57 results match your criteria Lung Postprimary

The Tuberculous Granuloma and Preexisting Immunity.

Annu Rev Immunol 2022 04 7;40:589-614. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA; email:

Pulmonary granulomas are widely considered the epicenters of the immune response to (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Recent animal studies have revealed factors that either promote or restrict TB immunity within granulomas. These models, however, typically ignore the impact of preexisting immunity on cellular organization and function, an important consideration because most TB probably occurs through reinfection of previously exposed individuals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Imaging in respiratory infections].

Pneumologe (Berl) 2021 3;18(5):256-267. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30629 Hannover, Deutschland.

The conventional X‑ray image is the method of choice for suspected pneumonia. Computed tomography (CT) is indicated for treatment refractory or recurrent infiltrates, difficult differential diagnostics, suspected complications and in immunocompromised patients. Thoracic sonography can be used as an alternative method for initial diagnostics and in the intensive care unit to monitor progress. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Laryngeal involvement in a patient with active postprimary tuberculosis: Case report of a rare extrapulmonary manifestation.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 May 16;16(5):1169-1172. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

St. Vincent's Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT 06606, USA.

A 43-year-old woman was found to have active post-primary tuberculosis and a lateral neck radiograph showing a thickened epiglottis. Bronchoscopy-guided biopsies of the epiglottis and lung were acid fast bacilli stain positive. Histopathology from both showed multiple caseating granulomas. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Role of Radiology in Diagnosis and Management.

Radiographics 2017 Jan-Feb;37(1):52-72

From the Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, 1 Silverstein, Suite 130, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (A.C.N., E.J.M.B., S.I.K., M.M.H.); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (K.R.); Department of Radiology (X.S.) and Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (E.S.G.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex (G.S.S.); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Tex (D.O.); and Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Tex (A.E.S.).

Tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide, including in the United States-particularly among immunocompromised patients and other high-risk groups. Tuberculosis manifests in active and latent forms. Active disease can occur as primary tuberculosis, developing shortly after infection, or postprimary tuberculosis, developing after a long period of latent infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2017

Relation between smear positivity and imaging findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 19;5 Suppl 1:S163. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective/background: We investigated the relationship between high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood and the results of sputum smear. The aim of this study was to identify an alternative indicator of infectivity to prevent disease transmission through special isolation methods in children who have a clinical condition that suggests TB.

Methods: This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under the age of 15years with a diagnosis of TB based on World Health Organization criteria and laboratory data (smear and culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2016

Postprimary Tuberculosis and Macrophage Necrosis: Is There a Big ConNECtion?

mBio 2016 Jan 12;7(1):e01589-15. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA

Adult or postprimary tuberculosis (TB) accounts for most TB cases. Its hallmark is pulmonary cavitation, which occurs as a result of necrosis in the lung in individuals with tuberculous pneumonia. Postprimary TB has previously been known to be associated with vascular thrombosis and delayed-type hypersensitivity, but their roles in pulmonary cavitation are unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2016

Clinical Aspects of Adult Tuberculosis.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2015 Feb 6;6(1):a017848. Epub 2015 Feb 6.

Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Consultant Infectious Diseases Physician, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London NW3 2PF, United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis (TB) in adults can present in a large number of ways. The lung is the predominant site of TB. Primary pulmonary TB should be distinguished from postprimary pulmonary TB, which is the most frequent TB manifestation in adults (70%-80% cases). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2015

Surgery for the sequelae of postprimary tuberculosis.

Thorac Surg Clin 2012 Aug;22(3):287-300

Service de Chirurgie Thoracique, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1, place de l'hôpital, 67091 Strasbourg, France.

This review describes diagnosis and management of sequelae of post-primary tuberculosis. It addresses elementary lesions such as bronciectasis, fibrostenosis, cavitation and broncholithiasis, the more complex situation of destroyed lung, and complications such as aspergilloma, hemoptysis and broncho-esophageal fistula. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lung and lupus vulgaris.

Lung India 2011 Apr;28(2):127-9

Department of Medicine, PSGIMS and R, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Lupus vulgaris is chronic, postprimary, paucibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. We present the case of a 38 year old lady who was admitted with complaints of worsening breathlessness and low grade fever of one month duration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immunopathology of postprimary tuberculosis: increased T-regulatory cells and DEC-205-positive foamy macrophages in cavitary lesions.

Clin Dev Immunol 2011 21;2011:307631. Epub 2010 Dec 21.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin, MSB 2.136, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Postprimary tuberculosis occurs in immunocompetent people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is restricted to the lung and accounts for 80% of cases and nearly 100% of transmission. Little is known about the immunopathology of postprimary tuberculosis due to limited availability of specimens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Increasing rate of childhood tuberculosis in a region of east Croatia.

Pediatr Int 2007 Apr;49(2):183-9

Children's Department, General Hospital Dr Josip Bencević, Slavonski Brod, Croatia.

Background: The incidence of childhood tuberculosis as well as the number of children being in contact with persons having tuberculosis has increased in the region of Slavonski Brod during the past decade (1993-2003). The region is located in east Croatia along the border with Bosnia and close to the besieged and destroyed town of Vukovar. The region was heavily involved in recent military activities and migrations in Croatia and Bosnia (1991-1995). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathology of postprimary tuberculosis in humans and mice: contradiction of long-held beliefs.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2007 Jul 21;87(4):267-78. Epub 2007 Mar 21.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, MSB 2.136, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Tuberculosis remains one of the world's leading infectious causes of death. Approximately 80% of all disease is due to postprimary (secondary) tuberculosis in the lung. Unfortunately, tissues of developing lesions are seldom available and there are no recognized models of postprimary tuberculosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical investigation of cavitary tuberculosis and tuberculous pneumonia.

Korean J Intern Med 2006 Dec;21(4):230-5

Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea.

Background: [corrected] The radiographic characteristics of tuberculous pneumonia in adults are similar to primary tuberculosis that occurs in childhood, and upper lobe cavitary tuberculosis is the hallmark of postprimary tuberculosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with tuberculous pneumonia by making comparison with cavitary tuberculosis.

Methods: The medical records and radiographic findings of patients with cavitary tuberculosis and tuberculous pneumonia, and who were diagnosed between March 2003 and February 2006, were analyzed retrospectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2006

Differential organization of the local immune response in patients with active cavitary tuberculosis or with nonprogressive tuberculoma.

J Infect Dis 2005 Jul 27;192(1):89-97. Epub 2005 May 27.

Department of Immunology, Max-Planck-Institute for Infection Biology, Institute for Infection Medicine, Charite University Medicine, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: In 90% of all cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in latency rather than active disease, with the pathogen being contained within granulomatous lesions at the site of primary infection. Failure of this containment leads to reactivation of postprimary tuberculosis (TB). The regional immune processes that sustain the delicate balance with persistent M. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiological manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Eur J Radiol 2004 Aug;51(2):139-49

Department of Radiology, HGU Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Paseo Vall d'Hebron 116, Barcelona 08032, Spain.

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a common worldwide lung infection. The radiological features show considerable variation, but in most cases they are characteristic enough to suggest the diagnosis. Classically, tuberculosis is divided into primary, common in childhood, and postprimary, usually presenting in adults. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pulmonary tuberculosis: CT and pathologic correlation.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2000 Sep-Oct;24(5):691-8

Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Typical CT findings of active postprimary pulmonary tuberculosis include centrilobular nodules and branching linear structures (tree-in-bud appearance), lobular consolidation, cavitation, and bronchial wall thickening. The CT findings of inactive pulmonary tuberculosis include calcified nodules or consolidation, irregular linear opacity, parenchymal bands, and pericicatricial emphysema. The typical appearance of primary tuberculosis on CT scans is homogeneous, dense, well-defined segmental or lobar consolidation with enlargement of lymph nodes in the hilum or the mediastinum. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2000

[Incidence and pattern of bronchial system lesions in patients with respiratory tuberculosis under the present conditions].

G N Tamashakina

Probl Tuberk 1999 (6):26-30

The paper presents the detection rates of active and inactive bronchial tuberculosis in patients with different clinical forms of respiratory tuberculosis in 1988-1989 (90 patients) and 1996-1997 (384 patients), comparatively characterizes the clinical forms of bronchial tuberculosis. There was a substantial increase in the detection rates of postprimary active and inactive bronchial tuberculosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diagnostic imaging of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Rays 1998 Jan-Mar;23(1):93-114

Istituto di Radiologia, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma, Italy.

Pulmonary tuberculosis in its primary and postprimary form is a widespread disease. Radiologic and CT findings in the acute phase of the disease, its many different aspects, as well as the alterations observed following the outcomes of tuberculosis at the parenchymal and pleural level, are examined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

L Ortona G Federico

Rays 1998 Jan-Mar;23(1):64-77

Istituto di Clinica delle Malattie Infettive, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Roma, Italy.

Pulmonary tuberculosis: primary tuberculosis, usually asymptomatic, represents the first infection and is shown by a parenchymal mostly mid-pulmonary focus and satellite lymphadenopathy. Postprimary pulmonary tuberculosis, mostly located in the upper fields may be caused by endogenous reinfection for reactivation of a hematogenous focus formed during primary infection or from exogenous reinfection. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: it includes numerous forms mostly from hematogenous spread. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High resolution chest CT in tuberculosis: evolutive patterns and signs of activity.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 1997 Jul-Aug;21(4):601-7

Service de Radiologie, CHU de Fort de France, Martinique.

Purpose: The purpose of our study was to determine evolutive patterns and signs of active tuberculosis on high resolution CT (HRCT) scans.

Method: We followed up over 15 months 27 patients with postprimary pulmonary tuberculosis that was proven bacteriologically. CT scans were performed before, during, and after 6 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of thoracic surgery for childhood tuberculosis.

World J Surg 1997 Jun;21(5):468-74

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Lymphadenopathy is the hallmark of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. The role of the thoracic surgeon in treating childhood tuberculosis is to relieve the more severe symptoms of lymphadenopathy, prevent the more long-term secondary damage that lymphadenopathy may cause to the lung, and treat the sequelae of thoracic tuberculosis. We reviewed the role of surgery in childhood tuberculosis at Red Cross Children Hospital from January 1981 to January 1996 in 161 children under 13 who were admitted for 168 therapeutic surgical interventions for proved intrathoracic tuberculosis and its related complications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Atypical locations of pulmonary tuberculosis and the influence of the roentgenographic patterns and sample type in its diagnosis.

Respiration 1997 ;64(4):296-9

Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España.

In 97 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), we analyzed the incidence of atypical roentgenographic locations, roentgenographic patterns, the correlation between the diagnostic yield and the roentgenographic pattern and the usefulness of simple or induced sputum (82 cases), bronchoaspirate (BAS; 29 cases), postfiberoptic bronchoscopy sputum (PFBS; 16 cases) and how the different tests supplemented each other. Atypical locations were defined as those not corresponding to classic primary and postprimary PTB. This atypical-location PTB index was 8. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 1997

Evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule by positron emission tomography imaging.

Eur Respir J 1996 Mar;9(3):410-4

Dept of Pneumology, CHU Liège, Belgium.

Current noninvasive imaging methods are not sufficiently reliable for accurate detection of malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), showing increased FDG uptake and retention in malignant cells, has proved useful to differentiate malignant from benign tissue and could, therefore, contribute to the evaluation of the SPN. We performed a prospective study of 50 patients referred to the Pneumology Department with unclear diagnoses of SPN after conventional radiological screening. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pulmonary tuberculosis: comparison of CT findings in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients.

Radiology 1996 Mar;198(3):687-91

Department of Radiology, Hôpital Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris, France.

Purpose: To determine the differences in the computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) between patients with and patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

Materials And Methods: CT scans and chest radiographs of 42 HIV-seropositive and 42 HIV-seronegative patients with pulmonary TB were reviewed. CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, measured in 40 seropositive patients, were at least 200 cells per microliter in 10 patients and were less that 200 cells per microliter in 30. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CT of pulmonary tuberculosis.

J G Im H Itoh M C Han

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 1995 Oct;16(5):420-34

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.

CT scans in patients with primary tuberculosis commonly show lymphohematogenous spread of the disease, whereas those of postprimary (reactivation) tuberculosis commonly show bronchogenic spread. High-resolution CT (HCRT) is extremely helpful in understanding pathomorphological changes, mode of spread of the disease, and sequential morphological change after antituberculous chemotherapy, and possibly in diagnosing activity of the disease. Centrilobular 2- to 4-mm nodules or branching linear lesions representing intrabronchiolar and peribronchiolar caseation necrosis are the most common findings of early bronchogenic spread of tuberculosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 1995

Radiologic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Radiol Clin North Am 1995 Jul;33(4):655-78

Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

In summary, the following points are reemphasized: 1. The chest film is the mainstay in the radiologic evaluation of suspected or proven pulmonary TB. CT is occasionally useful for clarifying confusing findings but has not been conclusively shown to have a significant impact on patient management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CT-pathology correlation of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 1995 ;36(3):227-85

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous disease characterized radiologically by nodules, air-space consolidation, propensity for cavitation, and calcification, and pathologically by caseating granulomas or pneumonia, and a great propensity for fibrosis and dystrophic calcification. Primary tuberculosis typically appears as air-space consolidation with hilar or mediastinal lymphadenitis. Postprimary tuberculosis appears most commonly as nodular and linear opacities at the lung apex. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 1995

Active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with AIDS: spectrum of radiographic findings (including a normal appearance).

Radiology 1994 Oct;193(1):115-9

Department of Radiology, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of chest radiography in the detection of active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Materials And Methods: Initial interpretations of chest radiographs of 133 adult patients with AIDS and positive sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were reviewed. Radiographic findings were correlated with CD4 T-cell counts, sputum stains for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and antituberculous drug sensitivity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 1994

[Clinical, radiologic and morphologic characteristics of localized forms of pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis and hypoplasia].

Vestn Rentgenol Radiol 1994 Jul-Aug(4):11-6

Clinical and x-ray examinations and study of operation material from 555 patients with local forms of tuberculosis permitted the authors to distinguish three form of the condition: tuberculoma (77% of cases), cavitary (cavernous) tuberculosis (16%), and tuberculosis of the bronchi (5%). Morphologic investigations showed the local tuberculosis develops at small sites of pulmonary tissue hypoplasia. Sites of hypoplasia are usually concentrated in the pulmonary segments which are formed in the postnatal period, thus explaining the typical localization of a postprimary tuberculous focus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF