994,131 results match your criteria Lungs

Performance characteristics of high-frequency percussive ventilation under hyperbaric conditions.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 Second Quarter;48(2):157-168

Hyperbaric Medicine and Chronic Wound Clinic, Legacy Emanuel Medical Center, Portland, Oregon U.S.

Introduction: Safe administration of critical care hyperbaric medicine requires specialized equipment and advanced training. Equipment must be tested in order to evaluate function in the hyperbaric environment. High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has been used in intensive care settings effectively, but it has never been tested in a hyperbaric chamber. Read More

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[Metastatic Pulmonary Calcification: A Rare Entity in the Differential Diagnosis Examination of Interstitial Lung Diseases].

Pneumologie 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institut für diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ammerlandklinik Westerstede.

A 70-year-old patient who received a kidney transplant about 20 years ago due to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis was assigned to us for an evaluation of fibrosing interstitial lung disease with computer tomography (CT)-radiological changes assigned to acute alveolitis. She complained about long-term exertional dyspnea. In terms of lung function, there was some slight restriction (FVC 78 % of the target), and pronounced severe diffusion disorder (DLCO 41 % of the target). Read More

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Robotic open-thoracotomy-view approach using vertical port placement and confronting monitor setting.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

Objectives: Robotic lung resections (RLRs) are conventionally performed using look-up views of the thorax from the caudal side. To conduct RLR with views similar to those in open thoracotomy, we adopted a vertical port placement and confronting upside-down monitor setting, which we called robotic 'open-thoracotomy-view approach'. We herein present our experience of this procedure. Read More

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Lycopene and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Affect Caspase-3 Activity, but Do Not Alter the NO Pathway in Lung Tissue Damage Induced by Cisplatin.

Pharmacology 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia.

Introduction: Antioxidants such as lycopene (LCP) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) represent ideal molecules for the treatment of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated disorders. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent, causing an increase in ROS and DNA damage, with numerous side effects, which include lung toxicity. In the presents study, we evaluated and mutually compared the potential of LCP and CAPE in preventing cisplatin-induced rat lung damage. Read More

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Postnatal Corticosteroids to Prevent or Treat Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Lex W Doyle

Neonatology 2021 May 11:1-8. Epub 2021 May 11.

Newborn Research, The Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major morbidity for infants born preterm. Postnatal corticosteroids might reduce the risk of developing BPD, or reduce its severity when it occurs, because of their powerful anti-inflammatory effects. However, corticosteroids have adverse effects, including on the developing brain. Read More

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Development of novel nanofibers targeted to smoke-injured lungs.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 29;274:120862. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Smoke inhalation injury is associated with significant mortality and current therapies remain supportive. The purpose of our study was to identify proteins upregulated in the lung after smoke inhalation injury and develop peptide amphiphile nanofibers that target these proteins. We hypothesize that nanofibers targeted to angiotensin-converting enzyme or receptor for advanced glycation end products will localize to smoke-injured lungs. Read More

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Development of a new method for isolation of urban air particulates deposited in the human lung tissue.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130585. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Particulate matters (PMs) are important pollutants in urban air pollution because of their variable composition. The pulmonary clearance of PMs is critical to prevent long-term immunological responses. This study established a new method for the isolation of probably deposited urban air particulates from the human lung tissue, to investigate the features of uncleared particulates. Read More

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An overview on the role of plant-derived tannins for the treatment of lung cancer.

Phytochemistry 2021 May 8;188:112799. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Biochemistry, ICMR-National Institute for Research in Environmental Health, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death globally. Despite many advanced approaches to treat cancer, they are often ineffective due to resistance to classical anti-cancer drugs and distant metastases. Currently, alternative medicinal agents derived from plants are the major interest due to high bioavailability and fewer adverse effects. Read More

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Outcomes of patients with solid tumour malignancies treated with first-line immuno-oncology agents who do not meet eligibility criteria for clinical trials.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 8;151:115-125. Epub 2021 May 8.

Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Immuno-oncology (IO)-based therapies have been approved based on randomised clinical trials, yet a significant proportion of real-world patients are not represented in these trials. We sought to compare the outcomes of trial-ineligible vs. -eligible patients with advanced solid tumours treated with first-line (1L) IO therapy. Read More

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How to interpret and use COVID-19 serology and immunology tests.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Centre (UGMLC), Philipps University Marburg, German Centre for Lung Research (DZL) Marburg, Germany.

Background: Although molecular tests are considered the gold standard for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics, serological and immunological tests may be useful in specific settings.

Objectives: This review summarises the underlying principles and performance of COVID-19 serological and immunological testing.

Sources: Selected peer-reviewed publications on COVID-19 related serology and immunology published between December 2019 and March 2021. Read More

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Intra-tumoral CD39CD8 T cells predict response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in patients with NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade is currently widely used in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite available biomarker stratification, clinical responses vary. Thus, the search for novel biomarkers with improved response prediction is ongoing. Read More

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Can J Cardiol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Torino.

Background: The placebo effect is a well described phenomenon in blinded studies evaluating anti-anginal therapeutics, although its impact on clinical research metrics remains unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the impact of placebo on endpoints of symptoms, life-quality and functional outcomes in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of symptomatic stable coronary artery disease.

Methods: We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database for double-blind RCTs of anti-angina therapeutics. Read More

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Salutary Acute Effects of Exercise on Central Hemodynamics in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

J Card Fail 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

The Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55906. Electronic address:

Background: A warmup period of "priming" exercise has been shown to improve peripheral oxygen transport in older adults. We sought to determine the acute effects of priming exercise on central hemodynamics at rest and during a repeat exercise in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Methods And Results: This is a post-hoc analysis from three studies. Read More

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Age-dependent alveolar epithelial plasticity orchestrates lung homeostasis and regeneration.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Penn-CHOP Lung Biology Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Penn Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Regeneration of the architecturally complex alveolar niche of the lung requires precise temporal and spatial control of epithelial cell behavior. Injury can lead to a permanent reduction in gas exchange surface area and respiratory function. Using mouse models, we show that alveolar type 1 (AT1) cell plasticity is a major and unappreciated mechanism that drives regeneration, beginning in the early postnatal period during alveolar maturation. Read More

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Risk of electrolyte disorders, syncope and falls in patients taking thiazide diuretics: results of a cross-sectional study.

Am J Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Internal and Emergency Medicine, Buergerspital Solothurn, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Thiazide diuretics are a mainstay in the management of hypertension and often associated with dyselectrolytemias. We investigated prevalence of and risk factors for hyponatremia and hypokalemia in thiazide users, substance-specific differences and the association of thiazides with syncope and falls.

Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis all patients admitted to an interdisciplinary emergency department in Switzerland between January 1 2017 and December 31 2018 with measurements of serum sodium and potassium were included. Read More

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Transcarotid TAVR: Towards a Better Understanding of Cerebral Embolic Events.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, 2725 Chemin Ste-Foy, G1V4G5, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

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Computed tomography-based delta-radiomics analysis for discriminating radiation pneumonitis in patients with esophageal cancer after radiation therapy.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To construct a computed tomography (CT)-based delta-radiomics nomogram and corresponding risk classification system for individualized and accurate estimation of severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) in patients with esophageal cancer (EC) after radiation therapy (RT).

Methods And Materials: 400 EC patients were enrolled from two independent institutions, and were divided into the training (n = 200) and validation cohorts (n = 200). 850 radiomics features of lung were extracted from treatment planning images, including the positioning CT before RT (CT) and the resetting CT after receiving 40-45Gy (CT). Read More

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New generation ENaC inhibitors detach cystic fibrosis airway mucus bundles via Sodium/Hydrogen Exchanger inhibition.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 8:174123. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive inherited disease caused by mutations affecting anion transport by the epithelial ion channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The disease is characterized by mucus accumulation in the airways and intestine, but the major cause of mortality in CF is airway mucus accumulation, leading to bacterial colonization, inflammation and respiratory failure. Several drug targets are under evaluation to alleviate airway mucus obstruction in CF and one of these targets is the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. Read More

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Association between long-term exposure to high levels of ambient air pollution and incidence of lung cancer in a population-based cohort.

Environ Res 2021 May 8:111214. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cancer Control and Population Health, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi, 10408, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Although outdoor air pollution including particulate matter (PM) was classified as carcinogenic to humans based on accumulating epidemiological evidence, these findings were suggested mostly from low-dose environments in North America and Europe. We aimed to examine the association of long-term exposure to PM ≤ 10 and 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM and PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO) with lung cancer incidence using a population-based cohort in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), South Korea. Read More

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Effect of Medicaid Expansion on Receipt of Definitive Treatment and Time to Treatment Initiation by Racial and Ethnic Minorities and at Minority-Serving Hospitals: A Patient-Level and Facility-Level Analysis of Breast, Colon, Lung, and Prostate Cancer.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May;17(5):e654-e665

Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Purpose: We sought to investigate the association between Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act and access to stage-appropriate definitive treatment for breast, colon, non-small-cell lung, and prostate cancer for underserved racial and ethnic minorities and at minority-serving hospitals (MSHs).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, difference-in-differences study including minority patients with nonmetastatic breast, colon, non-small-cell lung, and prostate cancer and patients treated at MSHs between the age of 40 and 64, with tumors at stages eligible for definitive treatment from the National Cancer Database. We not only defined non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic cancer patients as racial and ethnic minorities but also report findings for non-Hispanic Black cancer patients separately. Read More

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Cancer Disparities and Black American Representation in Clinical Trials Leading to the Approval of Oral Chemotherapy Drugs in the United States Between 2009 and 2019.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May;17(5):e623-e628

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX.

Purpose: Over the past 10 years, oral chemotherapy made up about half (45.6%) of all US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved oncolytic and hematologic medications. Given the disparity in incidence and mortality rate because of certain cancers among Black Americans (BAs) in the United States, a review of BA's representation in the clinical trials that lead to the development and FDA approval of oral chemotherapy drugs becomes imperative. Read More

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Prevalence of Targetable Mutations in Black Patients With Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 May;17(5):e629-e636

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL.

Purpose: Inferior outcomes of Black patients with lung cancer compared with other racial groups are often linked to socioeconomic factors. It is crucial to determine whether a varying prevalence of targetable mutations limits treatments and contributes to disparities.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis on the prevalence of lung cancer , , , and mutations in Black patients compared with White, Hispanic, and Asian patients. Read More

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Recurrent Stroke and Fatal Ruptured Mycotic Aneurysm Caused by Invasive Infection.

WMJ 2021 Apr;120(1):82-84

SSM Health Saint Mary's Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin.

Introduction: species are ubiquitous fungi that may cause invasive infection, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Invasive aspergillosis most commonly affects the lungs but can also disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS). Manifestations of CNS aspergillosis include abscesses and, rarely, mycotic aneurysm leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Read More

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The enigma continues: Obesity in chronic total occlusion patients does not affect success or complications…but Americans are still too fat!

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May;97(6):1194-1195

Division of Cardiology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

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Aspirin, ibuprofen, and reduced risk of advanced colorectal adenoma incidence and recurrence and colorectal cancer in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Studying the differential impact of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs across the stages of colorectal neoplasia from early adenoma to cancer is critical for understanding the benefits of these widely used drugs.

Methods: With 13 years of follow-up, the authors prospectively evaluated the association between aspirin and ibuprofen use and incident distal adenoma (1221 cases), recurrent adenoma (862 cases), and incident colorectal cancer (CRC; 2826 cases) among men and women in the population-based Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. With multivariable-adjusted models, odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for adenoma incidence and recurrence and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for incident CRC were determined. Read More

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Infection of humanized mice with a novel phlebovirus presented pathogenic features of sever fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 11;17(5):e1009587. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Life Sciences, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, P.R. China.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a tick-borne emerging phlebovirus with high mortality rates of 6.0 to 30%. SFTSV infection is characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemorrhage and multiple organ failures. Read More

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Mice with induced pulmonary morbidities display severe lung inflammation and mortality following exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

JCI Insight 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness-Ziona, Israel.

Mice are normally unaffected by SARS-CoV-2 infection since the virus does not bind effectively to the murine version of the ACE2 receptor molecule. Here we report that induced mild pulmonary morbidities render SARS-CoV-2 refractive CD-1 mice to be susceptible to this virus. Specifically, SARS-CoV-2 infection after application of low-doses of the acute-lung-injury stimulants bleomycin or ricin caused a severe disease in CD-1 mice, manifested by sustained body weight loss and mortality rates of >50%. Read More

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Mesenchymal stromal cells reduce evidence of lung injury in patients with ARDS.

JCI Insight 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America.

Background: Whether airspace biomarkers add value to plasma biomarkers in studying ARDS is not well understood. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an investigational therapy for ARDS, and airspace biomarkers may provide mechanistic evidence for MSCs' impact in patients with ARDS.

Methods: We carried out a nested cohort study within a phase 2a safety trial of treatment with allogeneic MSCs for moderate to severe ARDS. Read More

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