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Cannabis use and risks of respiratory and all-cause morbidity and mortality: a population-based, data-linkage, cohort study.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2022 May;9(1)

Airways Disease Group, Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Although cannabis is frequently used worldwide, its impact on respiratory health is characterised by controversy.

Objective: To evaluate the association between cannabis use and respiratory-related emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalisations.

Methods: A retrospective, population-based, cohort study was carried out, linking health survey and health administrative data for residents of Ontario, Canada, aged 12-65 years, between January 2009 and December 2015. Read More

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Corrigendum.

Authors:

J Heart Lung Transplant 2022 Jul;41(7):1002

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Novel ophthalmic findings and deep phenotyping in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

Br J Ophthalmol 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Translational Vascular Medicine Branch, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background/aims: To characterise the ocular manifestations of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and compare these to patients with isolated elastin mediated supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS).

Methods: Fifty-seven patients with a diagnosis of WBS and five with SVAS underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation at the National Institutes of Health from 2017 to 2020, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, optical biometry, dilated fundus examination, optical coherence tomography and colour fundus imaging.

Results: Mean age of the 57 WBS patients was 20. Read More

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Healthcare systems must get fair value for their data.

BMJ 2022 Jun 27;377:e070876. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

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Classification of Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2 sublineages by TaqMan assay consistent with whole genome analysis data.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Gastroenterology, Yamanashi Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Fujimi, Kofu, Yamanashi, Japan; The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Recently, the Omicron strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread and replaced the previously dominant Delta strain. Several Omicron sublineages (BA.1, BA. Read More

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Mechanical Ventilation during ECMO: Lessons from Clinical Trials and Future Prospects.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Critical Care Research Group, The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) accounts for 10% of ICU admissions and affects 3 million patients each year. Despite decades of research, it is still associated with one of the highest mortality rates in the critically ill. Advances in supportive care, innovations in technologies and insights from recent clinical trials have contributed to improved outcomes and a renewed interest in the scope and use of Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a treatment for severe ARDS, including high flow veno-venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VV-ECMO) and low flow Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal (ECCO2R). Read More

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Liberation from Mechanical Ventilation: Established and New Insights.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

The Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness (CRISMA) Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

A substantial proportion of critically ill patients require ventilator support with the majority requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Timely and safe liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation is a critical aspect of patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is a top research priority for patients and clinicians. In this article, we discuss how to (1) identify candidates for liberation from mechanical ventilation, (2) conduct spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs), and (3) optimize patients for liberation from mechanical ventilation. Read More

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Fusion imaging in congenital heart disease: just a pretty picture or a new tool to improve patient management?

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Heart Lung Center Leiden, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

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POU2F3 in SCLC: Clinicopathologic and genomic analysis with a focus on its diagnostic utility in neuroendocrine-low SCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Introduction: POU2F3 is a recent marker of a small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) subtype related to chemosensory tuft cells (SCLC-P). The characteristics of SCLC-P have not been fully defined, and the data on POU2F3 expression in other lung tumors are scarce.

Methods: We screened 254 SCLC for POU2F3 expression, and comprehensively analyzed histopathologic, genomic, and clinical characteristics of POU2F3-positive tumors. Read More

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Development of extra-fine particles containing nanosized meloxicam for deep pulmonary delivery: in vitro aerodynamic and cell line measurements.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2022 Jun 24:106247. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs, University of Szeged, Eötvös street 6., Szeged 6720, Hungary. Electronic address:

Pulmonary drug administration provides a platform for the effective local treatment of various respiratory diseases. Application of nano-sized active ingredients results in higher bioavailability because of their large specific surface area. Extra-fine dry powder inhalers reach the smaller airways, further improving therapeutic efficiency. Read More

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Design, synthesis and cytotoxic activity studies of alkyne linked analogues of Nimbolide.

Fitoterapia 2022 Jun 24:105246. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Centre for Natural Products & Traditional Knowledge, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India. Electronic address:

A series of novel nimbolide derivatives bearing various substitutions on 28th position was designed and synthesized using Sonogashira (2a-2p) and Glaser coupling (3a-3e) reactions. The synthesized derivatives were assessed for in vitro cytotoxic activity against four different human cancer cell lines (A549 cells, MCF-7 cells, MDA-MB-231 cells, and HCT15 cells) and normal cell line (HEK cells) using MTT assay. Among the screened derivatives, the compound 3a showed potent activity against A549 cells with IC value of 0. Read More

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OTSSP167 leads to follicular dysplasia and negatively affects oocyte quality in mice.

Toxicology 2022 Jun 24:153243. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Fertility Preservation Lab, Guangdong-Hong Kong Metabolism & Reproduction Joint Laboratory, Reproductive Medicine Center, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, 510317, China. Electronic address:

OTSSP167 is an anti-tumor drug significantly inhibiting tumor growth in xenotransplantation studies using mouse breast, lung, prostate, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Its phase I clinical trial has been completed, indicating its great potential for future treatment of solid tumors. However, its drug-related adverse effects on reproductive systems have not yet been reported. Read More

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Climate-mediated air pollution associated with COPD severity.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 24:156969. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Cell Physiology and Molecular Image Research Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Air pollution has been reported to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our study aim was to examine the mediating effects of air pollution on climate-associated health outcomes of COPD patients. A cross-sectional study of 117 COPD patients was conducted in a hospital in Taiwan. Read More

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas, PM, and frost samples in a severely polluted rural site of the North China Plain: Distribution, source, and risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 24:156919. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP(3)), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

The process of frost formation has been studied as an important deposition pathway for removing atmospheric pollutants. However, the removal of organic species during frost formation remains unknown. Gas, PM and frost samples were collected in Wangdu, a severely polluted rural site in the North China Plain, during the winter of 2018. Read More

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Palmatine alleviates LPS-induced acute lung injury via interfering the interaction of TAK1 and TAB1.

Biochem Pharmacol 2022 Jun 24:115120. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pudong Hospital, Fudan University Pudong Medical Center, Shanghai 201399, PR. China. Electronic address:

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe clinical disease marked by uncontrolled inflammation response which lacks effective medicines. Accumulative evidence has indicated that macrophages are therapeutic targets for treating ALI because of its critical role in the inflammatory response.Palmatine (PAL), an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from natural plants, exhibits effective anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidation activities. Read More

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Tollip Inhibits IL-33 Release and Inflammation in Influenza A Virus-Infected Mouse Airways.

J Innate Immun 2022 Jun 27:1-11. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Respiratory influenza A virus (IAV) infection continues to pose significant challenges in healthcare of human diseases including asthma. IAV infection in mice was shown to increase IL-33, a key cytokine in driving airway inflammation in asthma, but how IL-33 is regulated during viral infection remains unclear. We previously found that a genetic mutation in Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) was linked to less airway epithelial Tollip expression, increased neutrophil chemokines, and lower lung function in asthma patients. Read More

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Measuring Thousands of Single-Vesicle Leakage Events Reveals the Mode of Action of Antimicrobial Peptides.

Anal Chem 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, U.K.

Host defense or antimicrobial peptides hold promise for providing new pipelines of effective antimicrobial agents. Their activity quantified against model phospholipid membranes is fundamental to a detailed understanding of their structure-activity relationships. However, classical characterization assays often lack the ability to achieve this insight. Read More

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Hemoglobin-catalyzed atom transfer radical polymerization for ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA detection.

Biosens Bioelectron 2022 Jun 15;213:114485. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen Guangdong, 518060, PR China.

The use of hemoglobin (Hb) to drive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) process (Hb-ATRP) for detection of lung cancer related nucleic acid is firstly reported. Hb does not need to be treated prior to using indicating the potential for synthetic engineering in complex biological microenvironments without the need for in vitro techniques. Here, we report a new signal amplification strategy using Hb-mediated graft of nitronyl niroxide monoradical polymers as a signal-on electrochemical biosensor for ultralow level DNA highly selective detection. Read More

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Inhibition of IPR3 attenuates endothelial to mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β1 through restoring mitochondrial function.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Jun 20;619:144-150. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) release calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum to regulate permeability and migration of endothelial, thereby affecting PAH. In this study, We determined the expression level of IPR3 and its position in lung tissue from PAH rat models, and stud the effect of IPR3 on endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and mitochondrial function of endothelial cells treated with TGF-β1. Read More

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Walking Dead Tumor Cells for Targeted Drug Delivery Against Lung Metastasis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

Adv Mater 2022 Jun 27:e2205462. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research & Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Lung metastasis is challenging in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Surgery is always not available due to the dissemination of metastatic foci and most of drugs are powerless because of poor retention at metastatic sites. TNBC cells generate inflamed microenvironment and overexpress adhesive molecules to promote the invasion and colonization. Read More

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IL-1 family cytokines serve as 'activity recognition receptors' for aberrant protease activity indicative of danger.

Cytokine 2022 Jun 24;157:155935. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Dept. of Genetics, The Smurfit Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Members of the extended IL-1 cytokine family play key roles as instigators of inflammation in numerous infectious and sterile injury contexts and are highly enriched at barrier surfaces such as the skin, lungs and intestinal mucosa. Because IL-1 family cytokines do not possess conventional ER-golgi trafficking and secretory signals, these cytokines are typically released into the extracellular space due to tissue damage resulting in necrosis, or pathogen detection resulting in pyroptosis. The latter feature, in combination with other factors, suggests that IL-1 family cytokines serve as canonical damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which instigate inflammation in response to tissue damage. Read More

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Folic acid-mediated [email protected]@Geb multifunctional nanocomposite heterogeneous platform for combined therapy of non-small cell lung cancer.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2022 Jun 17;217:112639. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 350005 Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Molecularly targeted drugs are flourishing in the clinical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the treatment of a single drug (such as Gefitinib (Geb)) had defects such as poor pharmacokinetics, insufficient drug delivery, and considerable toxic side effects, which greatly affect its therapeutic efficacy against NSCLC. To solve these issues, this study developed a new nanocomposite heterogeneous platform ([email protected]@Geb-FA) that combined photothermal therapy and molecular targeted therapy. Read More

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Risk factors of clinically significant complications in transbronchial lung cryobiopsy: A prospective multi-center study.

Respir Med 2022 Jun 21;200:106922. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Center of Medicine and Clinical Research, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, POB 100, 70029, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: The use of a transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) is increasing as a diagnostic method of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). This study aimed to evaluate risk factors associated with clinically significant complications of TBLC in ILD patients.

Methods: Patients referred to Kuopio or Tampere university hospitals, in Finland, for a suspected ILD were included. Read More

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Human leucocyte antigen genotype association with the development of immune-related adverse events in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with single agent immunotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2022 Jun 24;172:98-106. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia; Centre for Precision Health, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Biomarkers that predict the risk of immune-mediated adverse events (irAEs) among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these treatments.

Methods: We carried out high resolution human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-I typing on 179 patients with NSCLC treated with anti-program death (PD)-1/program death ligand (PDL)-1. Toxicity data were collected and graded as per common terminology criteria for adverse event (CTCAE) v5. Read More

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Clinical impact of STK11 mutation in advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Eur J Cancer 2022 Jun 24;172:85-95. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

CHU de Bordeaux, CIC1401, Service de Pharmacologie Médicale, Service de Biologie des tumeurs, Service des Maladies Respiratoires, F-33000 Pessac, France; Univ. Bordeaux, Inserm CIC1401, Inserm CR1219, Inserm U1035, F-33000 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Background: Mutations in STK11/LKB1 gene present a negative impact on tumour immune microenvironment, especially with concomitant activating KRAS mutation. These recent data may explain a decreased response to immunotherapy treatment in STK11 mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Objective: The primary objective is to evaluate, in a real-life setting, overall survival (OS) in patients with NSCLC according to the presence of STK11 mutation. Read More

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A systematic review of economic evaluations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Health Outcomes Division, The University of Texas at Austin, College of Pharmacy, Austin, TX, USA.

Introduction: Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved the efficacy of treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the accessibility of TKIs is limited due to high costs. Despite the critical role of the cost-effectiveness of TKIs on decision making, no systematic reviews have compared the cost-effectiveness of comparable TKIs. Therefore, we systemically reviewed the economic evaluation studies on various TKIs for NSCLC. Read More

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Life Expectancy for White, Black, and Hispanic Race/Ethnicity in U.S. States: Trends and Disparities, 1990 to 2019.

Ann Intern Med 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Department of Health Metrics Sciences, and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (G.A.R.).

Background: Life expectancy (LE) differences within and between states by race/ethnicity have not been examined.

Objective: To estimate LE for selected race/ethnicity groups in states from 1990 to 2019.

Design: Cross-sectional time-series analysis. Read More

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The kidney protects against sepsis by producing systemic uromodulin.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Sepsis is a significant cause of mortality in hospitalized patients. Concomitant development of acute kidney injury (AKI) increases sepsis mortality through unclear mechanisms. While electrolyte disturbances and toxic metabolite buildup during AKI could be important, it is possible that the kidney produces a protective molecule lost during sepsis with AKI. Read More

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