205,977 results match your criteria Lower GI Tract


Biliary drainage in inoperable malignant biliary distal obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

World J Gastrointest Surg 2021 May;13(5):493-506

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05403-010, Brazil.

Background: Endoscopic drainage remains the treatment of choice for unresectable or inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO).

Aim: To compare the safety and efficacy of plastic stent (PS) self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) placement for treatment of MDBO.

Methods: This meta-analysis was developed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Read More

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Interactions of polyphenols from traditional apple varieties 'Bobovac', 'Ljepocvjetka' and 'Crvenka' with β-Glucan during in vitro simulated digestion.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 4;363:130283. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetošimunska cesta 25, HR 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:

Interactions between β-glucan and polyphenols might have an effect on polyphenol digestion and bioaccessibility. The influence of β-glucan on in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of polyphenols of traditional apple varieties was studied. Polyphenols were chemically and enzymatically extracted, and identified and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. Read More

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An integrated gene catalog and over 10,000 metagenome-assembled genomes from the gastrointestinal microbiome of ruminants.

Microbiome 2021 Jun 12;9(1):137. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiomes in ruminants play major roles in host health and thus animal production. However, we lack an integrated understanding of microbial community structure and function as prior studies. are predominantly biased towards the rumen. Read More

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The immunomodulatory effects of topiramate on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats: The role of the inflammatory cascade, vascular endothelial growth factor, AKT/mTOR/MAP kinase signaling and the apoptotic markers.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 9;98:107830. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Colon cancer is a malignant condition that affects the lower gastrointestinal tract and has unfavorable prognosis. Its mechanisms range from enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory changes in the colon microenvironment and affection of the apoptotic pathways. Due to the high incidence of resistance of colon cancer to the traditional chemotherapeutic agents, a need for finding safe/effective agents that can attenuate the malignant changes had emerged. Read More

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Repeated point prevalence survey on antimicrobial use in a university hospital: what have we learned?

Int J Pharm Pract 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.

Objectives: To evaluate the quality of antimicrobial prescribing, at the Department of Internal Medicine University Hospital Centre Rijeka, by assessing the necessity for antimicrobial treatment and adherence to the local Guidelines for hospital antimicrobial drug use and to compare results with previously conducted point prevalence surveys (PPSs).

Methods: A PPS was conducted on 7th May 2019. Demographic and relevant clinical data of each patient receiving systemic antimicrobials were recorded anonymously in a patient-specific form. Read More

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Disruption of the pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and tight junction proteins expression, associated with changes of the composition of the gut microbiota in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252930. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russian Federation.

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a pathologic condition characterized by changes in gut microbiome composition, low-grade inflammation, and disruption of intestinal wall permeability. The interaction between the gut microbiome and the disease manifestation remains unclear. The changing of tight junction proteins and cytokines expression throughout the gastrointestinal tract in IBS patients has not been studied yet. Read More

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Correlation of gastrointestinal perforation location and amount of free air and ascites on CT imaging.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, INSELGROUP, Radiology Division SLS, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 112, 3004, Bern, Switzerland.

Purpose: To analyze the amount of free abdominal gas and ascites on computed tomography (CT) images relative to the location of a perforation.

Methods: We retrospectively included 172 consecutive patients (93:79 = m:f) with GIT perforation, who underwent abdominal surgery (ground truth for perforation location). The volume of free air and ascites were quantified on CT images by 4 radiologists and a semiautomated software. Read More

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Effects of okara and vitamin B bioenrichment on the functional properties and in vitro digestion of fermented soy milk.

Food Res Int 2021 Jul 19;145:110419. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, People's Republic of China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Production and Safety, School of Biological Science and Engineering, North Minzu University, Yinchuan 750021, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Due to highly nutritious and well-known prebiotic nature, okara (soy by-product) can improve the physiological benefits of probiotic consumption by enhancing the physicochemical stability and bioavailability of bacteria and metabolites, partially in food matrices and then in gastrointestinal tract. Initially, vitamin B producing probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum UFG10 was immobilized with 4% okara for soy milk fermentation. SEM micrographs showed firm adherence of UFG10 to okara surface depicting efficient immobilization. Read More

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Digestion & fermentation characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria chouae using two extraction methods in vitro and in vivo.

Food Res Int 2021 Jul 11;145:110406. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Food Technology & Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Prolaz Kasandrića 6, 23000 Zadar, Croatia.

The sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Gracilaria chouae using critic acid extraction and water extraction, respectively, and their digestion and fermentation characteristics were compared in vitro and in vivo. The molecular weight of water extracted polysaccharide of G. chouae (WGCP) was 1. Read More

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DMBT1 amount in amniotic fluid depends on gestational age.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 9:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Objective: Amniotic fluid is a mixture containing many different proteins as immunomodulatory peptides and growth factors. The glycoprotein Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is participated in innate immunity, angiogenesis and epithelial differentiation. We analyzed the DMBT1 concentration in amniotic fluid during gestation. Read More

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APC germline variant analysis in the adenomatous polyposis phenotype in Japanese patients.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Digestive Tract and General Surgery, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple colonic polyps, is caused by a germline pathogenic variant of the APC gene. However, this variant is not detected in up to 30% of patients with the adenomatous polyposis phenotype.

Methods: We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify the causative genes in FAP patients with 10 or more polyps. Read More

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Oncogenic BRAF, unrestrained by TGFβ-receptor signalling, drives right-sided colonic tumorigenesis.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3464. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

EMBL Australia, John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Right-sided (proximal) colorectal cancer (CRC) has a poor prognosis and a distinct mutational profile, characterized by oncogenic BRAF mutations and aberrations in mismatch repair and TGFβ signalling. Here, we describe a mouse model of right-sided colon cancer driven by oncogenic BRAF and loss of epithelial TGFβ-receptor signalling. The proximal colonic tumours that develop in this model exhibit a foetal-like progenitor phenotype (Ly6a/Sca1) and, importantly, lack expression of Lgr5 and its associated intestinal stem cell signature. Read More

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Investigation of culturable human gut mycobiota from the segamat community in Johor, Malaysia.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 8;37(7):113. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

Although several studies have already been carried out in investigating the general profile of the gut mycobiome across several countries, there has yet to be an officially established baseline of a healthy human gut mycobiome, to the best of our knowledge. Microbial composition within the gastrointestinal tract differ across individuals worldwide, and most human gut fungi studies concentrate specifically on individuals from developed countries or diseased cohorts. The present study is the first culture-dependent community study assessing the prevalence and diversity of gut fungi among different ethnic groups from South East Asia. Read More

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Aspirin at 120: Retiring, recombining, or repurposing?

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2021 May 28;5(4):e12516. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Safety Section of Pharmacology Catholic University School of Medicine Rome Italy.

During the past 20 years, we have witnessed the following trends in aspirin usage: (i) a "dropping" trend, characterized by the early discontinuation of low-dose aspirin from dual antiplatelet therapy or triple antithrombotic therapy (oral anticoagulation plus dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation) following an acute coronary syndrome or after percutaneous coronary intervention; (ii) a "combinatorial" trend, featuring the addition of a lower dose of a P2Y inhibitor or direct oral anticoagulant drug to low-dose aspirin for the long-term treatment of stable patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; and (iii) a "repurposing" trend, characterized by growing interest in the oncologic community to assess the chemopreventive effect of aspirin against certain types of cancers (particularly of the gastrointestinal tract), both as primary prevention and adjuvant therapy. The aim of this review is to present the mechanistic rationale underlying these trends, discuss the design and findings of trials testing novel treatments or new therapeutic applications of aspirin, and report on the ISTH Congress results on this topic. Read More

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A Case of Stage II Ascending Colon Cancer with Cardiac Tamponade Due to Pericardial Metastasis.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 7;22:e932239. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Higashihiroshima Medical Center, Hiroshima, Japan.

BACKGROUND Malignant tumors, such as lung and breast cancers, can metastasize to the heart. However, cardiac metastasis rarely occurs in colorectal cancer. Cardiac metastasis cases are typically asymptomatic and rarely cause cardiac tamponade. Read More

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Optimal Management of Anticoagulation Therapy in Asian Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ J 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital.

Stroke prevention is the cornerstone of management of atrial fibrillation (AF), and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are commonly prescribed. Because routine monitoring of anticoagulant effects of NOACs is not necessary, appropriate dosing following the criteria of each NOACs defined in pivotal randomized trials is important. Real-world data demonstrate that underdosing NOACs is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke without a lower risk of major bleeding. Read More

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A new modified Gant-Miwa-Thiersch combined with submucosal and perirectal sclerosant injection procedure for full-thickness rectal prolapse in elderly women: clinical analysis of 34 cases.

BMC Surg 2021 Jun 5;21(1):284. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Shanxi Bethune Hospital, Taiyuan, 030012, People's Republic of China.

Background: Full-thickness rectal prolapse (FTRP) frequently occurs in elderly women, and more than 100 surgical procedures have been proposed to restore FTRP. The Gant-Miwa-Thiersch (GMT) procedure is the most used treatment in China. However, the recurrence rate of FTRP post-GMT, which is as high as 23. Read More

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MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE APPENDIX: CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CASES FROM THE PRACTICE.

Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(5):1277-1280

STATE ORGANIZATION «GRYGORIEV INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL RADIOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES OF UKRAINE», KHARKIV, UKRAINE.

The authors have analyzed medical histories of two patients, treated in health care facilities of Kharkiv region from 2008 to 2020. These patients underwent urgent appendectomy, given the existing clinic of acute appendicitis. Morphological examination of the surgical material allowed us to diagnose adenocarcinoma in one case, and neuroendocrine tumor in combination with endometriosis in the other case. Read More

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Caecal desmoid tumour: a rare tumour at uncommon location and review of literature.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 4;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

General Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

A 49-year-old woman presented to surgery outpatient clinic with the awareness of a right lower abdomen asymptomatic lump for one week. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen demonstrated a 10×11×15 cm heterogeneous lesion anterior to the ileocecal junction with the possibility of leiomyosarcoma. The patient was prepared for laparotomy and intraoperative there was a large tumour arising from the medial wall of cecum. Read More

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Healing of rectal advancement flaps for anal fistulas in patients with and without Crohn's disease: a retrospective cohort analysis.

BMC Surg 2021 Jun 5;21(1):283. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of General-, Visceral- and Vascular Surgery, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Surgical closure of anal fistulas with rectal advancement flaps is an established standard method, but it has a high degree of healing failure in some cases. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for anal fistula healing failure after advancement flap placement between patients with cryptoglandular fistulas and patients with Crohn's disease (CD).

Methods: From January 2010 to October 2020, 155 rectal advancement flaps (CD patients = 55, non-CD patients = 100) were performed. Read More

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Early prediction of anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic rectal surgery using creactive protein.

Authors:
Dongai Jin Li Chen

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26196

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Abstract: At present, anterior resection of the rectum or transabdominal rectal resection is the most common surgical technique for rectal cancer. Laparoscopic techniques are popular, and the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic rectal surgery have been confirmed. However, postoperative anastomotic leakage is a common, severe complication that leads to high mortality. Read More

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[Effect of electroacupuncture on expression of α-syn in colon and substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease mice].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 May;46(5):362-7

College of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang 712046, Shaanxi Province, China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine, Xianyang 712046, Shaanxi Province; Key Laboratory of Neurobiology (Acupuncture), Xianyang 712046, Shaanxi Province.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture(EA) intervention on the behavior, colon and midbrain substantia nigra α-synuclein(α-syn) expression in Parkinson's disease (PD) mice, so as to explore the mechanism of early EA on prevention of PD.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into blank, model and EA groups, with 8 mice in each group. The PD mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection of rotenone. Read More

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Assessment of risk factors associated with prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in poultry of central plain zone of Punjab, India.

Vet World 2021 Apr 22;14(4):972-977. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Animal Diseases Research Centre, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background And Aim: Parasitic diseases are an important hurdle to the economy for the developing poultry industry due to their deleterious effects resulting into malnutrition, diminished feed conversion ratio, weight loss, decreased egg production, and mortality in young birds. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites in poultry farms of central plain zone of Punjab.

Materials And Methods: A total of 490 pooled droppings and 351 intact intestines of poultry from slaughterhouses from seven districts of central plain zone of Punjab state, India, were collected and analyzed from September 2016 to May 2018 by qualitative and quantitative techniques. Read More

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Pseudomyxoma retroperitonei masquerading as a psoas abscess.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 2;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Radiology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

A 52-year-old woman was referred to our department with multiple discharging sinuses and swelling in the right flank and iliac region for the past year. Ultrasound revealed a large collection in the right psoas muscle with the sinus tract reaching up to the skin in the right iliac region. Despite repeated attempts at drainage, the collection continued to increase in size. Read More

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Transcriptomic analysis of caecal tissue in inbred chicken lines that exhibit heritable differences in resistance to Campylobacter jejuni.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 4;22(1):411. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK.

Background: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and the handling or consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a key source of infection. Selective breeding of poultry that exhibit elevated resistance to Campylobacter is an attractive control strategy. Here we studied the global transcriptional response of inbred chicken lines that differ in resistance to C. Read More

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Preoperative C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio is a Prognostic Indicator for Survival in Surgically Treated Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 24;13:4155-4167. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology; Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Systemic inflammation and malnutrition may promote tumor progression. C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CAR) is linked to the poor long-term survival of several malignant tumors.

Purpose: To explore the predictive value of CAR in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Read More

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Diagnostic utility of upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy for the diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease in children following stem cell transplantation: A 12-year experience.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Jun 2:e14046. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Starship Child Health, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Endoscopically obtained mucosal biopsies are the gold standard for diagnosing acute graft-versus-host disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GI-GVHD). There is no consensus on the ideal endoscopic approach in children. We aimed to ascertain which gastrointestinal sites and endoscopic approaches were most helpful for diagnosing acute GVHD and whether clinical symptoms can guide the endoscopic approach. Read More

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Small intestine duplication cyst with recurrent hematochezia: a case report and literature review.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 1;21(1):246. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Small intestine duplication cysts (SIDCs) are rare congenital anatomical abnormalities of the digestive tract and a rare cause of hematochezia.

Case Presentation: We describe an adult female presented with recurrent hematochezia. The routine gastric endoscope and colonic endoscope showed no positive findings. Read More

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Impact of Environmental and Pharmacologic Changes on the Upper Gastrointestinal Microbiome.

Biomedicines 2021 May 29;9(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

Diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract have become more prevalent over time. Mechanisms of disease formation are still only partially understood. Recent literature has shown that the surrounding microbiome affects the propensity for disease formation in various parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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Survey of Pathogen-Lowering and Immuno-Modulatory Effects Upon Treatment of -Infected Secondary Abiotic IL-10 Mice with the Probiotic Formulation Aviguard.

Microorganisms 2021 May 23;9(6). Epub 2021 May 23.

Gastrointestinal Microbiology Research Group, Institute of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, 12203 Berlin, Germany.

The prevalence of infections with the zoonotic enteritis pathogen is increasing. Probiotic formulations constitute promising antibiotic-independent approaches to reduce intestinal pathogen loads and modulate pathogen-induced immune responses in the infected human host, resulting in acute campylobacteriosis and post-infectious sequelae. Here, we address potential antipathogenic and immuno-modulatory effects of the commercial product Aviguard during experimental campylobacteriosis. Read More

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