200,532 results match your criteria Lower GI Tract


Outcomes of obstructed abdominal wall hernia: results from the UK national small bowel obstruction audit.

Authors:

BJS Open 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Background: Abdominal wall hernia is a common surgical condition. Patients may present in an emergency with bowel obstruction, incarceration or strangulation. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a serious surgical condition associated with significant morbidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs5.50315DOI Listing

The duodenal microbiome is altered in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0234906. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Medically Associated Science and Technology (MAST) Program, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is highly prevalent and is associated with numerous gastrointestinal disorders, but the microbes involved remain poorly defined. Moreover, existing studies of microbiome alterations in SIBO have utilized stool samples, which are not representative of the entire gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we aimed to determine and compare the duodenal microbiome composition in SIBO and non-SIBO subjects, using duodenal aspirates from subjects undergoing standard-of-care esophagogastroduodenoscopy without colon preparation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234906PLOS

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Authors:
Albert P Li

Drug Metab Dispos 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

In Vitro ADMET Laboratories Inc., United States of America

Elements of key enteric drug metabolism and disposition pathways are reviewed to aid the assessment of the applicability of current cell-based enteric experimental systems for the evaluation of enteric metabolism and drug interaction potential. Enteric nuclear receptors include vitamin D receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, Pregnane X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, liver X receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Enteric drug metabolizing enzyme pathways include both P450 and non-P450 drug metabolizing enzymes based on gene expression, proteomics, and activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.120.000053DOI Listing

Endocytoscopy: technology and clinical application in the lower GI tract.

Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 5;5:40. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Endocytoscopy (EC) is now one of the valuable technologies in diagnosing colorectal tumors. Providing ultra-high-resolution white light images (520×), endocytoscopy attains the so called virtual histology or optical biopsy, making it a promising tool to diagnose colorectal lesions. Recent studies about artificial intelligence (AI) or computer aided diagnosis (CAD) are also increasingly reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tgh.2019.12.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063490PMC

Efficacy and safety of low-dose glucocorticoids combined with methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis: A single-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(27):e20824

Department of Rheumatology.

Introduction: Glucocorticoids (GCs), especially low-dose GCs, are commonly prescribed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although the risk/benefit ratio is controversial. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral GCs combined with methotrexate (MTX) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in early RA (ERA).

Methods: Eighty untreated ERA patients were randomized into the trial (GCs + MTX + HCQ) and control (placebo + MTX + HCQ) groups, for 1-year treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020824DOI Listing

Rehabilitation of traumatic spinal cord injury with lower limb exoskeleton

Orv Hetil 2020 07;161(29):1200-1207

3D Oktatási és Vizualizációs Központ,Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Pécs.

In recent years, several technological innovations have emerged to improve the rehabilitation of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Among them, robotic orthosis, also known as human exoskeletons, are prominent devices for lower limb therapy. Since the early 2000s, numerous clinical studies have begun to investigate the efficacy of these devices, demonstrating the beneficial effects of exoskeletons regarding the prevention and deceleration of the progression of complications following spinal cord injury and subsequent immobilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2020.31781DOI Listing

Expression dynamics of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) cascade and their responses to 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) highlights potential vulnerability to thyroid-disrupting chemicals in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larvae.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Jun 18;225:105547. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QD, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Some chemicals in the environment disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) systems leading to alterations in organism development, but their effect mechanisms are poorly understood. In fish, this has been limited by a lack of fundamental knowledge on thyroid gene ontogeny and tissue expression in early life stages. Here we established detailed expression profiles for a suite of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio) between 24-120 h post fertilisation (hpf) and quantified their responses following exposure to 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) using whole mount in situ hybridisation (WISH) and qRT-PCR (using whole-body extracts). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105547DOI Listing

Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adult Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis Diagnosed in the 21st Century.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 Jul;115(7):1117-1124

Celiac Disease Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Introduction: We assessed whether celiac disease-associated mortality is increased in Finland among patients diagnosed in the 21st century, given recent improvements in diagnostic and treatment facilities.

Methods: Biopsy-proven patients with celiac disease (Marsh III) and dermatitis herpetiformis aged 20-79 years (median 50 years) diagnosed 2005-2014 (n = 12,803) were identified from the national dietary grant registry. Dates and causes of death were obtained from Statistics Finland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000665DOI Listing

Modeling the effect of DAV132, a novel colon-targeted adsorbent, on fecal concentrations of moxifloxacin and gut microbiota diversity in healthy volunteers.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Universite de Paris, IAME, INSERM, F-75018, Paris, France.

To prevent antibiotic-induced perturbations on gut microbiota, DAV132, a novel colon-targeted adsorbent, which sequesters antibiotic residues in the lower gastrointestinal tract was developed. We built an integrated pharmacological model of how DAV132 reduces fecal free moxifloxacin (MXF) and preserves gut microbiota. We used plasma and fecal free MXF concentrations, and Shannon diversity index from 16S rRNA gene metagenomics analysis of fecal microbiota, of 143 healthy volunteers assigned randomly to receive MXF only, or with ten DAV132 dose regimens, or to a control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1977DOI Listing

A dietary intervention to improve the microbiome composition of pregnant women with Crohn's disease and their offspring: The MELODY (Modulating Early Life Microbiome through Dietary Intervention in Pregnancy) trial design.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2020 Jun 4;18:100573. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Crohn's disease (CD), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract that is caused by the loss of mucosal tolerance towards the commensal bacteria resulting in inflammatory responses. It has long been postulated that the gut microbiota, a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Maternal diagnosis of IBD has been identified as the greatest risk factor for IBD in offspring increasing the odds of developing the disease >4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2020.100573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322804PMC

Longitudinal gut microbiome changes in alcohol use disorder are influenced by abstinence and drinking quantity.

Gut Microbes 2020 Nov;11(6):1608-1631

Office of the Clinical Director, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism , Bethesda, MD, USA.

Many patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) consume alcohol chronically and in large amounts that alter intestinal microbiota, damage the gastrointestinal tract, and thereby injure other organs via malabsorption and intestinal inflammation. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption and subsequent abstinence would change the gut microbiome in adults admitted to a treatment program. Stool and oral specimens, diet data, gastrointestinal assessment scores, anxiety, depression measures and drinking amounts were collected longitudinally for up to 4 weeks in 22 newly abstinent inpatients with AUD who were dichotomized as less heavy drinkers (LHD, <10 drinks/d) and very heavy drinkers (VHD, 10 or more drinks/d). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2020.1758010DOI Listing
November 2020

Dynamic rotation of the protruding domain enhances the infectivity of norovirus.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Jul 2;16(7):e1008619. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan.

Norovirus is the major cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Lack of structural information on infection and replication mechanisms hampers the development of effective vaccines and remedies. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy, we show that the capsid structure of murine noroviruses changes in response to aqueous conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008619DOI Listing

Perforated Ileal GIST Associated with Meckel Diverticulum - A Rare Pathological Entity of Surgical Acute Abdomen.

Chirurgia (Bucur) 2020 May-Jun;115(3):404-409

The GIST tumors are very rare entities ( 1% of all tumors). They originate in the Cajal interstitial cells, which are part of the autonomic nervous system of the intestine. Their most common location is the stomach, followed by the small intestine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21614/chirurgia.115.3.404DOI Listing

[Intestinal manifestations of Behçet's disease].

Ter Arkh 2019 May 15;91(5):111-119. Epub 2019 May 15.

A.N. Ryzhikh State Scientific Centre of Coloproctology.

Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown origin, characterized by recurrences of the ulcerative process in the oral cavity and on the genitals, inflammatory damage of the eyes, joints, vessels and other organs. The severity and prognosis of BD determines organ pathology. Intestinal manifestations of BD (intestinal BD) are the least studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2019.05.000247DOI Listing

Work-Related Burn Injuries in a Tertiary Care Burn Center, 2013 - 2018.

J Burn Care Res 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

The features of work-related burn injuries are not well defined in the literature and they vary depending on geographical location. We wanted to describe these characteristics among patients treated in UNC Burn Center to evaluate the potential impact of commonly accepted prevention efforts. Adults of working age, admitted between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2018, were identified using our Burn Center Registry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iraa105DOI Listing

Changes in Faecal Microbiota Profiles Associated With Performance and Birthweight of Piglets.

Front Microbiol 2020 11;11:917. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

The gastrointestinal tract microbiota interacts with the host to modulate metabolic phenotype. This interaction could provide insights into why some low birthweight pigs can exhibit compensatory growth whilst others remain stunted. This study aimed to identify microbiota markers associated with birthweight [low birthweight ( = 13) or normal birthweight pigs ( = 13)] and performance ["good" or "poor" average daily gain (ADG) class]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300224PMC

Primary signet ring cell carcinoma with tubular adenoma of the rectum: A case report and a review of the literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(26):e20985

Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University.

Rationale: Among the various forms of colorectal carcinomas, primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of rectum is infrequent. Primary SRCC with adenoma is even rarer. Due to its low morbidity and lack of obvious manifestations at early stages, it is difficult to make an early diagnosis and perform surgical intervention in time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328922PMC

Peptidase PepP is a novel virulence factor of contributing to murine campylobacteriosis.

Gut Microbes 2020 Jun 25:1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Biology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen/Nuremberg , Erlangen, Germany.

Mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions resulting in immunopathological responses upon human infection are not completely understood, but the recent availability of murine infection models mimicking key features of campylobacteriosis helps solving this dilemma. During a screen for proteases expressed by , we identified a peptidase of the M24 family as a potential novel virulence factor, which was named PepP. The gene is strongly conserved in various species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2020.1770017DOI Listing

Effect of preconditioning and postoperative hyperbaric oxygen therapy on colonic anastomosis healing with and without ischemia in rats.

Acta Cir Bras 2020 22;35(5):e202000503. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

PhD, Associate Professor, Division of Surgery, School of Medicine, UnB, Brasilia-DF, Brazil. Conception and design of the study; acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data; manuscript preparation and writing; critical revision, final approval.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on colonic anastomosis healing with and without ischemia in rats.

Methods: Forty female rats underwent segmental resection of 1 cm of the left colon followed by end-to-end anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10 each), a sham group; two groups were submitted to Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy (HBOT) with and without induced ischemia and the induced ischemia group without HBOT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020200050000003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310584PMC

[Design and application of a new gastrointestinal nutrition pipeline].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2020 May;32(5):611-612

Department of Intensive Care Unit, the First People's Hospital of Fuyang District, Hangzhou 311400, Zhejiang, China. Corresponding author: Tang Weidong, Email:

Gastrointestinal nutrition tube is a special gastrointestinal tube designed for enteral nutrition, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring in severe patients. Clinically, it is inserted into patients' stomach for flushing, provide nutrition through stomach, duodenum or jejunum, and decompress gastrointestinal tract. It also can be used for gastric drainage, gastric juice pH value determination, and early diagnosis and treatment for stomach bleeding and other symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200327-00236DOI Listing

[Minimally invasive interventions in emergency large bowel surgery].

Khirurgiia (Mosk) 2020 (6):109-113

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

The current trends in the treatment of various surgical diseases of large bowel using minimally invasive operations are reviewed in the manuscript. It is shown that laparoscopy is currently possible in most cases for urgent large bowel diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/hirurgia2020061109DOI Listing

Resistance Profiles of Staphylococcus aureus and Immunological Status in Pregnant Women at Bafang, West Region of Cameroon: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Cureus 2020 Jun 16;12(6):e8648. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Biochemistry, University of Dschang, Dschang, CMR.

Background , a facultative aero-anaerobic Gram-positive coccus typically considered normal flora in the human gastrointestinal tract, have increasingly become a major cause of healthcare-associated infections over the past decade. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in immune factors in pregnant women colonized by in the town of Bafang, West Region of Cameroon. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried in antenatal care unit in various health center in Bafang. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302716PMC

Case report of IgG4-related appendiceal disease: A challenging disease.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(25):e20588

Department of Surgery, Hospital Sírio-Libanês, São Paulo, Brazil.

Rationale: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an increasingly recognized immune-mediated entity that can affect virtually every organ system. Depending on the location of the disease, it can present a wide range of clinical manifestations and even mimic malignancies. Appendiceal involvement in patients with IgG4-related disease is particularly rare and very few cases are reported in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310901PMC

Pectins as a universal medicine.

Fitoterapia 2020 Jun 16;146:104676. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Institute of Physiology of Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, FRC Komi SC UB RAS, 50 Pervomayskaya str., 167982 Komi Republic, Syktyvkar, Russia.

The review outlines the main aspects of the use of pectin polysaccharides in medicine, both as independent medicinal substances and as a material for creating systems for targeted delivery of drugs, as well as for regenerative medicine and biomedical engineering. A number of studies demonstrate that pectin polysaccharides are physiologically active substances with immunomodulating properties, including anti-inflammatory activity, they lower cholesterol and triglyceride in the blood serum, normalize glucose metabolism, bind and remove toxins and radionuclides from the body, regulate work and provide protection of the gastrointestinal tract, have anticarcinogenic and antimetastatic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104676DOI Listing

Novel modified endoscopic mucosal resection of large GI lesions (> 20 mm) using an external additional working channel (AWC) may improve R0 resection rate: initial clinical experience.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Jun 19;20(1):195. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Oncology, Interdisciplinary Endoscopy, University Medical Center, Georg-August-University, 37075, Goettingen, Germany.

Background: En-bloc resection of large, flat dysplastic mucosal lesions of the luminal GI tract can be challenging. In order to improve the efficacy of resection for lesions ≥2 cm and to optimize R0 resection rates of lesions suspected of harboring high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, a novel grasp and snare EMR technique utilizing a novel over the scope additional accessory channel, termed EMR Plus (EMR+), was developed. The aim of this pilot study is to describe the early safety and efficacy data from the first in human clinical cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01344-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304141PMC

Lactose Intolerance: What Your Breath Can Tell You.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Lactose intolerance has seen recognized as a clinical syndrome characterized by pain, abdominal distention, flatulence, and diarrhea after the consumption of lactose. Lactose is a common disaccharide found in dairy that requires lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) to break down into glucose and galactose. A deficiency in this enzyme results in flora bacteria further along in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) tract to metabolize the excess lactose to numerous gases, including H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10060412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344825PMC

SMAD4 mutation and the combined juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhage telangiectasia syndrome: a single center experience.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose: Mutations of the SMAD4 gene can result in a distinct syndrome with combined clinical features of both juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Even though it is known that patients with the overlap syndrome are at increased risk for colorectal malignancies and bleeding, the outcomes of this patient population have not been extensively studied.

Methods: Retrospective study aiming to describe the phenotype and clinical outcomes of patients with genetically confirmed JP-HHT combined syndrome in a single large tertiary center in North America. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-020-03670-3DOI Listing

Histological analysis of the intestinal wall of newborn rats submitted to hypoxia and reoxygenation to evaluate the protective effect of N-Acetylcysteine.

Acta Cir Bras 2020 5;35(4):e202000401. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

PhD, Division of Pediatric Surgery, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo-SP, Brazil. Conception and design of the study, final approval.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) in newborn rats submitted to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) conditions in an experimental model of necrotizing enterocolitis.

Methods: Eight pregnant rats and their 70 cubs were used (5 groups) and exposed to H/R conditions and received NAC at different times. The animals in the H/R groups were placed in a gas chamber (100% CO2) for 10 minutes and then reoxygenated for 10 minutes (100% O2), twice a day for the first three days of life, with a six-hour span between events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020200040000001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292620PMC

The tumour microenvironment of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract differentially influences dendritic cell maturation.

BMC Cancer 2020 Jun 17;20(1):566. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Surgery, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland.

Background: Only 10-30% of oesophageal and rectal adenocarcinoma patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy have a complete pathological response. Inflammatory and angiogenic mediators in the tumour microenvironment (TME) may enable evasion of anti-tumour immune responses.

Methods: The TME influence on infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) was modelled by treating immature monocyte-derived DCs with Tumour Conditioned Media (TCM) from distinct gastrointestinal sites, prior to LPS-induced maturation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07012-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302160PMC

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy of the gastrointestinal tract.

Prz Gastroenterol 2020 8;15(2):89-93. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease leading to the development of numerous health complications. In developed countries, it is the main cause of blindness, end-stage renal disease, and non-traumatic amputation of the lower limbs. Neuropathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pg.2020.95554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294968PMC

Gastrointestinal symptoms in acromegaly: A case control study.

World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jun;11(2):17-24

Department of Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital and St Georges, University of London, London SW17 0QT, United Kingdom.

Background: Acromegaly is a chronic disease caused by a pituitary somatotroph adenoma resulting in excess secretion of growth hormone, which leads to excess secretion of Insulin like growth factor 1 from the liver, causing abnormal soft tissue growth. There is increasing awareness that diseases affecting connective tissue are associated with an increase in functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Data was collected from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acromegaly to evaluate the intensity, variety and impact of abdominal symptoms in comparison with a control group who were healthy participants recruited from the local fracture clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4292/wjgpt.v11.i2.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288728PMC

Pseudo-hyperglucagonemia was observed in the pancreatectomized cases when measured by glucagon sandwich ELISA.

J Diabetes Investig 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Metabolic Signal Research Center, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Gunma, Japan.

Glucagon is detected in plasma even after total pancreatectomy, and it is debated whether this glucagon is derived from the gastrointestinal tract. Here we applied sandwich ELISA and liquid chromatography (LC)-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to measure plasma glucagon levels in one patient after partial pancreatectomy (one-seventh of the pancreas remaining) and three patients after total pancreatectomy. Sandwich ELISA detected higher glucagon levels in pancreatectomy patients than in healthy subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13325DOI Listing

Competition for Hydrogen Prevents Coexistence of Human Gastrointestinal Hydrogenotrophs in Continuous Culture.

Front Microbiol 2020 29;11:1073. Epub 2020 May 29.

Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Understanding the metabolic dynamics of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is of growing importance as research continues to link the microbiome to host health status. Microbial strains that metabolize hydrogen have been associated with a variety of both positive and negative host nutritional and health outcomes, but limited data exists for their competition in the GIT. To enable greater insight into the behaviour of these microbes, a mathematical model was developed for the metabolism and growth of the three major hydrogenotrophic groups: sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanogens and reductive acetogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272605PMC

Relative Abundance of SARS-CoV-2 Entry Genes in the Enterocytes of the Lower Gastrointestinal Tract.

Genes (Basel) 2020 06 11;11(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Sheikh Ahmed Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research and the Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

There is increasing evidence of gastrointestinal (GI) infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We surveyed the co-expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes and throughout the GI tract to assess potential sites of infection. Publicly available and in-house single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets from the GI tract were queried. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11060645DOI Listing

[Prerequisites of magnetic resonance imaging for treatment planning in locally advanced rectal cancer - Interdisciplinary recommendations].

Z Gastroenterol 2020 Jun 16;58(6):577-582. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Interdisziplinäres Tumorzentrum, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim.

For the purpose of indication and patient stratification of perioperative treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become indispensable. In this report, we describe the importance of MRI diagnostics and the qualitative conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1085-6874DOI Listing

Alterations in Enteroendocrine Hormones After Total Pancreatectomy With Islet Autotransplantation.

Pancreas 2020 Jul;49(6):806-811

From the Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota Medical School.

Objective: When total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is performed for chronic pancreatitis, the pancreas and most of the duodenum are removed, with Roux-en-Y reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. Enteroendocrine cells in the intestines and pancreas secrete hormones coordinating digestion and motility, but anatomic reconstruction alters transit of nutrients to these cells. We hypothesized that TPIAT leads to changes in enteroendocrine hormones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321866PMC

Use of percutaneous transvenous coil embolization in the treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in four cats.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020 Jul;257(1):70-79

Case Description: 4 cats (6 to 9 months old) were evaluated because of clinical signs consistent with a portosystemic shunt (PSS).

Clinical Findings: Among the 4 cats, 3 had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, head pressing, disorientation, and obtundation. One cat was evaluated because of urethral obstruction; a retrieved urethral stone was determined to have urate composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.257.1.70DOI Listing

A new reliable acoustic respiratory monitoring technology during upper gastrointestinal tract therapeutic endoscopy with CO insufflation.

J Clin Monit Comput 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Previous studies documented the effectiveness and benefits of capnography monitoring during propofol-based sedation for colonoscopy to reduce the incidence of hypoxemia. However, the performance of capnography during longer duration endoscopic therapy of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers under CO insufflation it is not well known. In this study, we compare a new device with acoustic monitoring technology to standard capnography monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10877-020-00547-2DOI Listing

Gastrocolic fistula in Crohn's disease detected by oral agent contrast-enhanced ultrasound: A case report of a novel ultrasound modality.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 May;26(17):2119-2125

Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Fistulas are common complications of Crohn's disease (CD). Gastrocolic fistulas (GFs) are rare, occult and potentially life-threatening complications. Few cases of GFs have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i17.2119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267691PMC

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Fecal Samples from Patients with Asymptomatic and Mild COVID-19 in Korea.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Although COVID-19 is characterized by fever and respiratory symptoms, some patients have no or mild symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in feces of patients. We investigated gastrointestinal symptoms and shedding of virus into feces of patients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286243PMC

A Cohort Study of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Results for Patients With 5 to 15 Versus 2 to 4 Brain Metastatic Tumors.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2020 May-Jun;5(3):358-368. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka, Japan.

Purpose: The role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone for patients with ≥5 brain metastases is not fully understood. The objective of the study was to compare SRS-alone treatment results for 2 to 4 versus 5 to 15 tumors.

Methods And Materials: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using our prospectively accumulated database including 1150 patients with 2 to 4 tumors and 939 with 5 to 15 tumors who underwent Gamma Knife SRS during a 20-year period (1998-2018). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2019.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276677PMC
November 2019

Enteral cystic duplicature in peripartum period - case report.

Authors:
Š Opluštil

Ceska Gynekol 2020 ;85(2):120-123

Objective: Author demonstrates case of enteral cystic duplicature located between coccyx and rectum in peripartal period.

Design: Case report.

Setting: Masarykova městská nemocnice, Jilemnice. Read More

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Dietary delivery of acetate to the colon using acylated starches as a carrier exerts anxiolytic effects in mice.

Physiol Behav 2020 Sep 7;223:113004. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Recently, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) have been shown to play an important role in mediating the gut-brain interaction and thereby participate in the patho-physiological process of stress-related disorders. In the current study, we examined whether SCFA generated in the lower gut affects host metabolic and behavioral characteristics. To determine this, we used special diets containing acylated starches that can reach the colon without being absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract of male mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113004DOI Listing
September 2020

infection is associated with elevated galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA nephropathy.

Ren Fail 2020 Nov;42(1):539-546

Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Mucosal immunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). This study aimed to investigate if infection of (), a common bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, associated with IgAN. This study included 261 patients with IgAN and 46 healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2020.1772295DOI Listing
November 2020

[Initial report of laparoscopic single incision plus one port with simultaneous robotic-assisted transanal total mesorectal excision for low rectal cancer surgery].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Jun;23(6):605-609

Department of General of Surgery, Daping Hosiptal, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400042, China.

Robotic-assisted transanal total mesorectal excision (R-TaTME) has unique advantage in low rectal cancer. Single incision plus oneport (SIPOP) laparoscopic operation can synchronously cooperate with robotic-assisted transanal operation, in order to the difficulty of operation, improve the quality of operation and shorten the time of operation. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical and pathological data of one patient who underwent SIPOP synchronously combined with R-TaTME + sigmoid-anal anastomosis + ileostomy at the Department of General Surgery, Army Characteristic Medical Center on September 11, 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20190508-00203DOI Listing

[Application of intestinal stent in prevention of anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer operation].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Jun;23(6):602-605

Department of General Surgery, Tungwah Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Dongguan, Guangdong 523110, China.

To observe preventive effect of intestinal stent against anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer operation. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. Clinical data of 107 patients with low rectal cancer undergoing laparoscopic radical resection from January 2015 to August 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200228-00094DOI Listing

[Innovation, development and improvement of transanal endoscopic instruments].

Authors:
L Kang

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Jun;23(6):600-602

Department of Colorectal Surgery, the Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Gastroenterology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510655, China.

According to the main features of transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME), we have designed a series of patented operating techniques, such as anal retractor, anal speculum and transanal port, to reduce the difficulty of transanal operation, shorten the surgeon's learning curve, and expand the indications of transanal surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200603-00333DOI Listing

[Surgical key points of precision functional sphincter-preserving surgery].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Jun;23(6):597-600

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Colorectal Cancer Center, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072, China.

The principle of sphincter-preserving surgery is to preserve the anal sphincter function under the premise of radical resection. Due to low position of rectal tumor, conventional laparoscopic surgery has difficulties in operating in the deep and narrow pelvis, which may lead to inaccurate tissue dissociation, imprecise positioning of tumor edge, excessive stretch of the anal sphincter complex, and excessive removal of distal rectal mucosa. Moreover, pain from abdominal auxiliary incision has an unavoidable side effect for postoperative recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200403-00182DOI Listing