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    Dynamics of hormonal disorders following unilateral orchiectomy for a testicular tumor.
    Med Oncol 2017 May 7;34(5):84. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Uro-Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Roentgena 5 st., 02-781, Warsaw, Poland.
    Testicular tumors and their treatment interfere with homeostasis, hormonal status included. The aim of the study was to evaluate hormonal disorders of the pituitary-gonadal axis in men treated for testicular tumors. One hundred twenty-eight men treated for a unilateral testicular tumor at our institution were included. Read More

    Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Ovarian Morphology in Women With Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism/Kallmann Syndrome: Effects of Recombinant Human FSH.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Apr;102(4):1102-1111
    Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris.
    Context: Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), characterized by gonadotropin deficiency and absent puberty, is very rare in women. IHH prevents pubertal ovarian stimulation, but anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) have not been studied.

    Objectives: (1) To compare, in IHH vs controls, AMH, ovarian volume (OV), and AFC. Read More

    A study to evaluate the prevalence of hypogonadism in Indian males with Type-2 diabetes mellitus.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jan-Feb;21(1):64-70
    Global Medical Affairs, MSD Pharmaceuticals Private Limited, 10th Floor, Platina Building, C-59, G-Block, Bandra Kurla Complex, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: A high prevalence of hypogonadism in men with Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported worldwide.

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hypogonadism in Indian males with T2DM and assess the primary and secondary hypogonadism along with androgen deficiency.

    Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 900 men with T2DM were evaluated using androgen deficiency in aging male questionnaire. Read More

    AgRP to Kiss1 neuron signaling links nutritional state and fertility.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Feb 14;114(9):2413-2418. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195;
    Mammalian reproductive function depends upon a neuroendocrine circuit that evokes the pulsatile release of gonadotropin hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) from the pituitary. This reproductive circuit is sensitive to metabolic perturbations. When challenged with starvation, insufficient energy reserves attenuate gonadotropin release, leading to infertility. Read More

    Genetic testing facilitates prepubertal diagnosis of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
    Clin Genet 2017 Feb 14. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Endocrinology, Diabetology & Metabolism Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Neonatal micropenis and cryptorchidism raise the suspicion of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), a rare genetic disorder caused by gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency. Low plasma testosterone levels and low gonadotropins during minipuberty provide a clinical diagnostic clue, yet these tests are seldomly performed in general practice. We report a male neonate with no family history of reproductive disorders who was born with micropenis and cryptorchidism. Read More

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in Males with Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1.
    JIMD Rep 2017 Feb 4. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    Division of Endocrinology, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Background: Glycogen storage disease type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder with an incidence of 1 in 100,000. Long-term complications include chronic blood glucose lability, lactic academia, short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, gout, progressive renal insufficiency, systemic or pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas at risk for malignant transformation, anemia, vitamin D deficiency, hyperuricemic nephrocalcinosis, inflammatory bowel syndrome (type 1b), hypertriglyceridemia, and irregular menstrual cycles. We describe hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a novel complication in glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1. Read More

    Transplantation of CD51(+) Stem Leydig Cells: A New Strategy for the Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency.
    Stem Cells 2017 May 5;35(5):1222-1232. Epub 2017 Mar 5.
    The Biological Therapy Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, China.
    Stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation could provide a new strategy for treating the testosterone deficiency. Our previous study demonstrated that CD51 (also called integrin αv) might be a putative cell surface marker for SLCs, but the physiological function and efficacy of CD51(+) SLCs treatment remain unclear. Here, we explore the potential therapeutic benefits of CD51(+) SLCs transplantation and whether these transplanted cells can be regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Read More

    Dynamic GnRH and hCG testing: establishment of new diagnostic reference levels.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Apr 11;176(4):379-391. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Department of Growth and ReproductionRigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Objective: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation tests may be used to evaluate the pituitary and testicular capacity. Our aim was to evaluate changes in follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone after GnRH and hCG stimulation in healthy men and assess the impact of six single nucleotide polymorphisms on the responses.

    Design: GnRH and hCG stimulation tests were performed on 77 healthy men, 18-40 years (reference group) at a specialized andrology referral center at a university hospital. Read More

    Delayed treatment of undescended testes may promote hypogonadism and infertility.
    Endocrine 2017 Mar 9;55(3):914-924. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Center of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, Department of Clinical Andrology, University of Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building D11, D-48149, Muenster, Germany.
    Context: Undescended testes at birth may be caused by testosterone deficiency during fetal development. It is unclear whether the process of failed descent contributes to permanent endocrine impairment.

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of age at treatment of undescended testes on endocrine and spermatogenic testicular function in middle-aged men. Read More

    Unique effects of energy versus estrogen deficiency on multiple components of bone strength in exercising women.
    Osteoporos Int 2017 Apr 28;28(4):1365-1376. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Women's Health and Exercise Lab, Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA, 16802, USA.
    Many female athletes are energy and/or estrogen deficient, but the independent effects on bone health have not been isolated. Energy deficiency was detrimental at the tibia while estrogen deficiency was detrimental at the radius. Nutrition must be considered alongside menstrual recovery when addressing compromised bone health in female athletes. Read More

    Poor Sleep Quality Predicts Hypogonadal Symptoms and Sexual Dysfunction in Male Nonstandard Shift Workers.
    Urology 2017 Apr 14;102:121-125. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Division of Male Reproductive Medicine and Surgery, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
    Objective: To investigate the impact of sleep quality in hypogonadal symptoms and sexual function in men working nonstandard shifts.

    Materials And Methods: Men treated at a single andrology clinic between July and October 2014 completed questionnaires assessing sleep quality, hypogonadal symptoms (Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male [ADAM/qADAM]), and sexual function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]). Serum hormone levels were assessed at the time of survey completion. Read More

    Altered expression of hormone receptor, integrin β3 and pinopode in the endometrium of luteal phase defect women.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 14;33(4):315-319. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    a Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology , Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan , China.
    Objective: To invistigate estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), integrin β3, and pinopode expression in luteal phase deficiency (LPD) women.

    Methods: There were 52 nulligravidas consecutive infertile patients undergoing a routine assistant reproduction consultation included in this study. An endometrial biopsy sample was randomly obtained between days 4 and 10 of the luteal phase. Read More

    Augmented expression of gamma-glutamyl transferase 5 (GGT5) impairs testicular steroidogenesis by deregulating local oxidative stress.
    Cell Tissue Res 2016 Nov 11;366(2):467-481. Epub 2016 Jul 11.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 127 Changle West Road, Xi'an, 710032, China.
    An increasingly pro-oxidant environment has been widely implicated in causing dysfunction of testicular steroidogenesis, but little progress has been made in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we report that gamma-glutamyl transferase 5 (GGT5), a key metabolism component responsible for the catalysis of important anti-oxidant glutathione (GSH), is predominantly expressed in mammalian Leydig cells (LCs). Deregulated GGT5 expression negatively correlates with testosterone deficiency in the testes of type 2 diabetic mice. Read More

    Acute hormonal findings after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage - report from a single center.
    Endocr Res 2017 May 18;42(2):125-131. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    e Department of Clinical Medicine, Biostatistics , University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital , Turku , Finland.
    Purpose: The aim was to assess anterior pituitary hormone levels during the acute phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and analyze the possible association with the clinical condition and outcome.

    Material And Methods: Forty patients with aSAH whose aneurysm was secured by endovascular coiling were enrolled. Basal secretions of cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured up to 14 days after the incident. Read More

    The relationship of salivary testosterone and male sexual dysfunction in opioid-associated androgen deficiency (OPIAD).
    Aging Male 2017 Mar 18;20(1):1-8. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    a Research Unit, Foundation for the Promotion of Health Research and Biomedicine of Valencia (FISABIO) , Alicante , Spain.
    Background: Opioids are an effective treatment for chronic non-malignant pain (CNP). Long-term use risks and side effects such as opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) exist. This could be measured by saliva testosterone (Sal-T). Read More

    Clinicopathologic assessment of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2016 Sep-Oct;20(5):667-673
    Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria.
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and evaluate its clinical and pathologic correlates.

    Subjects And Methods: In a cross-sectional survey of 200 type 2 diabetic males aged 32-69 years, total testosterone (TT), follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, waist circumference (WC), glycated hemoglobin, and lipids were measured. Clinical assessment of androgen deficiency was done using the androgen deficiency in aging male (ADAM) questionnaire. Read More

    Reference Ranges and Association of Age and Lifestyle Characteristics with Testosterone, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, and Luteinizing Hormone among 1166 Western Chinese Men.
    PLoS One 2016 6;11(10):e0164116. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.
    Decreased total testosterone (TT) is the recommended metric to identify age-related hypogonadism. However, average TT and the extent to which it varies by age, can vary substantially among different populations. Population-specific reference ranges are needed to understand normal versus abnormal TT levels. Read More

    Clinical Applications of Gonadotropins in the Male.
    Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2016 13;143:121-174. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.
    The pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) play a pivotal role in reproduction. The synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins are regulated by complex interactions among several endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors of diverse chemical structure. In men, LH regulates the synthesis of androgens by the Leydig cells, whereas FSH promotes Sertoli cell function and thereby influences spermatogenesis. Read More

    Evaluation of pituitary function in cases with the diagnosis of pediatric mild traumatic brain injury: Cross-sectional study.
    J Neurosci Rural Pract 2016 Oct-Dec;7(4):537-543
    Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey.
    Background: This study was to determine whether pituitary dysfunction occurs after head trauma in children or not and which axis is affected more; to define the association of pituitary dysfunction with the severity of head trauma and duration time after the diagnosis of head trauma.

    Materials And Methods: In this study, 24 children who were diagnosed with head trauma were evaluated regarding pituitary dysfunction. In all cases, after 12 h fasting, serum cortisol, fT3, fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serum sodium, urine density, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, in female cases E2, in male cases, TT levels were determined. Read More

    A vital region for human glycoprotein hormone trafficking revealed by an LHB mutation.
    J Endocrinol 2016 Dec 21;231(3):197-207. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Department of EndocrinologyCentre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Université de Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium.
    Glycoprotein hormones are complex hormonally active macromolecules. Luteinizing hormone (LH) is essential for the postnatal development and maturation of the male gonad. Inactivating Luteinizing hormone beta (LHB) gene mutations are exceptionally rare and lead to hypogonadism that is particularly severe in males. Read More

    Hops for Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms: Mechanisms of Action.
    J Menopausal Med 2016 Aug 30;22(2):62-4. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Mother and Child Welfare Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Menopause is a critical stage of women's life associated with various complaints and distresses. Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flushes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, are the most common menopause symptoms affecting about 50% to 80% of middle-aged women. Obviously, these symptoms, resulting from estrogen deficiency during menopause, can exert negative effects on women's health and quality of life and thus require to be managed through approaches such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Read More

    Kisspeptin levels in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism diagnosed male patients and its relation with glucose-insulin dynamic.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2016 Dec 10;32(12):991-994. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    g Çanakkale Military Hospital, Internal Diseases Clinic , Çanakkale , Turkey.
    Male hypogonadism is defined as the deficiency of testosterone or sperm production synthesized by testicles or the deficiency of both. The reasons for hypogonadism may be primary, meaning testicular or secondary, meaning hypothalamohypophyseal. In hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), there is indeficiency in gonadotropic hormones due to hypothalamic or hypophyseal reasons. Read More

    SCAP/SREBP pathway is required for the full steroidogenic response to cyclic AMP.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 Sep 6;113(38):E5685-93. Epub 2016 Sep 6.
    School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109; University of Washington Diabetes Institute, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109; School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, University of Washington Diabetes Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109
    Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates steroidogenesis largely through a surge in cyclic AMP (cAMP). Steroidogenic rates are also critically dependent on the availability of cholesterol at mitochondrial sites of synthesis. This cholesterol is provided by cellular uptake of lipoproteins, mobilization of intracellular lipid, and de novo synthesis. Read More

    Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model.
    J Chin Med Assoc 2016 Nov 30;79(11):589-596. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
    Department of Physiology, Physiology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Background: Aging is associated with the loss of endocrine function. In this study, Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex), which has antioxidant effects and high levels of phytoestrogen, was investigated with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and antioxidant indices in natural aging and in a d-galactose induced aging model in female mice.

    Methods: The mice were subcutaneously injected with d-galactose (500 mg/kg/d for 45 days). Read More

    Modulation of gonadotrophin induced steroidogenic enzymes in granulosa cells by d-chiroinositol.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2016 Aug 31;14(1):52. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and Clinica Eugin Modena, Modena, Italy.
    Background: d-chiroinositol (DCI) is a inositolphosphoglycan (IPG) involved in several cellular functions that control the glucose metabolism. DCI functions as second messenger in the insulin signaling pathway and it is considered an insulin sensitizer since deficiency in tissue availability of DCI were shown to cause insulin resistance (IR). Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathological condition that is often accompanied with insulin resistance. Read More

    Preorchiectomy Leydig Cell Dysfunction in Patients With Testicular Cancer.
    Clin Genitourin Cancer 2017 Feb 21;15(1):e37-e43. Epub 2016 Jul 21.
    Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: Little is known about preorchiectomy Leydig cell function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC). The aim was to estimate the prevalence of preorchiectomy Leydig cell dysfunction and evaluate factors associated with this condition in a cohort of patients with TGCC.

    Patients And Methods: We evaluated luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) preorchiectomy in 561 patients with TGCC and compared with 561 healthy controls. Read More

    Vitamin D3 deficiency is associated with female sexual dysfunction in premenopausal women.
    Int Urol Nephrol 2016 Nov 13;48(11):1789-1795. Epub 2016 Aug 13.
    Endocrinology Department, Şişli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, 34371, Şişli/Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: To assess female sexual functions in women who were affected by vitamin D3 deficiency.

    Methods: A total of 50 women with FSD and 58 healthy women controls were included in the study, according to the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire using a 26.55 cutoff value. Read More

    [Clinical and genetic analysis of an infant with isolated 17, 20-lyase deficiency].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2016 Aug;54(8):619-22
    Department of Pediatric Endocrinology/Genetics, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Pediatric Research, Shanghai 200092, China.
    Objective: To explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of an infant with isolated 17, 20-lyase deficiency.

    Method: The clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics were analyzed in an 8-month-old infant with 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis who presented predominantly the female external genitalia.

    Result: The infant was referred because of"masses in bilateral inguinal region and 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis". Read More

    Endocrine Society of Australia position statement on male hypogonadism (part 1): assessment and indications for testosterone therapy.
    Med J Aust 2016 Aug;205(4):173-8
    Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, VIC.
    Introduction: This article, Part 1 of the Endocrine Society of Australia's position statement on male hypogonadism, focuses on assessment of male hypogonadism, including the indications for testosterone therapy. (Part 2 will deal with treatment and therapeutic considerations.)

    Main Recommendations: Key points and recommendations are:Pathological hypogonadism arises due to diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or testes (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). Read More

    Vitamin D deficiency and low ionized calcium are linked with semen quality and sex steroid levels in infertile men.
    Hum Reprod 2016 Aug 19;31(8):1875-85. Epub 2016 Jun 19.
    Department of Growth and Reproduction and International Research and Research Training Centre in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark.
    Study Question: Are low vitamin D levels linked with semen quality and sex steroids in infertile men?

    Summary Answer: Infertile men with vitamin D deficiency had lower sperm motility, total numbers of motile sperm, Inhibin B, sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) and testosterone/estradiol ratio, but higher levels of free sex steroids, than infertile men with normal vitamin D levels.

    What Is Known Already: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with decreased sperm motility in healthy men, but a relationship between vitamin D and calcium with semen quality and especially sex steroids has not been sufficiently described in infertile men.

    Study Design, Size, Duration: This study comprises baseline characteristics of 1427 infertile men screened from 2011 to 2014 for inclusion in a randomized clinical trial, the Copenhagen-Bone-Gonadal Study. Read More

    Testosterone Deficiency and Bone Metabolism Damage in Testicular Cancer Survivors.
    Am J Mens Health 2016 Aug 3. Epub 2016 Aug 3.
    St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of therapeutic modalities and sexual hormone levels on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. In a cross-sectional descriptive, long-term follow-up study, a total of 1,249 long-term TC survivors were evaluated according to treatment modality: orchiectomy (OE) only, OE + chemotherapy (CT), or OE + radiotherapy (RT). Luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TST), marker of bone resorption (β-carboxyl-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen-CTx), and BMD were evaluated. Read More

    Natural history, risk factors and clinical features of primary hypogonadism in ageing men: Longitudinal Data from the European Male Ageing Study.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016 Dec 18;85(6):891-901. Epub 2016 Aug 18.
    Andrology Research Unit, Centre for Endocrinology & Diabetes, Institute of Human Development, Old St Mary's Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Objective: In ageing men, the incidence and clinical significance of testosterone (T) decline accompanied by elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) are unclear. We describe the natural history, risk factors and clinical features associated with the development of biochemical primary hypogonadism (PHG, T < 10·5 nmol/l and LH>9·4U/l) in ageing men.

    Design, Patients And Measurements: A prospective observational cohort survey of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years, followed up for 4·3 years. Read More

    Enclomiphene citrate for the treatment of secondary male hypogonadism.
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 2016 Aug 4;17(11):1561-7. Epub 2016 Jul 4.
    b Center for Reproductive Medicine , Baylor College of Medicine , Houston , TX , USA.
    Introduction: Hypogonadism is a growing concern in an aging male population. Historically treated using exogenous testosterone, concerns about possible adverse effects of testosterone have led physicians to seek alternative treatment approaches.

    Areas Covered: Enclomiphene citrate is the trans isomer of clomiphene citrate, a non-steroidal estrogen receptor antagonist that is FDA-approved for the treatment of ovarian dysfunction in women. Read More

    Hindbrain estrogen receptor-beta antagonism normalizes reproductive and counter-regulatory hormone secretion in hypoglycemic steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats.
    Neuroscience 2016 Sep 15;331:62-71. Epub 2016 Jun 15.
    Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71291, United States.
    Hindbrain dorsal vagal complex A2 noradrenergic signaling represses the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to energy deficiency. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia augments A2 neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) expression, coincident with LH surge suppression. We hypothesized that ERβ is critical for hypoglycemia-associated patterns of LH secretion and norepinephrine (NE) activity in key reproduction-relevant forebrain structures. Read More

    Profile of follitropin alpha/lutropin alpha combination for the stimulation of follicular development in women with severe luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency.
    Int J Womens Health 2016 25;8:169-79. Epub 2016 May 25.
    One Day Medical Center, IVF Unit, Rome, Italy.
    A severe gonadotropin deficiency together with chronic estradiol deficiency leading to amenorrhea characterizes patients suffering from hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Administration of both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to these patients has been shown to be essential in achieving successful stimulation of follicular development, ovulation, and rescue of fertility. In recent years, the availability of both recombinant FSH (rFSH) and recombinant LH (rLH) has provided a new therapeutic option for the stimulation of follicular growth in hypopituitary-hypogonadotropic women (World Health Organization Group I). Read More

    [Effect of pulsatile GnRH therapy on pituitary-testicular axis function in male patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Jun;96(21):1668-72
    Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) therapy in male patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS).

    Methods: Fourteen male PSIS patients, who had received subcutaneous pulsatile GnRH therapy for at least four weeks at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from April 2014 to September 2015, were included in the study. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone level, testicular volume and sperm in ejaculation were measured. Read More

    Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.
    Chin Med J (Engl) 2016 May;129(10):1147-53
    Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.
    Background: Prolonged gonadal hormone deficiency in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may produce adverse effects on the endocrine homeostasis and metabolism. This study aimed to compare basal serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels between male IHH patients and healthy controls. Moreover, this study compared the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and also evaluated the relationship between basal HPA axis and NAFLD in male IHH patients. Read More

    Effects of tadalafil treatment combined with physical activity in patients with low onset hypogonadism: results from a not-randomized single arm phase 2 study.
    Aging Male 2016 Sep 6;19(3):155-160. Epub 2016 May 6.
    a Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine - CRAMD (Research Centre of Motor Activity and Metabolic Rehabilitation in Diabetes) , University of Catania , Catania , Italy.
    Purpose: To investigate a possible relation between penile Doppler ultrasound examination (PDUE) parameters and efficacy of chronic therapy with tadalafil (TAD) combined with a protocol of aerobic physical activity (PA) in patients with late onset hypogonadism (LOH).

    Methods: The study evaluated 30 patients consecutively enrolled with LOH and erectile dysfunction which present contraindication to hormonal replacement therapy for concomitant prostate disease. These patients were subjected to a combined protocol with phosphodiesterase V selective inhibitors (TAD 5 mg daily) and aerobic PA. Read More

    Gonadal Hormones in Adolescent Females with β- Thalassemia in relation to Iron load.
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2016 May 6. Epub 2016 May 6.
    16 Elemam Moslem street branched from Elhelw Street, Tanta, Gharbia, Egypt.
    Background: Beta-thalassemia is a hereditary blood disorder characterized by reduced or absent beta globin chain synthesis, resulting in reduced hemoglobin in red blood cells, decreased RBC production and anemia. Patients with thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which lead to accumulation of iron in different tissues, including tissues of endocrine glands. The aim of this work was to evaluate serum levels of gonadal hormones in adolescent females with β- thalassemia in relation to iron overload. Read More

    Endocr Pract 2016 Sep 28;22(9):1033-9. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
    Objective: Following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), it is important to assess for and manage adrenal insufficiency (AI). The goal of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of a glucocorticoid (GC) sparing protocol to limit GC exposure in patients undergoing TSS.

    Methods: Adult patients undergoing TSS (excluding Cushing disease) with adequate adrenal function prior to surgery underwent TSS without perioperative GC coverage. Read More

    [Dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in patients with adrenal hypoplasia congenita due to DAX-1 gene mutation].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Apr;96(15):1183-7
    Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPTA) function and spermatogenesis in male patients with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) due to DAX-1 gene mutation.

    Methods: Twenty-four adult male patients from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between November 2007 and December 2014 were included.Their DAX-1 gene mutations were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and clinical features, hormone level and semen assay were collected. Read More

    Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Girls with Hypogonadotropic and Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2016 Jun 18;8(2):163-9. Epub 2016 Apr 18.
    Diyarbakır Children State Hospital, Clinic of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diyarbakır, Turkey; Present position: Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara, Turkey, Phone: +90 543 370 54 91 E-mail:
    Objective: Deficiency of sex steroids has a negative impact on bone mineral content. In studies conducted on postmenopausal women and animal studies, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were found to be correlated with a decrease in bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent girls with hypogonadotropic and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and also to investigate the correlation between FSH level and BMD. Read More

    IGF-I levels reflect hypopituitarism severity in adults with pituitary dysfunction.
    Pituitary 2016 Aug;19(4):399-406
    Endocrine Institute, Rabin Medical Center-Beilinson Hospital, Petach Tikva, Israel.
    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) as a surrogate marker of severity of hypopituitarism in adults with pituitary pathology.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective data analysis, including 269 consecutive patients with pituitary disease attending a tertiary endocrine clinic in 1990-2015. The medical files were reviewed for the complete pituitary hormone profile, including IGF-I, and clinical data. Read More

    The Effects of Vitamin D-K-Calcium Co-Supplementation on Endocrine, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
    Horm Metab Res 2016 Jul 6;48(7):446-51. Epub 2016 Apr 6.
    Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
    The current study was conducted to assess the effects of vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation on endocrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers in vitamin D-deficient women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 60 vitamin D-deficient women diagnosed with PCOS aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups to intake either 200 IU vitamin D, 90 μg vitamin K plus, 500 mg calcium supplements (n=30), or placebo (n=30) twice a day for 8 weeks. Read More

    Risk Factors for Hypogonadism in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
    J Diabetes Res 2016 23;2016:5162167. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 100 Shizi Street, Hongshan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210028, China; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 100 Shizi Street, Hongshan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210028, China.
    Background: Male hypogonadism is an endocrine disease characterized by low levels of serum testosterone and is closely related to the development of diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to observe the risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and divided into a low total testosterone (TT) group (=75) and a normal TT group (=138). Read More

    A Case of Bilateral Testicular Tumors Subsequently Diagnosed as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency.
    Int J Fertil Steril 2016 Jan-Mar;9(4):574-80. Epub 2015 Dec 23.
    Reproductive Medicine Center, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Xiamen City 361005, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, China.
    21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) caused congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from mutations in genes involved with cortisol (CO) synthesis in the adrenal glands. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are rarely the presenting symptoms of CAH. Here, we describe a case of simple virilizing CAH with TARTs, in a 15-year-old boy. Read More

    The physiology of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea associated with energy deficiency in exercising women and in women with anorexia nervosa.
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2016 Feb;25(2):91-119
    An energy deficiency is the result of inadequate energy intake relative to high energy expenditure. Often observed with the development of an energy deficiency is a high drive for thinness, dietary restraint, and weight and shape concerns in association with eating behaviors. At a basic physiologic level, a chronic energy deficiency promotes compensatory mechanisms to conserve fuel for vital physiologic function. Read More

    Compensated reduction in Leydig cell function is associated with lower semen quality variables: a study of 8182 European young men.
    Hum Reprod 2016 May 2;31(5):947-57. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Study Question: Is the Leydig cell function of young European men associated with semen quality?

    Summary Answer: Compensated reduction in Leydig cell function, defined as increased LH concentration combined with adequate testosterone production is associated with lower semen quality.

    What Is Already Known: Semen quality of young European men shows a heterogeneous pattern. Many have sperm counts below and in the lower WHO reference where there nevertheless is a significant risk of subfecundity. Read More

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in a Boy with Myopathy.
    Mymensingh Med J 2016 Jan;25(1):186-9
    Dr Tahniyah Haq, Associate Consultant, Endocrinology, Square Hospitals Ltd. Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail:
    Hypogonadism is seldom seen together with myopathy, although testosterone contributes to muscle strength. We present here a rare case of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with myopathy in a 20 year old male. He had flaccid quadriparesis with raised creatinine phosphokinase. Read More

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