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    822 results match your criteria Lupus Erythematosus Subacute Cutaneous

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    [Secukinumab-induced subacute-cutaneous lupus erythematosus].
    Hautarzt 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45122, Essen, Deutschland.
    We report about a 52-year-old woman with onset of drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE) in sun-exposed areas, under therapy with secukinumab. Topical therapy with a steroid class 3 for 4 weeks showed substantial improvement. The systemic therapy was switched to ustekinumab. Read More

    Cutaneous Lupus: A Brief Review of Old and New Medical Therapeutic Options.
    J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 2017 Oct;18(2):S64-S68
    Department of Dermatology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory condition which affects predominantly women in their 30s. It has several clinical manifestations, including skin lesions that can be classified as acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus. A multifaceted approach to treating cutaneous lupus is advocated. Read More

    Steady-state pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    Lupus 2017 Jan 1:961203317727601. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    4 University Hospital of North Durham, Department of Dermatology, North Road Durham, DH1 5TW, Institute of Cellular Medicine, 5994 Newcastle University , UK.
    Background Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a 4-aminoquinolone antimalarial, is regarded as the oral therapy of choice for cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is also licensed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies of HCQ-treated patients with SLE or RA have demonstrated a positive correlation between whole-blood HCQ levels and clinical response. Read More

    Severely Crusted Cheilitis as an Initial Presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Jul-Aug;62(4):440
    National Skin Centre, Department of Dermatology, Singapore.
    Lupus erythematosus (LE) is an autoimmune disease which may initially present solely with lip lesions. Due to a wide spectrum of presentation, these features may initially be misdiagnosed as other oral diseases such as lichen planus, erythema multiforme (EM), and actinic cheilitis, leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss a case of severely crusted cheilitis which was initially diagnosed as EM, with subsequent development of subacute cutaneous LE, and progression to systemic LE. Read More

    Systemic lupus erythematosus, following prodromal idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, presenting with skin lesions resembling malignant atrophic papulosis.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Oct 10;42(7):774-776. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. Its incidence in the UK is approximately 1 per 10 000. Cutaneous involvement, encompassing acute, subacute and chronic disease, occurs in over two-thirds of cases, and can often be the first clue to diagnosis. Read More

    Ultraviolet-A1 irradiation therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Lupus 2017 Oct 8;26(12):1239-1251. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Veterans Administration, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus, SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which bind to antigens and are deposited within tissues to fix complement, resulting in widespread systemic inflammation. The studies presented herein are consistent with hyperpolarized, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-deficient mitochondria being central to the disease process. These hyperpolarized mitochondria resist the depolarization required for activation-induced apoptosis. Read More

    Development of new extra-glandular manifestations or associated auto-immune diseases after establishing the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome : A long-term study of the Antonius Nieuwegein Sjögren (ANS) cohort.
    Rheumatol Int 2017 Jul 19;37(7):1153-1158. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, St. Antonius Hospital, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.
    To investigate in a long-term study, the development of new extra-glandular manifestations (EGM) or associated auto-immune diseases (AID) from 1 year after establishing the diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). The primary goal was to examine the frequency and type of these manifestations and to find out which demographic, clinical and serological profile was most at risk. All outpatients diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome were included in a retrospective study, with at least one check-up per year, from June 1991 until August 2015. Read More

    Use of SLICC criteria in a large, diverse lupus registry enables SLE classification of a subset of ACR-designated subjects with incomplete lupus.
    Lupus Sci Med 2017 17;4(1):e000176. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    Department of Arthritis and Clinical Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.
    Objective: SLE is traditionally classified using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) recently validated an alternative system. This study examined large cohorts of subjects with SLE and incomplete lupus erythematosus (ILE) to compare the impact of ACR and SLICC criteria. Read More

    Topical drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus isolated to the hands.
    Lupus Sci Med 2017 13;4(1):e000207. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a well-defined subtype of lupus erythematosus, characterised by photosensitivity, annular and/or psoriasiform lesions, variable systemic involvement and presence of circulating SSA/anti-Ro antibodies. SCLE may be idiopathic or drug-induced. Both the idiopathic and drug-induced forms of SCLE are analogous in their clinical, serological and histological features. Read More

    An update in drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Mar 15;23(3). Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.
    Background: It has been over three decades sincethe first report of drug-induced subacute cutaneouslupus erythematosus (DI-SCLE) was described. Withan increasing variety of implicated drugs and thepotential for publication bias, we must consider: 1) hasthere been a change in drugs most often reported inDI-SCLE over time, and, 2) if so, of which drugs shouldclinicians be most suspicious in the setting of possibleDI-SCLE?

    Objective: To determine which drug(s) present thehighest risk for inducing DI-SCLE.

    Methods: The PubMed database was queried forreports of DI-SCLE from August, 2009 until May,2016. Read More

    Aromatase inhibitors induced autoimmune disorders in patients with breast cancer: A review.
    J Adv Res 2016 Sep 23;7(5):719-726. Epub 2016 Apr 23.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Ioannina University Hospital, S. Niarchos Avenue, 45500 Ioannina, Greece.
    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is characterized by particular cutaneous manifestations such as non-scaring plaques mainly in sunlight exposed parts of the body along with specific serum autoantibodies (i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), Ro/SSa, La/SSb). Read More

    Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical Characteristics, Disease Associations, Treatments, and Outcomes in a Series of 90 Patients at Mayo Clinic, 1996-2011.
    Mayo Clin Proc 2017 Mar 6;92(3):406-414. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
    Objective: To characterize the clinical presentation, laboratory studies, disease associations, and treatments of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE).

    Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of 90 patients with SCLE at Mayo Clinic from January 1, 1996, through October 28, 2011, was performed.

    Results: The mean patient age at diagnosis was 61 years; 64 patients (71%) were women, and 11 cases (12%) were drug induced (1996-2000, no drug-induced cases; 2001-2005, 2 cases; 2006-2011, 9 cases). Read More

    Efficacy and comparison of antimalarials in cutaneous lupus erythematosus subtypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Br J Dermatol 2017 Jul 5;177(1):188-196. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Laboratoire d'ImmunoRhumatologie Moléculaire, Service de Rhumatologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, INSERM UMR_S1109, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, F-67000, France.
    Background: The antimalarials (AMs) hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have demonstrated variable cutaneous response rates in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE).

    Objectives: We sought to assess the global cutaneous response rates to HCQ and CQ, with respect to CLE subtypes, based on previously published studies.

    Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published in MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library between 1965 and December 2015. Read More

    Voriconazole-Induced Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus in an Adult With Aspergillosis.
    Skinmed 2016 1;14(6):461-463. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.
    A 59-year-old man was treated with voriconazole for chronic invasive aspergillosis and who subsequently developed subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). The patient presented with a 6-week history of multiple erythematous papulosquamous lesions on his chest, upper and lower extremities, and back (Figure 1). They were nonpruritic and nonpainful. Read More

    Rare Occurrence of Drug Induced Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus with Leflunomide Therapy.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Oct 1;10(10):OD06-OD07. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Intern, Department of Medicine, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS , Rohtak, Haryana, India .
    Leflunomide is an immunomodulatory drug exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive effects. It has been widely used for treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis. Despite its good safety profile cutaneous side effects like alopecia, eczema, pruritis and dry skin have been reported with Leflunomide use. Read More

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus inducing unilateral sensorimotor neuropathy.
    Rheumatol Int 2017 May 25;37(5):831-835. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    We describe the case of a 32-year-old male with previous history of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) who presented with arthritis followed by a unilateral lower-limb sensorimotor impairment, without biochemical or immunological marker abnormalities. Our patient currently satisfies only three of the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics criteria. Management of such patients is challenging due to lack of examples in the literature, with this case being the first described where a seronegative patient with SCLE demonstrated neurological involvement. Read More

    Drug-induced cutaneous lupus erythematosus: 88 new cases.
    Eur J Dermatol 2017 Feb;27(1):28-33
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, DK-5000, Odense C, Denmark.
    Background: An increasing number of drugs have been linked to drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (DI-SCLE). The recognition and management of DI-SCLE can be challenging, as the condition may be triggered by different classes of drugs after variable lengths of time.

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) whose drugs are an inducing or aggravating factor. Read More

    Cutaneous metastasis of inflammatory breast carcinoma mimicking an erythema annulare centrifugum: a sign of locally recurrent cancer.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2016 Dec 20;41(8):906-910. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Oncology, Hospital Casa de Salud, Valencia, Spain.
    Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) is a clinical reaction pattern that includes lupus erythematosus, spongiotic dermatitis (particularly pityriasis rosea), pseudolymphoma and cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. However, it can be the result of cutaneous metastasis by an internal carcinoma. We present the case of a 38-year-old woman with bilateral inflammatory breast cancer following multimodal therapy. Read More

    Lupus Skin Is Primed for IL-6 Inflammatory Responses through a Keratinocyte-Mediated Autocrine Type I Interferon Loop.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Jan 16;137(1):115-122. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. Electronic address:
    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a disfiguring and common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus, and the etiology of this predisposition for cutaneous inflammation is unknown. Here, we sought to examine the keratinocyte as an important source of IL-6 and define the mechanism for its increased production in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Evaluation of discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus lesions showed significant epidermal up-regulation of IL-6 compared with control via real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Read More

    Anastrozole-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    Cutis 2016 Aug;98(2):E22-6
    Northwell Department of Dermatology, Hofstra-Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, New York, USA.
    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (DI-SCLE) has been associated with numerous drugs, but there are limited reports of its association with aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. We report the case of a patient undergoing treatment with anastrozole for breast cancer who presented with clinical, serological, and histological evidence consistent with DI-SCLE. Her condition quickly began to improve after the use of anastrozole was discontinued and hydroxychloroquine therapy was initiated. Read More

    Dermoscopy in General Dermatology: A Practical Overview.
    Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2016 Dec 9;6(4):471-507. Epub 2016 Sep 9.
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Dermatology, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis of various general dermatological disorders. In this article, we sought to provide an up-to-date practical overview on the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analysing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological disorders grouped according to their clinical presentation, i.e. Read More

    Apoptosis of keratinocytes and serum DNase I activity in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus: relationship with clinical and immunoserological parameters.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Mar 30;31(3):523-529. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Department of Dermatovenereology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Background: Dysregulation of apoptosis has an important role in the induction of autoimmunity.

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of keratinocyte apoptosis and deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) activity on the clinical and immunoserological parameters of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE).

    Methods: We studied 69 CLE patients (39 with discoid LE (DLE), 12 with subacute CLE (SCLE), 12 with acute and 6 with intermittent CLE). Read More

    Cutaneous characteristics and association with antinuclear antibodies in 402 patients with different subtypes of lupus erythematosus.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Dec 19;30(12):2097-2104. Epub 2016 Jul 19.
    Connective tissue disease research unit of the Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Allergology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    Background: Lupus erythematosus (LE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a heterogeneous spectrum of skin manifestations and organ affection, and is frequently associated with serum autoantibodies, which mostly remain positive through the course of the disease. The classification of LE is still a controversial topic.

    Objectives: To examine the prevalence and long-term course of autoantibodies in patients with cutaneous LE (CLE) and/or systemic LE (SLE) treated in the outpatient clinic for connective tissue diseases of the department of Dermatology in Bochum, Germany. Read More

    Drug-Induced Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Associated with Proton Pump Inhibitors.
    Drugs Real World Outcomes 2016 Jun 29;3(2):145-154. Epub 2016 Mar 29.
    The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 410 W 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is an autoimmune disease that may be induced by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in at-risk populations. The US FDA does not recognize SCLE as an adverse event associated with PPIs. We queried the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System database, which contains adverse event case reports submitted by the public as well as by industry, and analyzed the data to quantify passive pharmacovigilance signals for SCLE associated with PPIs. Read More

    Effects of Belimumab on Flare Rate and Expected Damage Progression in Patients With Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2017 Jan 18;69(1):115-123. Epub 2016 Nov 18.
    University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Objective: To investigate effectiveness and safety of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a clinical practice setting.

    Methods: Sixty-seven patients with active SLE, mean ± SD age 39.3 ± 10. Read More

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    J R Army Med Corps 2017 Apr 9;163(2):149-151. Epub 2016 Jun 9.
    Department of Cellular and Anatomical Pathology, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK.
    A 31-year-old female soldier developed subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, which remained undiagnosed for 4 years. Referral to dermatology and a punch biopsy confirmed the diagnosis and effective treatment was instituted. The presence of an unresolving annular rash in light-exposed areas, especially in a young woman, should prompt thorough investigation and referral if necessary. Read More

    Advances in the treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    Lupus 2016 Jul;25(8):830-7
    Department of Dermatology, University of Bonn, Germany.
    Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with clinical manifestations of differing severity which may present with skin manifestations as primary sign of the disease (cutaneous lupus erythematosus, CLE) or as part of a disease spectrum (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE). To date, no drugs are approved specifically for the treatment of CLE and only single agents have been applied in randomized controlled trials. Therefore, topical and systemic agents are used "off-label", primarily based on open-label studies, case series, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions. Read More

    Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis-Like Cutaneous Lupus in Pediatric Patients: A Case Series and Review.
    Pediatrics 2016 Jun;137(6)
    Division of Pediatric Dermatology, Departments of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin;
    Bullous eruptions in patients with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus (LE) can mimic toxic-epidermal necrolysis (TEN), a rapidly progressive mucocutaneous reaction usually associated with medication use. Differentiating between classic drug-induced TEN and TEN-like cutaneous LE is important but difficult. We report a series of 3 patients with pediatric systemic LE who were admitted with severe worsening of skin disease resembling TEN. Read More

    Ethnic differences in the epidemiology of cutaneous lupus erythematosus in New Zealand.
    Lupus 2016 Nov 11;25(13):1497-1502. Epub 2016 Jul 11.
    2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Background The prevalence and variation by ethnicity of cutaneous lupus in New Zealand is not known. Therefore, a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and variation by ethnicity of cutaneous lupus in the ethnically diverse community of South Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Methods Multiple sources were examined to determine the prevalence of acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, subacute cutaneous erythematosus and discoid lupus erythematosus. Read More

    Cytokines and Effector/Regulatory Cells Characterization in the Physiopathology of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematous: A Cross-Sectional Study.
    Mediators Inflamm 2016 6;2016:7074829. Epub 2016 Mar 6.
    Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Colonia Belisario Dominguez Sección XVI, 14080 Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    We compared the presence of diverse cytokines and regulatory T and B cells in skin biopsies of discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). We included 19 patients with DLE, 13 with SCLE, 8 healthy controls, and 5 patients with hypertrophic scars. We assessed the CLASI activity score. Read More

    Mast cells in systemic and cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    Pol J Pathol 2015 Dec;66(4):397-402
    Krzysztof Okoń, Department of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum, Grzegórzecka 16, 31-531 Krakow, Poland, e-mail:
    Mast cells (MCs) are known to be regulators of inflammation and immunity, due to the released mediators and expressed cell surface molecules. Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a group of diseases which can be systemic or limited to the skin. Due to the fact that cytokines and chemokines produced by inflammatory cells contribute to the pathogenesis of LE, we quantified the number of mast cells present in the skin. Read More

    Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus in Children: Experience from a Tertiary Care Pediatric Dermatology Clinic.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2016 Mar-Apr;33(2):200-8
    As'ad Al-Hamad Dermatology Center, Al-Sabah Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait.
    Background/objectives: The manifestations of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and their relevance to systemic disease are well characterized in adults, but data are limited in children. The objective of the current study was to examine the spectrum of CLE and its relationship to systemic disease in children from a tertiary care pediatric dermatology clinic.

    Materials And Methods: An analysis of 26 children with CLE registered consecutively over 14 years was performed. Read More

    Clinical characteristics of cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2016 Feb 29;33(1):13-7. Epub 2016 Feb 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Introduction: Lupus erythematosus (LE) shows a wide variety of clinical manifestations, skin involvement being one of the most important.

    Aim: To analyze the clinical presentation of cutaneous variants of lupus erythematosus in terms of skin lesion spectrum and extracutaneous involvement.

    Material And Methods: A total of 64 patients with cutaneous LE (CLE) were included. Read More

    Microarray study reveals a transforming growth factor-β-dependent mechanism of fibrosis in discoid lupus erythematosus.
    Br J Dermatol 2016 Aug 29;175(2):302-13. Epub 2016 May 29.
    Department of Medicine, Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is characterized by scarring lesions that develop and perpetuate fibrotic lesions. These are not observed in subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). The pathophysiological basis of this is currently unknown. Read More

    Gemcitabine-Induced Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Report.
    Chemotherapy 2016 1;61(5):236-9. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a rare eruption related to several pharmacological and chemotherapy agents. We present a 63-year-old female with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who developed SCLE after administration of gemcitabine. Following discontinuation of gemcitabine and after oral steroid treatment, all skin lesions disappeared. Read More

    Developing classification criteria for discoid lupus erythematosus: an update from the World Congress of Dermatology 2015 meeting.
    Int J Womens Dermatol 2016 Jun 28;2(2):44-45. Epub 2016 Feb 28.
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Currently, no standardized classification criteria exist for cutaneous lupus erythematosus. With increased interest in studying cutaneous lupus erythematosus, specifically discoid lupus erythematosus, it is our aim to apply previously adopted methods from rheumatology to dermatologic diseases to develop feasible, validated, and standardized classification criteria useful in both academic and community practice. Here we report the progress to date to define discoid lupus erythematosus using clinical, histopathologic, and serologic features by means of a Delphi method-using a series of iterative questionnaires sent to expert stakeholders. Read More

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