesota 55811, USA.
    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Read More

    Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.
    PLoS One 2017 9;12(2):e0171731. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Read More

    Genome scaffolding and annotation for the pathogen vector Ixodes ricinus by ultra-long single molecule sequencing.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 8;10(1):71. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Luxembourg Institute of Health, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
    Background: Global warming and other ecological changes have facilitated the expansion of Ixodes ricinus tick populations. Ixodes ricinus is the most important carrier of vector-borne pathogens in Europe, transmitting viruses, protozoa and bacteria, in particular Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern hemisphere. To faster control this disease vector, a better understanding of the I. Read More

    [Neuroborreliosis - Diagnostics, treatment and course].
    Nervenarzt 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Abteilung für Neurologie und Neurophysiologie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Breisacher Str. 64, 79106, Freiburg, Deutschland.
    Lyme neuroborreliosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Clinical manifestations are classified as early and late Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early manifestations are much more common than late manifestations. Read More

    Molecular and structural characterization of novel cystatins from the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Mar 31;8(3):432-441. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Prédio 43421, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS, Brazil; Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9090, Porto Alegre 91540-000, RS, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Cystatins are cysteine peptidase inhibitors that in ticks mediate processes such as blood feeding and digestion. The ixodid tick Ixodes persulcatus is endemic to the Eurasia, where it is the principal vector of Lyme borreliosis. To date, no I. Read More

    Tuberculosis 'The Great Imitator': A usual disease with unusual presentations.
    Indian J Tuberc 2017 Jan 4;64(1):54-59. Epub 2016 Jul 4.
    Lecturer, Dept. of Pathology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.
    Background: A number of infectious diseases have been referred to by the phrase 'The Great Imitator', of which the oldest is syphilis; others include Lyme disease, nocardiosis, etc. Tuberculosis has been described as the second great imitator as it can imitate various other disease processes. An awareness of the atypical clinical manifestations of tuberculosis is important, especially in regions where tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem, such as India. Read More

    Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 6;10(1):64. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology Department, Columbia University, 1200 Amsterdam Ave, New York, NY, 10027, USA.
    Background: Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Read More

    Chronic Lyme borreliosis associated with minimal change glomerular disease: a case report.
    BMC Nephrol 2017 Feb 6;18(1):51. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 5 Place d'Arsonval, 69437, Lyon, Cedex 03, France.
    Background: There are only few cases of renal pathology induced by Lyme borreliosis in the literature, as this damage is rare and uncommon in humans. This patient is the first case of minimal change glomerular disease associated with chronic Lyme borreliosis.

    Case Presentation: A 65-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted for an acute edematous syndrome related to a nephrotic syndrome. Read More

    The first case of imported Borrelia miyamotoi disease concurrent with Lyme disease.
    J Infect Chemother 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Bacteriology-I, Japan.
    Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is an emerging infectious disease caused by B. miyamotoi. Although BMD has been reported in the United States, Europe, and Japan, no case of imported BMD has been described in the world. Read More

    Host Immune Evasion by Lyme and Relapsing Fever Borreliae: Findings to Lead Future Studies for Borrelia miyamotoi.
    Front Immunol 2017 19;8:12. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota , Grand Forks, ND , USA.
    The emerging pathogen, Borrelia miyamotoi, is a relapsing fever spirochete vectored by the same species of Ixodes ticks that carry the causative agents of Lyme disease in the US, Europe, and Asia. Symptoms caused by infection with B. miyamotoi are similar to a relapsing fever infection. Read More

    Bridging of cryptic Borrelia cycles in European songbirds.
    Environ Microbiol 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Center for Vector and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.
    The principal European vector for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., the causative agents of Lyme disease, is the host-generalist tick Ixodes ricinus. Read More

    Nested-PCR real time as alternative molecular tool for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi compared to the classical serological diagnosis of the blood.
    Med Dosw Mikrobiol 2016;68(1):47-56
    Introduction: Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a multisystem disease that often makes difficulties to recognize caused by their genetic heterogenity. Currently, the gold standard for the detection of Lyme disease (LD) is serologic diagnostics based mainly on tests: ELISA and Western blot (WB). These methods, however, are subject to consider- able defect, especially in the initial phase of infection due to the occurrence of so-called serological window period and low specificity. Read More

    Lyme Carditis: A Case Involving the Conduction System and Mitral Valve.
    R I Med J (2013) 2017 Feb 1;100(2):17-20. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.
    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infection in the Northern hemisphere. Cardiac manifestations of Lyme disease typically include variable atrioventricular nodal block and rarely structural heart pathology. The incidence of Lyme carditis may be underestimated based on current reporting practices of confirmed cases. Read More

    Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine: A meta-analysis.
    J Infect Dev Ctries 2017 Jan 30;11(1):1-9. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.
    Introduction: Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in the United States and by several Borrelia species in Europe and Asia, has a great impact on the health of the global population. There are human vaccines available, such as the outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine, but still more evidence is needed to verify its function. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted vaccines containing protective epitopes from Borrelia species OspA serotypes in healthy adults. Read More

    Using exploratory data analysis to identify and predict patterns of human Lyme disease case clustering within a multistate region, 2010-2014.
    Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol 2017 Feb 12;20:35-43. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    West Virginia University School of Public Health, One Medical Center Drive, PO Box 9190, Morgantown, WV 26506, United States ; West Virginia Bureau of Public Health Office of Epidemiology and Preventative Services, 350 Capital St., Charleston, WV 25301, United States.
    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States. The objective of our study was to identify patterns of Lyme disease reporting after multistate inclusion to mitigate potential border effects. County-level human Lyme disease surveillance data were obtained from Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia state health departments. Read More

    MicroRNA and mRNA Transcriptome Profiling in Primary Human Astrocytes Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.
    PLoS One 2017 30;12(1):e0170961. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, United States of America.
    Lyme disease is caused by infection with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), which is transmitted to humans by deer ticks. The infection manifests usually as a rash and minor systemic symptoms; however, the bacteria can spread to other tissues, causing joint pain, carditis, and neurological symptoms. Lyme neuroborreliosis presents itself in several ways, such as Bell's palsy, meningitis, and encephalitis. Read More

    Influences of Host Community Characteristics on Borrelia burgdorferi Infection Prevalence in Blacklegged Ticks.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(1):e0167810. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 2801 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY, United States of America.
    Lyme disease is a major vector-borne bacterial disease in the USA. The disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, and transmitted among hosts and humans, primarily by blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The ~25 B. Read More

    Co-feeding transmission facilitates strain coexistence in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent.
    Epidemics 2016 Dec 26. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Columbia University, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, 1200 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. Electronic address:
    Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus. Read More

    Ticks and Borrelia in urban and peri-urban green space habitats in a city in southern England.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Mar 21;8(3):353-361. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology, Emergency Response Department - Science & Technology, Health Protection Directorate, Public Health England, Porton Down, UK; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Environmental Change and Health, UK; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, UK.
    Ticks are becoming increasingly recognised as important vectors of pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas, including green space used for recreational activities. In the UK, the risk posed by ticks in such areas is largely unknown. In order to begin to assess the risk of ticks in urban/peri-urban areas in southern England, questing ticks were collected from five different habitat types (grassland, hedge, park, woodland and woodland edge) in a city during the spring, summer and autumn of 2013/2014 and screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Read More

    Presence of Borrelia turdi and Borrelia valaisiana (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ticks Removed From Birds in the North of Spain, 2009-2011.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jan 30;54(1):243-246. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Center of Rickettsiosis and Arthropod-Borne Diseases, Hospital San Pedro-CIBIR, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain
    The genus Borrelia includes species responsible for severe human diseases such as Lyme disease. Birds are involved in their epidemiology as dispersers of infected ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and as reservoirs or amplifiers of the bacterium. Herein, the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. Read More

    Comparison of Vector Efficiency of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) From the Northeast and Upper Midwest of the United States for the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jan 28;54(1):239-242. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521
    Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. Read More

    Host-Seeking Phenology of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs in Northwestern California in Relation to Calendar Week, Woodland Type, and Weather Conditions.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jan 5;54(1):125-131. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Vectorborne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control
    Local knowledge of when humans are at elevated risk for exposure to tick vectors of human disease agents is required both for the effective use of personal protection measures to avoid tick bites and for implementation of control measures to suppress host-seeking ticks. Here, we used previously published data on the seasonal density of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls nymphs, the primary vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western USA, collected across a broad habitat and climate gradient in northwestern California to identify predictors of periods of time within the year when questing nymphal density is elevated. Models based on calendar week alone performed similarly to models based on calendar week and woodland type, or meteorological variables. Read More

    Manifestations of Lyme carditis.
    Int J Cardiol 2017 Apr 27;232:24-32. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Center of Microbiology and Parasitology, Public Health Institute Niš, Serbia, Blvd Zorana Djindjica 81, 18000 Niš, Serbia; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Serbia, Blvd Zorana Djindjica 81, 18000 Niš, Serbia.
    The first data of Lyme carditis, a relatively rare manifestation of Lyme disease, were published in eighties of the last century. Clinical manifestations include syncope, light-headedness, fainting, shortness of breath, palpitations, and/or chest pain. Atrioventricular (AV) electrical block of varying severity presents the most common conduction disorder in Lyme carditis. Read More

    Digital Health: Tracking Physiomes and Activity Using Wearable Biosensors Reveals Useful Health-Related Information.
    PLoS Biol 2017 Jan 12;15(1):e2001402. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.
    A new wave of portable biosensors allows frequent measurement of health-related physiology. We investigated the use of these devices to monitor human physiological changes during various activities and their role in managing health and diagnosing and analyzing disease. By recording over 250,000 daily measurements for up to 43 individuals, we found personalized circadian differences in physiological parameters, replicating previous physiological findings. Read More

    The Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction After Antibiotic Treatment of Spirochetal Infections: A Review of Recent Cases and Our Understanding of Pathogenesis.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan 24;96(1):46-52. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Ross University School of Medicine, Portsmouth, Dominica, West Indies.
    Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes. Experimental evidence indicates it is caused by nonendotoxin pyrogen and spirochetal lipoproteins. Read More

    TH17 Cytokine Responses in Lyme Disease Correlate with Borreliaburgdorferi Antibodies During Early Infection in Patients with Erythema Migrans and with Autoantibodies Late in the Illness in Patients with Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology.
    Background: Control of Lyme disease is attributed predominantly to innate and adaptive TH1 immune responses, whereas the role of TH17 responses is less clear. Here we characterized these inflammatory responses in patients with erythema migrans (EM) or Lyme arthritis (LA) to elucidate their role early and late in the infection.

    Methods: Levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines, representative of innate, TH1, and TH17 immune responses, were assessed by Luminex in acute and convalescent sera from 91 EM patients, in serum and synovial fluid from 141 LA patients, and in serum from 57 healthy subjects. Read More

    Environmental Factors Affecting Survival of Immature Ixodes scapularis and Implications for Geographical Distribution of Lyme Disease: The Climate/Behavior Hypothesis.
    PLoS One 2017 11;12(1):e0168723. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Plant Sciences and Entomology, Woodward Hall, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, United States of America.
    Recent reports suggest that host-seeking nymphs in southern populations of Ixodes scapularis remain below the leaf litter surface, while northern nymphs seek hosts on leaves and twigs above the litter surface. This behavioral difference potentially results in decreased tick contact with humans in the south, and fewer cases of Lyme disease. We studied whether north-south differences in tick survival patterns might contribute to this phenomenon. Read More

    Pattern- and motion-related visual evoked potentials in HIV-infected adults.
    Doc Ophthalmol 2017 Feb 10;134(1):45-55. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
    Department of Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Simkova 870, 500 03, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.
    Purpose: The goal of the current study was to explore visual function in virally suppressed HIV patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) by using pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs).

    Methods: The pattern-reversal and motion-onset VEPs were recorded in 20 adult HIV+ patients with a mean age of 38 years and CD4 cell counts ≥230 × 10(6) cells/L of blood.

    Results: Nine out of 20 patients displayed VEP abnormalities. Read More

    Comprehensive Spatial Analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi Lipoproteome Reveals a Compartmentalization Bias Toward the Bacterial Surface.
    J Bacteriol 2017 Jan 9. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics & Immunology, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is unique among bacteria in its large number of lipoproteins that are encoded by a small, exceptionally fragmented and predominantly linear genome. Peripherally anchored in either the inner or outer membrane and facing either the periplasm or the external environment, these lipoproteins assume varied roles. A prominent subset functioning as the apparent linchpins of the enzootic tick-vertebrate infection cycle has been explored as vaccine targets. Read More

    Borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and hosts in The Netherlands.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Mar 30;8(3):370-374. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine/Amsterdam Multidisciplinary Lyme borreliosis Center, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Ixodes ticks transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis (LB). Read More

    [Extensive Myelitis as a Manifestation of Neuroborreliosis].
    Acta Med Port 2016 Sep 30;29(9):564-566. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Serviço de Neurologia. Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra. Coimbra. Portugal.
    Neurological manifestations of Lyme disease are reported in 3% - 12% of patients, with the most common form of presentation being meningoradiculitis. Other symptoms involving the central nervous system, such as myelitis or encephalitis, are rare (< 5 %). We report a case of a 66-year-old male, with a subacute extensive transverse myelitis, secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Read More

    A Case of Lyme Disease Accompanied by Uveitis and White Dot Syndrome.
    Turk J Ophthalmol 2016 Oct 17;46(5):241-243. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
    Başkent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey.
    In this case report we aimed to present a case of Lyme disease presenting as peripheral retinal vasculitis, intermediate uveitis and multifocal white dots in the posterior pole. The patient exhibited vitritis and snowball opacities in both eyes. A diagnosis of Lyme disease was made based on clinical, angiographic and laboratory findings. Read More

    Lyme disease risk in southern California: abiotic and environmental drivers of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) density and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 5;10(1). Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-9620, USA.
    Background: Tick-borne diseases, particularly Lyme disease, are emerging across the northern hemisphere. In order to manage emerging diseases and predict where emergence will likely occur, it is necessary to understand the factors influencing the distribution, abundance and infection prevalence of vector species. In North America, Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease and is transmitted by blacklegged ticks. Read More

    Temperature-dependent sRNA transcriptome of the Lyme disease spirochete.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Jan 5;18(1):28. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Department of Biology, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.
    Background: Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi from its tick vector to a vertebrate host requires extensive reprogramming of gene expression. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNA) have emerged in the last decade as important regulators of bacterial gene expression. Despite the widespread observation of sRNA-mediated gene regulation, only one sRNA has been characterized in the Lyme disease spirochete B. Read More

    Diagnosing Borreliosis.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 Jan;17(1):2-11
    6 National Institute for Agrarian and Veterinarian Research (INIAV) , Lisboa, Portugal .
    Borrelia species fall into two groups, the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) complex, the cause of Lyme borreliosis (also known as Lyme disease), and the relapsing fever group. Both groups exhibit inter- and intraspecies diversity and thus have variations in both clinical presentation and diagnostic approaches. A further layer of complexity is derived from the fact that ticks may carry multiple infectious agents and are able to transmit them to the host during blood feeding, with potential overlapping clinical manifestations. Read More

    Spermine and spermidine alter gene expression and antigenic profile of Borrelia burgdorferi.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jan 4. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Feik School of Pharmacy, University of The Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX-78209.
    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, responds to numerous host-derived signals to alter adaptive capabilities during its enzootic cycle in an arthropod vector and mammalian host. Molecular mechanisms that enable B. burgdorferi to detect, channel, and respond to these signals have become an intense area of study for developing strategies to limit transmission/infection. Read More

    Infectious Agents and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Exploring the links.
    Curr Top Med Chem 2017 Jan 3. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia.
    Recent studies have shown that bacterial and viral infections are risk factors for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Lyme disease (LD). However, it is still controversial how the infections play a role in neurological diseases progression. Infections in central nervous system may lead multiple damages in infected and neighboring cells. Read More

    Rare cause of bilateral sudden deafness.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Oct 8;2016. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Section Ear & Hearing, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    In this paper, we describe the case of a 62-year-old female with recurring episodes of sudden deafness with vertigo and facial paresis. Within a month's time, this resulted in bilateral deafness and vestibular areflexia. Erroneously, the patient was diagnosed with sudden deafness of unknown origin and subsequently with neuroborreliosis (Lyme disease). Read More

    Polymorphism of 41 kD Flagellin Gene and Its Human B-Cell Epitope in Borrelia burgdorferi Strains of China.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 15;2016:1327320. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou 310003, China.
    The 41 kD flagellin of Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) is a major component of periplasmic flagellar filament core and a good candidate for serodiagnosis in early stage of Lyme disease. Here, we chose 89 B. Read More

    Enzootic origins for clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis.
    Infect Genet Evol 2016 Dec 28;49:48-54. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Both early localized and late disseminated forms of Lyme borreliosis are caused by Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato. Differentiating between the spirochetes that only cause localized skin infection from those that cause disseminated infection, and tracing the group of medically-important spirochetes to a specific vertebrate host species, are two critical issues in disease risk assessment and management. Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato isolates from Lyme borreliosis cases with distinct clinical manifestations (erythema migrans, neuroborreliosis, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and Lyme arthritis) and isolates from Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on rodents, birds and hedgehogs were typed to the genospecies level by sequencing part of the intergenic spacer region. Read More

    The incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti coinfections among foresters and farmers in eastern Poland.
    J Vector Borne Dis 2016 Oct-Dec;53(4):348-354
    Innovation Research Centre, Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biala Podlaska, Poland.
    Background & Objectives: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in Europe and the USA. However, a great variety of pathogens are transmitted by ticks, which results in mixed infections, with Lyme borreliosis. The aim of the present study was to show the incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti coinfections among the population of foresters and farmers, as these people, due to their profession, are particularly exposed to tick contact. Read More

    Whole Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics of the Novel Lyme Borreliosis Causing Pathogen, Borrelia mayonii.
    PLoS One 2016 28;11(12):e0168994. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
    Borrelia mayonii, a Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) genospecies, was recently identified as a cause of Lyme borreliosis (LB) among patients from the upper midwestern United States. By microscopy and PCR, spirochete/genome loads in infected patients were estimated at 105 to 106 per milliliter of blood. Here, we present the full chromosome and plasmid sequences of two B. Read More

    Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Eastern National Parks.
    J Med Entomol 2016 Dec 27. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156 Rampart Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80521
    Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. Read More

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