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    Cerebrospinal fluid Lyme multiplex assay results are not diagnostic in horses with neuroborreliosis.
    J Vet Intern Med 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania.
    Background: The accuracy of the Lyme multiplex assay for the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis in horses is unknown.

    Hypothesis/objectives: To describe Lyme multiplex results in horses with a postmortem diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. The hypothesis was that paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results and a CSF : serum ratio would allow differentiation of horses with neuroborreliosis from those with other neurologic diseases. Read More

    The Complement Binding and Inhibitory Protein CbiA ofDegrades Extracellular Matrix Components by Interacting with Plasmin(ogen).
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 2;8:23. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
    The emerging relapsing fever spirochete(.)is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes the so-called hard tick-borne relapsing fever ordisease (BMD). More recently, we identified a surface-exposed molecule, CbiA exhibiting complement binding and inhibitory capacity and rendering spirochetes resistant to complement-mediated lysis. Read More

    Management of arthropod vector data - Social and ecological dynamics facing the One Health perspective.
    Acta Trop 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology, Boston, MA, United States.
    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. Read More

    A multiplex serologic platform for diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
    Sci Rep 2018 Feb 16;8(1):3158. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Tick-borne diseases are the most common vector-borne diseases in the United States, with serology being the primary method of diagnosis. We developed the first multiplex, array-based assay for serodiagnosis of tick-borne diseases called the TBD-Serochip. The TBD-Serochip was designed to discriminate antibody responses to 8 major tick-borne pathogens present in the United States, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Rickettsia rickettsii, Heartland virus and Powassan virus. Read More

    Sleep Quality in Well-defined Lyme Disease: A Clinical Cohort Study in Maryland.
    Sleep 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
    Study Objectives: Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Approximately 5-15% of patients develop post-antibiotic treatment symptoms termed post-treatment LD syndrome (PTLDS). The primary objective of this study was to examine and quantify sleep quality among patients with early Lyme disease during the acute and convalescent periods, including among the subset who met criteria for PTLDS. Read More

    Data-driven predictions and novel hypotheses about zoonotic tick vectors from the genus Ixodes.
    BMC Ecol 2018 Feb 15;18(1). Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY, 12545, USA.
    Background: With the resurgence of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and the emergence of new tick-borne pathogens such as Powassan virus, understanding what distinguishes vectors from non-vectors, and predicting undiscovered tick vectors is a crucial step towards mitigating disease risk in humans. We aimed to identify intrinsic traits that predict which Ixodes tick species are confirmed or strongly suspected to be vectors of zoonotic pathogens.

    Methods: We focused on the well-studied tick genus Ixodes from which many species are known to transmit zoonotic diseases to humans. Read More

    Biofilms busters to improve the detection of Borrelia using PCR.
    Med Hypotheses 2018 Mar 30;112:4-6. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Infectious Diseases Unit, University Hospital Raymond Poincaré, APHP, Versailles Saint Quentin University, Garches, France. Electronic address:
    Lyme disease is an affection caused by a spirochete infection called Borrelia Burgdorferi which may harbor a varied and misleading clinical symptomatology. The serology tests commonly used for diagnosis show a wide sensitivity varying from 34% to 70,5%, leaving many infected patients with false negative tests. Alternative techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could be helpful but not conclusive enough. Read More

    Role of glutathione metabolism in host defense againstinfection.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands;
    Pathogen-induced changes in host cell metabolism are known to be important for the immune response. In this study, we investigated how infection with the Lyme disease-causing bacterium() affects host metabolic pathways and how these metabolic pathways may impact host defense. First, metabolome analysis was performed on human primary monocytes from healthy volunteers, stimulated for 24 h withat low multiplicity of infection (MOI). Read More

    Detecting the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, in Ticks Using Nested PCR.
    J Vis Exp 2018 Feb 4(132). Epub 2018 Feb 4.
    Department of Biology, Mount Allison University;
    Lyme disease is a serious vector-borne infection that is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato family of spirochetes, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. The primary etiological agent in North America is Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. As geographic risk regions expand, it is prudent to support robust surveillance programs that can measure tick infection rates, and communicate findings to clinicians, veterinarians, and the general public. Read More

    The Financial Implications of a Well-Hidden and Ignored Chronic Lyme Disease Pandemic.
    Healthcare (Basel) 2018 Feb 13;6(1). Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Economist and Independent Researcher, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=895329.
    1 million people are predicted to get infected with Lyme disease in the USA in 2018. Given the same incidence rate of Lyme disease in Europe as in the USA, then 2.4 million people will get infected with Lyme disease in Europe in 2018. Read More

    Molecular Detection of,, andin Raccoon Dogs () in Korea.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Research Institute BK21 Program for Veterinary Science and College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
    Anaplasmosis, cat-scratch disease, and Lyme disease are emerging vector-borne infectious diseases in Korea. Although the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in domestic animals and vector arthropods has been documented, there is limited information on the presence of VBPs in wild animals. The raccoon dog (), a wild canid found in East Asia and Europe, represents a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. Read More

    Lyme disease surveillance in the United States: Looking for ways to cut the Gordian knot.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Mar;65(2):227-229
    Division of Vector-borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Current surveillance methods have been useful to document geographic expansion of Lyme disease in the United States and to monitor the increasing incidence of this major public health problem. Nevertheless, these approaches are resource-intensive, generate results that are difficult to compare across jurisdictions, and measure less than the total burden of disease. By adopting more efficient methods, resources could be diverted instead to education of at-risk populations and new approaches to prevention. Read More

    Knowledge and preventive behaviors towards tick-borne diseases in Delaware.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Delaware State University, Student Research Team, USA.
    Delaware is among the top 10 states in the United States with the highest incidence for Lyme disease. The Delaware Division of Public Health (DPH) therefore has been working diligently to prevent and control tick-borne diseases through a variety of interventions including awareness campaigns and educational programs. To assess if tick-borne disease related information is reaching Delawareans through these programs, DPH in collaboration with Delaware State University administered an anonymous survey to 1755 participants in all three of Delaware counties during May 2017. Read More

    Surveillance of British ticks: An overview of species records, host associations, and new records of Ixodes ricinus distribution.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Medical Entomology & Zoonoses Ecology, Emergency Response Department Science & Technology, Public Health England, Porton Down, SP4 0JG, United Kingdom; Health Protection Research Unit in Environment and Health, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK; Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Porton Down, Salisbury, UK.
    Public Health England's passive Tick Surveillance Scheme (TSS) records the distribution, seasonality and host associations of ticks submitted from across the United Kingdom (UK), and helps to inform the UK government on emerging tick-borne disease risks. Here we summarise data collected through surveillance during 2010-2016, and compare with previous TSS data from 2005 to 2009, particularly in relation to the primary Lyme borreliosis vector Ixodes ricinus. 4173 records were submitted, constituting >14,000 ticks; 97% were endemic tick records (13,833 ticks of 11 species), with an additional 97 records of imported ticks (438 ticks of 17 species). Read More

    Lyme Disease Testing in a High-Incidence State: Clinician Knowledge and Patterns.
    Am J Clin Pathol 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    Objectives: Lyme disease (LD) incidence is increasing, but data suggest some clinicians are not fully aware of recommended procedures for ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests. The study objective was to assess clinicians' knowledge and practices regarding LD testing in a high-incidence region.

    Methods: We distributed surveys to 1,142 clinicians in the University of Vermont Medical Center region, of which 144 were completed (12. Read More

    The development of an IgG avidity Western blot with potential to differentiate patients with active Lyme borreliosis from those with past infection.
    J Microbiol Methods 2018 Feb 6;146:71-76. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Objectives: Current serological methods cannot distinguish active from past infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The aim of this study was to develop an IgG avidity Western blot and assess its potential to differentiate patients with early and late Lyme borreliosis (LB) i.e. Read More

    Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammal reservoirs in Kentucky, a traditionally non-endemic state for Lyme disease.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd., Bowling Green, KY, 42101, USA.
    The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States. Southeastern states accounted for 1500 of over 28,000 confirmed cases of Lyme disease reported in the United States during 2015. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in small mammal reservoirs and vectored to new hosts by ixodid ticks. Read More

    Exacerbation of chronic pain after dental extractions in a patient with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.
    Saudi J Anaesth 2018 Jan-Mar;12(1):112-114
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    A subset of patients who had Lyme disease experience postinfectious signs or symptoms called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). PTLDS is a chronic condition including pain in joints and muscles, neurological symptoms including demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathy, headaches, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and cardiac conditions. We report a case of difficult acute pain management in a patient with PTLDS who underwent dental extractions and required admission to an intensive care unit for pain control. Read More

    Lyme disease in Poland in 2015
    Przegl Epidemiol 2017 ;71(4):513-517
    National Institute of Public Health –National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw Department of Epidemiology
    Introduction: Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Read More

    Exploring an alternative approach to Lyme disease surveillance in Maryland.
    Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Mar 6;65(2):254-259. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Emerging Infections Program, Maryland Department of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    In Maryland, Lyme disease (LD) is a reportable disease and all laboratories and healthcare providers are required to report to the local health department. Given the volume of LD reports and effort required for investigation, surveillance for LD is burdensome and subject to underreporting. We explored the utility of International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (administrative) codes for use with LD surveillance. Read More

    Transient influence of blood meal and natural environment on blacklegged tick bacterial communities.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, NY, USA; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) spend the majority of their life cycle off host, typically in woodland habitat, but require a blood meal at each of three life stages (larva, nymph, adult) to reach maturity and reproduce. Blood feeding usually lasts for several days each time and as blood is imbibed, a range of known pathogens from the host may also be acquired. Using next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we examined the influence of host blood meal on the internal bacterial community within nymphal blacklegged ticks across host-seeking, feeding, blood meal digestion, and after molting into the adult stage. Read More

    Intracellular TLR7 is activated in human oligodendrocytes in response to Borrelia burgdorferi exposure.
    Neurosci Lett 2018 Feb 3;671:38-42. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Division of Bacteriology and Parasitology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University, 18703, Three Rivers Road, Covington, LA, 70433, USA. Electronic address:
    Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, may affect the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. In previous studies, we showed that human oligodendrocytes exposed to the bacteria undergo apoptosis in an inflammatory environment, and that inflammatory pathways trigger cell-death pathways. We further demonstrated that several receptor tyrosine kinases were involved in triggering downstream effects, leading to inflammation and apoptosis. Read More

    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adults with Lyme disease.
    Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2018 Jan 31;51:85-89. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Objective: This study examined the phenomenology and clinical characteristics of obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) in adults diagnosed with Lyme disease.

    Method: Participants were 147 adults aged 18-82 years (M = 43.81, SD = 12. Read More

    Correction to: Development of a sensitive PCR-dot blot assay to supplement serological tests for diagnosing Lyme disease.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    IGeneX Inc., 795 San Antonio Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94303, USA.
    In the original version of this article, the word "flagellin" is not correct. The correct word should be "P66" throughout the body of the article. Read More

    Tick borne illness-Lyme disease.
    Dis Mon 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Wellington Regional Medical Center, BlueHealth, LLC, Palm Beach County, FL.
    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borneillness in the United States. Thecausative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by 4 species of Ixodes tick species. Over 90% of US cases occur in northeasternstates from Maine to Virginia, and in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan. Read More

    Pathogen transmission in relation to duration of attachment by Ixodes scapularis ticks.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156, Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, United States. Electronic address:
    The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative agent of ehrlichiosis). With the notable exception of Powassan virus, which can be transmitted within minutes after attachment by an infected tick, there is no doubt that the risk of transmission of other I. scapularis-borne pathogens, including Lyme disease spirochetes, increases with the length of time (number of days) infected ticks are allowed to remain attached. Read More

    Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks Are Not Vectors of the Lyme Disease Agent, Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae): A Review of the Evidence.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO.
    In the early 1980s, Ixodes spp. ticks were implicated as the key North American vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt and Brenner) (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Concurrently, other human-biting tick species were investigated as potential B. Read More

    NF‑κB is a key modulator in the signaling pathway of Borrelia burgdorferi BmpA‑induced inflammatory chemokines in murine microglia BV2 cells.
    Mol Med Rep 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    School of Basic Medical Sciences, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, P.R. China.
    Lyme disease, caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a tick‑borne zoonosis. Lyme neuroborreliosis is a principal manifestation of Lyme disease and its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins caused similar inflammatory effects as exhibited in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Read More

    Epidemiological investigation of Borrelia burgdorferi in horses in the municipality of Sinop-MT, Brazil.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Embrapa Agrossilvipastoril, Rodovia MT, n° 222, Km 2,5; Zona Rural, Sinop, MT, Brazil.
    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the main etiological agent of Lyme disease (LD) in the USA. In Brazil, it is believed that a similar spirochete is the causal agent of the Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome (BYS), a zoonosis also transmitted by ticks, whose clinical manifestations are similar to those of LD. Despite the epidemiological importance, there are no studies reporting the presence and the prevalence of B. Read More

    An Unusual Cluster of Neuroinvasive Lyme Disease Cases Presenting With Bannwarth Syndrome in the Midwest United States.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jan 23;5(1):ofx276. Epub 2017 Dec 23.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
    Bannwarth syndrome (BWS), an infrequent manifestation of neuroinvasive Lyme disease (LD) characterized by radiculopathy, neuropathy, and lymphocytic pleocytosis, is more commonly documented in Europe than North America. Here, we describe a cluster of 5 neuroinvasive LD cases with BWS in the upper Midwest United States between July and August 2017. Read More

    Cranial neuropathy and severe pain due to early disseminatedinfection.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jan 23;2018. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Mayo Clinic Minnesota, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department in the summer with a right seventh cranial nerve lower motor neuron palsy and worsening paraesthesias for 6 weeks. He had debilitating pain at the scalp and spine. Prior work up was unrevealing. Read More

    An ELISpot assay, measuringB31-specific interferon-gamma secreting T-cells, cannot discriminate active Lyme neuroborreliosis from past Lyme borreliosis; a prospective study in the Netherlands.
    J Clin Microbiol 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Department of Neurology, and Department of Pulmonology, Diakonessenhuis hospital, Utrecht
    Two-tier serology testing is most frequently used for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB); however, a positive result is no proof of active disease. To establish a diagnosis of active LB, better diagnostics are needed. Tests investigating the cellular immune system are available, but studies evaluating the utility of these tests on well-defined patient populations are lacking. Read More

    Promising alternatives for one-tier testing of Lyme borreliosis.
    Clin Chim Acta 2018 Feb 1;479:148-154. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universität, Marbacher Weg 6-10, 35032 Marburg, Germany.
    A main focus of human health studies is the early detection of infectious diseases to enable more rapid treatment and prevent disease transmission. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis has been always challenging because of the lack of specific, but simple assay formats. Two-tiered testing has been recommended by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to provide more specific results for diagnosis of Lyme disease. Read More

    Lack of Evidence for Transovarial Transmission of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia mayonii by Infected Female Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80521.
    The recently described Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia mayonii is associated with human illness in the Upper Midwest of the United States. Experimental laboratory studies and field observations on natural infection indicate that B. mayonii is maintained by horizontal transmission between tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs. Read More

    A Description of 'Australian Lyme Disease' Epidemiology and Impact: An Analysis of Submissions to an Australian Senate Inquiry.
    Intern Med J 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Microbiology Registrar, Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Westmead Hospital.
    Background: Many Australian patients are diagnosed and treated for the scientifically and politically controversial diagnosis of an endemic form of 'Australian Lyme Disease'. Patient advocacy led Senator John Madigan to propose an Australian Senate Inquiry into this illness.

    Aims: To describe the symptomology and outcomes of patients diagnosed and treated with Lyme disease in Australia. Read More

    Multiflora rose invasion amplifies prevalence of Lyme disease pathogen, but not necessarily Lyme disease risk.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 23;11(1):54. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.
    Background: Forests in urban landscapes differ from their rural counterparts in ways that may alter vector-borne disease dynamics. In urban forest fragments, tick-borne pathogen prevalence is not well characterized; mitigating disease risk in densely-populated urban landscapes requires understanding ecological factors that affect pathogen prevalence. We trapped blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) nymphs in urban forest fragments on the East Coast of the United States and used multiplex real-time PCR assays to quantify the prevalence of four zoonotic, tick-borne pathogens. Read More

    Development and Validation of a Serologic Test Panel for Detection of Powassan Virus Infection in U.S. Patients Residing in Regions Where Lyme Disease Is Endemic.
    mSphere 2018 Jan-Feb;3(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.
    Powassan virus (POWV) is an emerging tick-borne arbovirus presenting a public health threat in North America. POWV lineage II, also known as deer tick virus, is the strain of the virus most frequently found inticks and is implicated in most cases of POWV encephalitis in the United States. Currently, no commercial tests are available to detect POWV exposure in tick-borne disease (TBD) patients. Read More

    Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Reservoir Host Diversity and Abundance Impacts on Dilution of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Residential and Woodland Habitats in Connecticut, United States.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, College of Agriculture, Health, and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
    The dilution effect in the zoonotic disease transmission cycle theorizes that an increased diversity of host species will alter transmission dynamics, result in a decrease in pathogen prevalence, and potentially lower human disease incidence. The interrelationship of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner) (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease (LD), and its primary vector, blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a commonly used example of the dilution effect, suggesting that an increased diversity of host species will be found in large, undisturbed forested tracts and lower diversity in fragmented forests. Given that Connecticut woodlands are mature with heavy upper canopies and generally poor habitat quality, we hypothesized there would be higher diversity of host species resulting in lower prevalence of B. Read More

    Neuroimmunomodulators in neuroborreliosis and Lyme encephalopathy.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Neurosciences, Overlook Medical Center, Atlantic Health System, Summit, NJ.
    Background: Lyme encephalopathy, characterized by non-specific neurobehavioral symptoms including mild cognitive difficulties, may occur in patients with systemic Lyme disease and is often mistakenly attributed to CNS infection. Identical symptoms occur in innumerable other inflammatory states and may reflect the effect of systemic immune mediators on the CNS.

    Methods: Multiplex immunoassays were used to characterize the inflammatory profile in serum and CSF from Lyme and non-Lyme patients with a range of symptoms to determine if there are specific markers of active CNS infection (neuroborreliosis), or systemic inflammatory mediators associated with neurobehavioral syndromes. Read More

    Benefits of VCE-003.2, a cannabigerol quinone derivative, against inflammation-driven neuronal deterioration in experimental Parkinson's disease: possible involvement of different binding sites at the PPARγ receptor.
    J Neuroinflammation 2018 Jan 16;15(1):19. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Neuroquímica, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Neuroprotection with cannabinoids in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been afforded predominantly with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory cannabinoids. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of VCE-003.2, a quinone derivative of the non-psychotrophic phytocannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG), which may derive its activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). Read More

    The Blacklegged Tick, Ixodes scapularis: An Increasing Public Health Concern.
    Trends Parasitol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of seven human pathogens, including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ehrlichiosis associated with Ehrlichia muris eauclarensis. In addition to an accelerated rate of discovery of I. scapularis-borne pathogens over the past two decades, the geographic range of the tick, and incidence and range of I. Read More

    IL-10 Deficiency Reveals a Role for TLR2-Dependent Bystander Activation of T Cells in Lyme Arthritis.
    J Immunol 2018 Feb 12;200(4):1457-1470. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; and
    T cells predominate the immune responses in the synovial fluid of patients with persistent Lyme arthritis; however, their role in Lyme disease remains poorly defined. Using a murine model of persistent Lyme arthritis, we observed that bystander activation of CD4and CD8T cells leads to arthritis-promoting IFN-γ, similar to the inflammatory environment seen in the synovial tissue of patients with posttreatment Lyme disease. TCR transgenic mice containing monoclonal specificity toward non-epitopes confirmed that bystander T cell activation was responsible for disease development. Read More

    Risk Factors for Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Arthritis, Facial Palsy, Carditis, and Meningitis in Patients From High-Incidence States.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jan 18;5(1):ofx254. Epub 2017 Nov 18.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado.
    Background: Clinical features of Lyme disease (LD) range from localized skin lesions to serious disseminated disease. Information on risk factors for Lyme arthritis, facial palsy, carditis, and meningitis is limited but could facilitate disease recognition and elucidate pathophysiology.

    Methods: Patients from high-incidence states treated for LD during 2005-2014 were identified in a nationwide insurance claims database using thecode for LD (088. Read More

    Lyme carditis with isolated left bundle branch block and myocarditis successfully treated with oral doxycycline.
    IDCases 2018 16;11:48-50. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Infectious Disease Division Winthrop-University Hospital Mineola, New York, United States.
    Lyme disease may present with a variety of cardiac manifestations ranging from first degree to third degree heart block. Cardiac involvement with Lyme disease may be asymptomatic, or symptomatic. Atrioventrical conduction abnormalities are the most common manifestation of Lyme carditis. Read More

    Seroprevalence againstandSpecies in Patients with Uveitis: A Prospective Survey.
    J Ophthalmol 2017 26;2017:9247465. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vector-borne diseases such as Lyme borreliosis and rickettsioses have been associated with ocular inflammation. Our aim was to study patients with diagnosed uveitis to evaluate serological signs of infection or exposure to these tick-borne agents. Forty-eight patients were prospectively examined with serology together with medical records and a questionnaire concerning previous exposure, diseases, and treatments. Read More

    Autoimmunity against a glycolytic enzyme as a possible cause for persistent symptoms in Lyme disease.
    Med Hypotheses 2018 Jan 26;110:1-8. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    DSM-Department of Medical Sciences-Unit of Dermatology-University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Some patients with a history of Borrelia burgdorferi infection develop a chronic symptomatology characterized by cognitive deficits, fatigue, and pain, despite antibiotic treatment. The pathogenic mechanism that underlines this condition, referred to as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), is currently unknown. A debate exists about whether PTLDS is due to persistent infection or to post-infectious damages in the immune system and the nervous system. Read More

    Alcohol and age.
    Age Ageing 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Keele University, Newcastle under Lyme, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK.
    Alcohol consumption constitutes a substantial burden of disease. Older people are being admitted to hospital for alcohol problems in increasing numbers. A recent systematic review reports cautious supportive evidence for primary prevention interventions in reducing excessive alcohol consumption in older drinkers, but does not focus on treatment of dependent drinkers. Read More

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