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    1 OF 244

    Metabolic differentiation of early Lyme disease from southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI).
    Sci Transl Med 2017 Aug;9(403)
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
    Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the eastern United States. Read More

    Detecting and Attributing Health Burdens to Climate Change.
    Environ Health Perspect 2017 Aug 7;125(8):085004. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    University of Auckland , Auckland, New Zealand.
    Background: Detection and attribution of health impacts caused by climate change uses formal methods to determine a) whether the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has changed, and b) the extent to which that change could be attributed to climate change. There have been limited efforts to undertake detection and attribution analyses in health.

    Objective: Our goal was to show a range of approaches for conducting detection and attribution analyses. Read More

    The HUMTICK study: protocol for a prospective cohort study on post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome and the disease and cost burden of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium.
    Arch Public Health 2017 7;75:42. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Rue Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: In Belgium, different routine surveillance systems are in place to follow-up Lyme borreliosis trends. However, accurate data on the disease and monetary burden for the different clinical manifestations are lacking. Despite recommended antibiotic treatment, a proportion of Lyme patients report persisting aspecific symptoms for six months or more (e. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding ticks and tick-borne diseases, Finland.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Health Security, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:
    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are endemic in Finland, with tens and thousands of cases, respectively, reported annually. We performed a field survey to investigate people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding ticks, tick-borne diseases, and prevention strategies. The KAP were assessed using a pre-validated anonymous questionnaire consisting of 39 questions and statements. Read More

    Impact of life stage-dependent dispersal on the colonization dynamics of host patches by ticks and tick-borne infectious agents.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Aug 4;10(1):375. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE) - CNRS Université Montpellier UMR 5175, 1919 route de Mende, 34293, Montpellier, France.
    Background: When colonization and gene flow depend on host-mediated dispersal, a key factor affecting vector dispersal potential is the time spent on the host for the blood meal, a characteristic that can vary strongly among life history stages. Using a 2-patch vector-pathogen population model and seabird ticks as biological examples, we explore how vector colonization rates and the spread of infectious agents may be shaped by life stage-dependent dispersal. We contrast hard (Ixodidae) and soft (Argasidae) tick systems, which differ strongly in blood- feeding traits. Read More

    Lyme Borreliosis in Children: A Tertiary Referral Hospital Based Retrospective Analysis.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    1Department of Paediatric Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Emma Children's Hospital and Department of Global Health, AMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands 3Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam Multidisciplinary Lyme Center, AMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands 4Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam Multidisciplinary Lyme Center, AMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is an endemic disease in adults in Western countries. Although children may also be infected, paediatric studies on LB are scarce. This study aims to estimate the incidence of LB among children with a clinical suspicion for Lyme in a tertiary referral center in the Netherlands. Read More

    Schistosoma mansoni cercarial elastase (SmCE): differences in immunogenic properties of native and recombinant forms.
    Parasitology 2017 Sep;144(10):1356-1364
    School of Life Sciences,University of Nottingham,University Park,Nottingham NG7 2RD,UK.
    The Schistosoma mansoni cercarial elastase (SmCE) has previously been shown to be poorly immunogenic in mice. However, a minority of mice were able to produce antibodies against SmCE after multiple immunizations with crude preparations containing the enzyme. These mice were partially protected against challenge infections of S. Read More

    Modulation of the tick gut milieu by a secreted tick protein favors Borrelia burgdorferi colonization.
    Nat Commun 2017 Aug 4;8(1):184. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06420, USA.
    The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, colonizes the gut of the tick Ixodes scapularis, which transmits the pathogen to vertebrate hosts including humans. Here we show that B. burgdorferi colonization increases the expression of several tick gut genes including pixr, encoding a secreted gut protein with a Reeler domain. Read More

    Interactions between host immune response and antigenic variation that control Borrelia burgdorferi population dynamics.
    Microbiology 2017 Aug 4;163(8):1179-1188. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    University of Pennsylvania, 3451 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    The population dynamics of pathogens within hosts result from interactions between host immune responses and mechanisms of the pathogen to evade or resist immune responses. Vertebrate hosts have evolved adaptive immune responses to eliminate the infection, while many pathogens evade immune clearance through altering surface antigens. Such interactions can result in a characteristic pattern of pathogen population dynamics within hosts consisting of population growth after infection, rapid population decline following specific immune responses, followed by persistence at low densities during a chronic infection stage. Read More

    Improved serodiagnostic performance for Lyme disease by use of two recombinant proteins in ELISA as compared to standardized two tier testing.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Ross Southern Laboratories, Spanish Fork, Utah 84660 USA.
    The most reliable test method for the serological confirmation of Lyme Disease (LD) is a 2-tiered method recommended by the CDC in 1995. The first-tier test is a low specificity ELISA test and the second-tier tests are higher specificity IgG and IgM Western blots. This study describes the selection of two Borrelia burgdorferi-recombinant proteins and evaluation of their performance in a simple 1-tier test for the serological confirmation of LD. Read More

    Bioassays to evaluate non-contact spatial repellency, contact irritancy, and acute toxicity of permethrin-treated clothing against nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Western Connecticut State University, 181 White Street, Danbury, CT, 06810, United States.
    Summer-weight clothing articles impregnated with permethrin are available as a personal protective measure against human-biting ticks in the United States. However, very few studies have addressed the impact of contact with summer-weight permethrin-treated textiles on tick vigor and behavior. Our aim was to generate new knowledge of how permethrin-treated textiles impact nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks, the primary vectors in the eastern United States of the causative agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and human babesiosis. Read More

    Predicting the risk of Lyme borreliosis after a tick bite, using a structural equation model.
    PLoS One 2017 24;12(7):e0181807. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    Background: Understanding and quantification of the risk of Lyme borreliosis after a tick bite can aid development of prevention strategies against Lyme borreliosis.

    Methods: We used 3,525 single tick bite reports from three large prospective studies on the transmission risk of tick-borne pathogens to humans, with 50 reports of Lyme borreliosis during the follow-up period, among 1,973 reports with known outcome. A structural equation model was applied to estimate the risk of Lyme borreliosis after a tick bite, and quantify the influence of: developmental stage of the tick, detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s. Read More

    Lyme and Dopaminergic Function: Hypothesizing Reduced Reward Deficiency Symptomatology by Regulating Dopamine Transmission.
    J Syst Integr Neurosci 2017 May 11;3(3). Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Psychiatry, Wright State University, Dayton, Oh., USA.
    The principal vector of Lyme disease in the United States is Ixodes scapularis: black legged or deer ticks. There is increased evidence that those infected may be plagued by anxiety or depression as well. Researchers have identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks, which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. Read More

    Infectious diseases causing autonomic dysfunction.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Neurology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK.
    Objectives: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction.

    Methods: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase.

    Results: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Read More

    Brave New Worlds: The Expanding Universe of Lyme Disease.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences , Grand Forks, North Dakota.
    Projections around the globe suggest an increase in tick-vectored disease incidence and distribution, and the potential for emergence of novel tick-borne pathogens. Lyme disease is the most common reported tick-borne illness in the Unites States and is prevalent throughout much of central Europe. In recent years, the worldwide burden of Lyme disease has increased and extended into regions and countries where the disease was not previously reported. Read More

    Serologic Evidence of Powassan Virus Infection in Patients with Suspected Lyme Disease(1).
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Aug;23(8):1384-1388
    Powassan virus (POWV) lineage II is an emerging tickborne flavivirus with an unknown seroprevalence in humans. In a Lyme disease-endemic area, we examined the seroreactivity to POWV in 2 patient cohorts and described the clinical features of the POWV-seroreactive patients. POWV disease might be less neuroinvasive than previously thought. Read More

    Risk Factors for Severe Infection, Hospitalization, and Prolonged Antimicrobial Therapy in Patients with Babesiosis.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Marshfield Clinic Health System, Minocqua, Wisconsin.
    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis, which also transmits Lyme disease. Better gradation of prognostic indicators are needed to determine which patients may develop serious complications requiring hospitalization, and to provide early guidance on appropriate therapy. In this study, we evaluated 128 patients with smear or real time polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Babesia microti infections over a period of 16 years. Read More

    Phagocytic receptors activate Syk and Src signaling during Borrelia burgdorferi phagocytosis.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    Phagocytosis of the Lyme disease causing pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi has been shown to be important in generating an inflammatory response to the pathogen. As a result, understanding the mechanisms of phagocytosis has been an area of great interest in the field of Lyme disease. Several cell surface receptors that participate in B. Read More

    [Borrelia miyamotoi: a recently identified human pathogenic tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete].
    Orv Hetil 2017 Jul;158(29):1124-1130
    Parazitológiai és Állattani Tanszék, Állatorvostudományi Egyetem Budapest, István u. 2., 1078.
    Borrelia miyamotoi is a recently described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes ricinus complex. This pathogen is different from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the Lyme borreliosis spirochetes) in its epidemiology, ecology and also genetics. Over 50 patients have been described worldwide with Borrelia miyamotoi disease, and three immunocompromised patients were reported with neurological symptoms. Read More

    Lyme Carditis Buried Beneath ST-Segment Elevations.
    Case Rep Cardiol 2017 21;2017:9157625. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
    Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is carried to human hosts by infected ticks. There are nearly 30,000 cases of Lyme disease reported to the CDC each year, with 3-4% of those cases reporting Lyme carditis. The most common manifestation of Lyme carditis is partial heart block following bacterial-induced inflammation of the conducting nodes. Read More

    Clinical association: Lyme disease and Guillain-Barre syndrome.
    Am J Emerg Med 2017 Jul 8. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Medicine, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, United States.
    Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a life-threatening condition in which patients may present to the Emergency Department in respiratory distress leading to death. The early identification and treatment of such a condition is paramount in preventing mortality. While there are many infections associated with GBS, the association with Lyme disease is uncommon. Read More

    Crossed Total Hemiatrophy Associated with Atrophoderma of Pasini-Pierini.
    Skinmed 2017 1;15(3):227-229. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Dermatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China;
    A 45-year-old Chinese man had begun to show asymmetry of the face 30 years previously. Subsequently, he developed visual extinction of the right eye, slight numbness, and weakness of the left extremities. Simultaneously, multiple atrophic brownish patches occurred on his side. Read More

    [One year of infectious diseases : a review].
    Rev Med Suisse 2017 Jan;13(544-545):66-69
    Service des maladies infectieuses, Hôpital cantonal, 1708 Fribourg.
    Several outbreaks have made the news in 2016 : Ebola has come at an end, Zika is booming and a resurgence of yellow fever takes place in Africa. In Switzerland, two hospital outbreaks have been reported, caused by Mycobacterium chimerae and Burkholderia cepacia. A major new article has consolidated the notion that prolonged antibiotic therapy is unnecessary in Lyme disease. Read More

    Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.
    Euro Surveill 2017 Jul;22(27)
    Surveillance and Response Support Unit, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden (affiliation when the work was performed).
    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Read More

    A Mercury Toxicity Case Complicated by Hyponatremia and Abnormal Endocrinological Test Results.
    Pediatrics 2017 Aug 13;140(2). Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan
    Mercury (Hg) poisoning is considered a rare disease by the National Institutes of Health and the diagnosis can present great challenges to clinicians. Children who are exposed to Hg can present with a wide variety of symptoms, including acrodynia, tremor, excessive salivation, and psychiatric symptoms, including insomnia. However, endocrinologic manifestations from Hg exposure are less well known. Read More

    Tickborne diseases other than Lyme in the United States.
    Cleve Clin J Med 2017 Jul;84(7):555-567
    Associate Program Director, National Capitol Consortium Infectious Diseases Fellowship; Associate Professor of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Infectious Diseases, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Tickborne diseases are increasing in the United States, and the geographic range of tick vectors is expanding. Tickborne diseases are challenging to diagnose, as they present with vague symptoms such as fever, constitutional symptoms, and nonspecific laboratory abnormalities. A high degree of clinical suspicion is required to make a diagnosis, as patients often do not recall a tick bite. Read More

    Modeling the effects of variable feeding patterns of larval ticks on the transmission of Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii.
    Theor Popul Biol 2017 Jul 6;116:27-32. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Torino, largo Paolo Braccini 2, IT-10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy.
    Spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato (sl) group cause Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is the most commonly reported vector-borne zoonosis in Europe. B. burgdorferi sl is maintained in nature in a complex cycle involving Ixodes ricinus ticks and several species of vertebrate hosts. Read More

    15 years of the histopathological synovitis score, further development and review: A diagnostic score for rheumatology and orthopaedics.
    Pathol Res Pract 2017 Aug 19;213(8):874-881. Epub 2017 May 19.
    MVZ Fürstenberg-Karree, Berlin, Germany.
    The histopathological synovitis score evaluates the immunological and inflammatory changes of synovitis in a graduated manner generally customary for diagnostic histopathological scores. The score results from semiquantitative evaluation of the width of the synovial surface cell layer, the cell density of the stroma and the density of the inflammatory infiltration into 4 semiquantitative levels (normal 0, mild 1, moderate 2, severe 3). The addition of these values results in a final score of 0-9 out of 9. Read More

    Babesiosis Surveillance - Wisconsin, 2001-2015.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jul 7;66(26):687-691. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. Babesia microti, like the causal agents for Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern United States where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt treatment. Read More

    Management of Lyme Disease in European Children: a Review for Practical Purpose.
    Curr Infect Dis Rep 2017 Aug;19(8):27
    Istituto Giannina Gaslini - Ospedale Pediatrico IRCCS, Largo G. Gaslini 5, 16147, Genoa, Italy.
    Purpose Of Review: Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonosis transmitted through a bite of a tick carrying a spirochete belonging to Borrelia species. In the last 20 years, the reported incidence of Lyme disease is increased by three times in Europe. Clinically, the illness develops through a primary stage with a typical skin rash (erythema marginatum), then a secondary stage with possible neurologic or cardiac involvement. Read More

    Lyme neuroborreliosis: do we treat according to guidelines?
    J Neurol 2017 Jul 4;264(7):1506-1510. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Neurology, Sørlandet Hospital Trust, PO Box 416, 4604, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Evidence-based guidelines, published in 2010, equate the efficacy of oral and intravenous antibiotics and recommend treatment duration of 2 weeks in early Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) without encephalitis or myelitis. Further, the Norwegian health authorities give a general advice to choose oral rather than intravenous administration when proven effective, due to lower costs, fewer risks, and reduced patient inconvenience. In this study we aimed to chart LNB treatment practice in Norway and compare it to these recommendations. Read More

    In vitro susceptibility of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi to antimicrobial agents.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Jul 3. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Hard tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF) is an emerging infectious disease throughout the temperate zone caused by the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi Antibiotic treatment of HTBRF is empirically based on the treatment of Lyme borreliosis, however antibiotic susceptibility of B. miyamotoi has not been studied to date. Thus, we set out to determine the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of B. Read More

    Vaccination of horses with Lyme vaccines for dogs induces short-lasting antibody responses.
    Vaccine 2017 Jul 28;35(33):4140-4147. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address:
    Borrelia burgdorferi can induce Lyme disease. Approved Lyme vaccines for horses are currently not available. In an effort to protect horses, veterinarians are using Lyme vaccines licensed for dogs. Read More

    Cerebrospinal Fluid B-lymphocyte Chemoattractant CXCL 13 in the Diagnosis of Acute Lyme Neuroborreliosis in Children.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    From the *Department of Pediatrics, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway; †Department of Medical Microbiology, Hospital of Southern Norway Trust, Kristiansand, Norway; ‡Department of Pediatrics, Hospital of Southern Norway Trust, Kristiansand, Norway; §Department of Pediatrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; ¶Department of Pediatrics, Haugesund Hospital, Haugesund, Norway; ‖Department of Pediatrics, Hospital of Southern Norway Trust, Arendal, Norway; ¥Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Background: Current markers of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in children have insufficient sensitivity in the early stage of disease. The B-lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL13 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be useful in diagnosing LNB, but its specificity has not been evaluated in studies including children with clinically relevant differential diagnoses. The aim of this study was to elucidate the diagnostic value of CSF CXCL13 in children with symptoms suggestive of LNB. Read More

    Necrotizing Autoimmune Myopathy: A Rare Variant of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies.
    J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2017 Apr-Jun;5(2):2324709617709031. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are an unusual group of myopathies with annual incidence of 1 in 100 000 people in the United States. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy comprises only 16% of this group. It usually presents with severe proximal weakness, lower extremity weakness, and severe fatigue while very rarely does it present with dysphagia and respiratory muscle weakness. Read More

    Diagnosis of Lyme-associated uveitis: value of serological testing in a tertiary centre.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Internal Medicine Department, Croix Rousse University Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.
    Aims: To determine the frequency and clinical presentation of Lyme disease in patients with uveitis and to assess the value of Borrelia burgdorferi serological testing.

    Methods: Retrospective study on all patients with uveitis who were referred to our tertiary hospital were serologically tested for Lyme in our laboratory between 2003 and 2016. Screening consisted of determining B. Read More

    Small RNAs of Borrelia burgdorferi: Characterizing Functional Regulators in a Sea of sRNAs
    Yale J Biol Med 2017 Jun 23;90(2):317-323. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    University of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences, Missoula, MT.
    Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and closely related genospecies are the causative agents of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease north of the equator. The bacterium, a member of the spirochete phylum, is acquired by a tick vector that feeds on an infected vertebrate host and is transmitted to another vertebrate during subsequent feeding by the next tick stage. The precise navigation of this enzootic cycle entails the regulation of genes required for these two host-specific phases as well as the transitions between them. Read More

    Segregation Lag in Polyploid Cells of the Pathogen Genus Borrelia: Implications for Antigenic Variation
    Yale J Biol Med 2017 Jun 23;90(2):195-218. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology & Molecular Genetics University of California Irvine, Irvine, California.
    Relapsing fever agents like Borrelia hermsii undergo multiphasic antigenic variation that is attributable to spontaneous DNA non-reciprocal transpositions at a particular locus in the genome. This genetic switch results in a new protein being expressed on the cell surface, allowing cells with that phenotype to escape prevailing immunity. But the switch occurs in only one of several genomes in these spirochetes, and a newly-switched gene is effectively "recessive" until homozygosity is achieved. Read More

    In vivo imaging of Lyme arthritis in mice by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
    Scand J Rheumatol 2017 Jun 26:1-11. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    a Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology , University of Turku , Turku , Finland.
    Objective: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochaetes, which are able to disseminate from the tick-bite site to distant organs. Mouse models are widely used to study LB and especially Lyme arthritis (LA), but only a few whole-animal in vivo imaging studies on the pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi infection in mice have been published so far. Read More

    Reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against typical and atypical forms of Borrelia sp.
    J Appl Microbiol 2017 Sep 1;123(3):637-650. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Dr Rath Research Institute BV, Santa Clara, CA, USA.
    Aims: Borrelia sp., a causative pathogenic factor of Lyme disease (LD), has become a major public health threat. Current treatments based on antibiotics often lead to relapse after their withdrawal. Read More

    Concurrent babesiosis and serological evidence of Lyme disease in a young patient.
    J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2017 Jan 31;7(1):46-48. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Interfaith Medical Center, NY, USA.
    Human babesiosis co-infected with Lyme disease in a young patient is an important condition. Here, we describe a case of a 39-year-old male patient with concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease. Co-infections of tick borne diseases are often difficult to diagnose and underreported, and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality to patients. Read More

    Range Expansion and Increasing Borrelia burgdorferi Infection of the Tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iowa, 1990-2013.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, 1656 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706
    A passive surveillance program monitored ticks submitted by the public in Iowa from 1990-2013. Submitted ticks were identified to species and life stage, and Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi. An average of 2. Read More

    Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1. Read More

    Borrelia burgdorferi infection induces lipid mediator production during Lyme arthritis.
    Biochimie 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Departments of Chemistry/Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:
    Experimental Lyme arthritis provides a mouse model for exploring the development of pathology following infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. Infected mice develop a reliable inflammatory arthritis of the ankle joint with severity that typically peaks around two to three weeks post-infection and then undergoes spontaneous resolution. This makes experimental Lyme arthritis an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms that drive both the development and resolution phases of inflammatory disease. Read More

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