3,528 results match your criteria Lower Limb Orthotics


Patient Compliance With Wearing Lower Limb Assistive Devices: A Scoping Review.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska; Department of Surgery and Research Service, Omaha VA Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.

Objective: The aim of this scoping review was to identify information on compliance with wearing orthoses and other supportive devices, to discuss the barriers to adherence, and to suggest strategies for improvement based on these findings.

Methods: Online databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles about patients' compliance with regard to lower limb assistive devices. In addition, a methodological quality control process was conducted. Read More

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A Review of Additive Manufacturing Studies for Producing Customized Ankle-Foot Orthoses.

Bioengineering (Basel) 2022 Jun 9;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

ESECS, Polytechnic of Leiria, 2411-901 Leiria, Portugal.

Ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are prescribed to improve the patient's quality of life. Supporting weak muscles or restraining spastic muscles leads to smoother and more stable locomotion. Commonly, AFO are made using thermoplastic vacuum forming, which requires a long time for production and has limited design options. Read More

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Knee braces and foot orthoses multimodal treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis.

Gait Posture 2022 Jun 9;96:251-256. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Département de Kinésiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada; Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation and Social Integration (CIRRIS), Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de la Capitale-Nationale (CIUSSS-CN), Quebec City, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Knee braces and lateral wedge foot orthoses are two treatment options recommended for medial knee osteoarthritis, but the combination of both of them could further improve their effectiveness.

Research Question: The aim was to evaluate whether the combination of lateral wedge foot orthoses with two types of knee brace enhances the biomechanical effects and pain relief during the stance phase of gait while maintaining comfort.

Methods: Ten patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were fitted with a standard valgus brace, an unloader brace with valgus and external rotation functions, and 7° lateral wedge foot orthoses. Read More

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Test-retest reliability of the Arabic translation of the Lower Extremity Functional Status of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2022 Jun 14;46(3):290-293. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Physical Therapy Department, King Fahed Medical City, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The number of amputations secondary to diverse factors in Arabic countries is expected to rise in the coming years. Therefore, there is a need for high-quality service that can be monitored by the use of standardized patient-reported outcome measures of amputee patients' functional status. This study aimed to translate the Lower Extremity Functional status Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS-LEFS) to Arabic and test its reliability in a sample of Arabic-speaking people with amputation. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 restrictions on physical activity and quality of life in adults with lower limb amputation.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2022 Jun 14;46(3):213-219. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Occupational therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.

Background: This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on ambulatory activity and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in people with a lower limb amputation (LLA) in Norway. We hypothesized that the restrictions would negatively affect HR-QoL and decrease prosthetic wear time and ambulatory activity in participants with already limited mobility.

Methods: Twenty individuals with LLA (age and time since amputation 56. Read More

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The Kinematic and Kinetic Responses of the Trunk and Lower Extremity Joints during Walking with and without the Spinal Orthosis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 06 6;19(11). Epub 2022 Jun 6.

College of Biomedical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China.

Spinal orthoses are an effective option for restoring the spine to its original position and controlling poor posture. However, the effects of poor posture and spinal orthoses on the kinematics and kinetics of trunk and lower extremity joints remain unclear. A six-camera Vicon motion capture system and two AMTI force plates were employed to collect gait parameters, including joint angle (spine, thorax, hip, knee, and ankle), range of motion (ROM), and ground reaction forces (GRFs). Read More

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Persistent Pain After Hindfoot Fusion.

Foot Ankle Clin 2022 Jun 11;27(2):327-341. Epub 2022 May 11.

OrthoCarolina Foot & Ankle Institute, 250 N Caswell Road Suite 200B, Charlotte, NC 28207, USA. Electronic address:

One of the most challenging problems facing orthopedic surgeons is persistent pain after surgery and certainly is just as frustrating following hindfoot fusion. The hindfoot joints consist of the subtalar, talonavicular, and calcaneocuboid (CC) joints. These joints are commonly fused for degenerative changes, deformity correction, inflammatory or neuropathic arthropathy, tarsal coalition, or primarily after trauma. Read More

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Incidence of lower-limb amputations in Sweden from 2008-2017.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Objectives: This study examines the recent national and regional incidence of lower limb amputations (LLAs) in Sweden and their annual changes.

Design: Observational study using Swedish national register data.

Methods: We identified all initial amputations in Sweden from 2008 to 2017 in individuals 18 years or older using the national inpatient register. Read More

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A novel workflow to fabricate a patient-specific 3D printed accommodative foot orthosis with personalized latticed metamaterial.

Med Eng Phys 2022 06 14;104:103802. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

VA RR&D Center for Limb Loss and MoBility (CLiMB), VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, United States; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Patients with diabetes mellitus are at elevated risk for secondary complications that result in lower extremity amputations. Standard of care to prevent these complications involves prescribing custom accommodative insoles that use inefficient and outdated fabrication processes including milling and hand carving. A new thrust of custom 3D printed insoles has shown promise in producing corrective insoles but has not explored accommodative diabetic insoles. Read More

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Is Kinesio Taping Effective for Sport Performance and Ankle Function of Athletes with Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI)? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Apr 29;58(5). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Orthopedics and Orthopedic Oncology, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology (DiSCOG), University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy.

Ankle injuries are the most common type of injury in healthy active individuals. If not treated properly, recurrent sprains can lead to a condition of chronic ankle instability (CAI). The aim of the present review is to evaluate the effects of Kinesio Taping (or KT) on sports performances and ankle functions in athletes with CAI. Read More

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Improving shared decision-making for prosthetic care: a qualitative needs assessment of prosthetists and new lower-limb prosthesis users.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physical Therapy Program, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Prosthesis design is complex and multiple appropriate options exist for any individual with lower-limb amputation. However, there is insufficient evidence for guiding decision-making. Shared decision-making (SDM) offers an opportunity to incorporate patient-specific values and preferences where evidence is lacking for prosthesis design decisions. Read More

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Ankle-foot orthosis with an oil damper versus nonarticulated ankle-foot orthosis in the gait of patients with subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2022 05 26;19(1):50. Epub 2022 May 26.

School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Velenjak St., Shahid Chamran Highway, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Gait improvement in patients with stroke has been examined in terms of use or non-use of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), but the effects of different kinds of AFOs remain unclear. In this study, the effect on gait of using an AFO with an oil damper (AFO-OD), which has plantarflexion stiffness without dorsiflexion resistance, was compared with a nonarticulated AFO, which has both dorsiflexion and plantarflexion stiffness, in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: Forty-one patients (31 men, 10 women; mean age 58. Read More

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The effects of custom-made foot orthoses on foot pain, foot function, gait function, and free-living walking activities in people with psoriatic arthritis (PsA): a pre-experimental trial.

Arthritis Res Ther 2022 May 25;24(1):124. Epub 2022 May 25.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

Introduction: Foot involvement is a significant concern in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) as it can lead to severe levels of foot pain and disability and reduced mobility and quality of life. Previous studies have shown moderate efficacy for custom-made foot orthoses (CFO) in reducing foot pain and disability in people with rheumatoid arthritis. However, evidence on the efficacy of CFO in people with PsA is lacking. Read More

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Evaluation of an ankle-foot orthosis effect on gait transitional stability during ramp ascent/descent.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2022 Jul 21;60(7):2119-2132. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Wearable ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are widely prescribed clinically; however, their effect on balance control during ramp ascent/descent walk remains unknown. This study evaluates walking stability on a ramp during weight loading and unloading transitions of the stance phase with the effect of an adjustable AFO. An AFO is tuned firstly by tuning dorsiflexion only and then combining dorsi-plantarflexion adjustments. Read More

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Design principles, manufacturing and evaluation techniques of custom dynamic ankle-foot orthoses: a review study.

J Foot Ankle Res 2022 May 19;15(1):38. Epub 2022 May 19.

Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136, Bologna, Italy.

Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFO) can be prescribed to allow drop-foot patients to restore a quasi-normal gait pattern. Standard off-the-shelf AFOs are cost-effective solutions to treat most patients with foot and ankle weakness, but these devices have several limitations, especially in terms of comfort. Therefore, custom AFOs are increasingly adopted to address drop-foot when standard solutions are not adequate. Read More

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Recreational runners with Achilles tendinopathy have clinically detectable impairments: A case-control study.

Phys Ther Sport 2022 May 6;55:241-247. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Science, Monash University, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: To confirm what impairments are present in runners with Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and explore the variance of AT severity in an adequately powered study.

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: Two private physiotherapy clinics in Australia and Spain. Read More

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Tendinopathies of the Foot and Ankle.

Am Fam Physician 2022 May;105(5):479-486

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Tendinopathies of the foot and ankle, including posterior tibial, peroneal, and tibialis anterior, are commonly overlooked by primary care physicians. The posterior tibial tendon is the main dynamic stabilizing muscle of the medial longitudinal arch. Patients who have posterior tibial tendinopathy present with medial ankle pain, pes planovalgus deformity, and a positive too many toes sign. Read More

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Identification of Hip and Knee Joint Impedance During the Swing Phase of Walking.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2022 16;30:1203-1212. Epub 2022 May 16.

Knowledge on joint impedance during walking in various conditions is relevant for clinical decision-making and the development of robotic gait trainers, leg prostheses, leg orthotics and wearable exoskeletons. Whereas ankle impedance during walking has been experimentally assessed, knee and hip joint impedance during walking have not been identified yet. Here we developed and evaluated a lower limb perturbator to identify hip, knee and ankle joint impedance during treadmill walking. Read More

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Activity, socket fit, comfort and community participation in lower limb prosthesis users: a Cambodian cohort study.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2022 05 2;19(1):42. Epub 2022 May 2.

University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Background: After amputation, many people become less active, feel lonely and lose independence. Understanding the factors associated with low physical activity levels and participation could contribute to defining key interventions which can support prosthesis users so they can live a more active and socially included lifestyle. This longitudinal observational study aims to assess relationships between physical activity, community participation, prosthetic fit, comfort and user satisfaction using actimetry, 3D scans and questionnaires in a Cambodian cohort of established lower limb prosthesis users. Read More

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Effect of customised preformed foot orthoses on gait parameters in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A multicentre randomised clinical trial.

Gait Posture 2022 06 19;95:93-99. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Australia.

Background: Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can experience significant physical impairment of the lower extremity. Prolonged joint disease and symptoms may cause gait alterations such as reduced walking speed and increased plantar pressures in diseased areas of their feet. There is limited robust clinical trials investigating the effect of non-invasive mechanical therapies such as foot orthoses (FOs) on improving gait parameters in children with JIA. Read More

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Neuromuscular response to the stimulation of plantar cutaneous during walking at different speeds.

Gait Posture 2022 06 4;95:84-92. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele Roma Open University, Italy; Department of Medicine Systems, University of Rome ''Tor Vergata'', Rome, Italy; Centre of Space Bio-Medicine, "Tor Vergata" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: A lot of authors have been studied the consequence of postural control strategies through investigating the effects of foot-surface contact. In this context an important variable of textured surfaces or insoles could be related to material stiffness. We apply a particular textured insoles to evaluate neuromuscular response of plantar stimulation during walking. Read More

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Performance of Deep Learning Models in Forecasting Gait Trajectories of Children with Neurological Disorders.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Apr 13;22(8). Epub 2022 Apr 13.

School of Engineering, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NT, UK.

Forecasted gait trajectories of children could be used as feedforward input to control lower limb robotic devices, such as exoskeletons and actuated orthotic devices (e.g., Powered Ankle Foot Orthosis-PAFO). Read More

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Effects of foot orthoses on the biomechanics of the lower extremities in adults with and without musculoskeletal disorders during functional tasks: A systematic review.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2022 May 9;95:105641. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Human Kinetics, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada 3351 Boul des Forges, Trois-Rivières, PQ G9A 5H7, Canada; Groupe Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Appliquée en Santé (GIRAS), Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, PQ, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Foot orthoses are among the most commonly used external supports to treat musculoskeletal disorders. It remains unclear how they change the biomechanics of the lower extremities during functional tasks. This systematic review aimed to determine the effects of foot orthoses on primary outcomes (i. Read More

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The effect of an ankle-foot orthosis on tibiofemoral motion during step-up and step-down in healthy adults.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2022 Apr;46(2):148-154

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Background: Solid ankle-foot orthoses (SAFOs) are frequently prescribed in conditions such as cerebral palsy and stroke. Although gait is improved in the short term, long-term effects of limiting ankle and foot motion during functional activities on joints such as the knee have not been investigated. Our study purpose was to compare tibiofemoral (TF) motion in shoe and SAFO conditions in healthy adults to inform future studies in clinical populations. Read More

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A comparison of the efficacy of textured insoles on balance performance in older people with versus without plantar callosities.

Gait Posture 2022 05 29;94:217-221. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Musculoskeletal Research Center, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Textured insoles have been suggested to enhance foot sensation, which contributes to controlling upright balance. However, the interaction between plantar callosity and the textured surface has not been studied.

Research Question: Firstly, to compare the efficacy of textured insoles on balance performance and foot position sense between two groups of older people: one group had plantar callosity, and the other did not. Read More

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Orthoses and their place in the treatment of painful great toe osteoarthritis - Taking the next steps.

Authors:
Jill Halstead

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2022 Jul 29;30(7):909-910. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Leeds Community Healthcare NHS Trust, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK; Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. Electronic address:

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Reported Outcome Measures in Studies of Real-World Ambulation in People with a Lower Limb Amputation: A Scoping Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Mar 14;22(6). Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Occupational Therapy, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 4, St. Olavs Plass, 0130 Oslo, Norway.

Background: The rapidly increasing use of wearable technology to monitor free-living ambulatory behavior demands to address to what extent the chosen outcome measures are representative for real-world situations. This scoping review aims to provide an overview of the purpose of use of wearable activity monitors in people with a Lower Limb Amputation (LLA) in the real world, to identify the reported outcome measures, and to evaluate to what extent the reported outcome measures capture essential information from real-world ambulation of people with LLA.

Methods: The literature search included a search in three databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for articles published between January 1999 and January 2022, and a hand-search. Read More

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The effect of three dimensional printing hinged ankle foot orthosis for equinovarus control in stroke patients.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2022 Apr 11;94:105622. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Hemiplegic stroke patients often suffered from equinovarus foot which result in plantar pressure overload over lateral sole. 3D printing is a promising technique utilized in orthosis fabrication, and the effects on plantar pressure remains unclear. The aim in this study focus on the effect of 3D printed ankle foot orthosis, by measuring plantar parameters. Read More

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Satisfaction of lower limb amputees with their prostheses and with the clinical services - a cross-sectional survey.

J Pak Med Assoc 2022 Feb;72(2):260-264

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To evaluate the amputees' satisfaction with their prostheses and with the clinical services.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Medical Rehabilitation Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia, from August 2018 to November 2019, and comprised unilateral, traumatic lower limb amputees. Data was collected using the client satisfaction with the device, and the client satisfaction with service modules of the Orthotics and Prosthetics User's Survey instrument. Read More

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February 2022

Reliability of three different methods for assessing amputee residuum shape and volume: 3D scanners vs. circumferential measurements.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.

Background: Objective and reliable methods are necessary to monitor and manage amputee residuum shape and volume and design prosthetic residuum-prosthesis interfaces. Portable 3D scanners are potential solutions for digitally recording the amputee residuum characteristics.

Objective: To investigate test-operator reliability when measuring lower limb residuum shape and volume using two different types of 3D laser-free scanners compared with tape measurements generally adopted in clinic. Read More

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