124 results match your criteria Low Energy Availability in the Female Athlete


Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and impaired bone health: A survey of elite para athletes.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a syndrome describing three interrelated conditions: low energy availability (LEA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD). Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) expands the Triad to include multiple physiologic consequences of LEA in both sexes. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of factors associated with the Triad/RED-S in an elite para athlete population. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sms.13385
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13385DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Energy Availability in Athletics: Health, Performance and Physique.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2019 Jan 11:1-35. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

5 Department of Family Medicine. McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18-58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump-events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0201DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Bone stress injuries in male distance runners: higher modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment scores predict increased rates of injury.

Br J Sports Med 2019 Feb 22;53(4):237-242. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Objectives: Bone stress injuries (BSI) are common in runners of both sexes. The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment tool would predict BSI in male distance runners.

Methods: 156 male runners at two collegiate programmes were studied using mixed retrospective and prospective design for a total of 7 years. Read More

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http://bjsm.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099861
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099861DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Elevated Creatine Kinase and Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase and Decreased Osteocalcin and Uncarboxylated Osteocalcin are Associated with Bone Stress Injuries in Young Female Athletes.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 21;8(1):18019. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Stress fractures are a limitation for athletes not only in sports performance but in activities of daily living. Thus, preventing them is crucial. In female athletes, a triad of symptoms including low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and osteoporosis are considered risk factors for stress injuries, but biomarkers predictive of these outcomes are not available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36982-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303336PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Self-Reported Periodization of Nutrition in Elite Female and Male Runners and Race Walkers.

Front Physiol 2018 3;9:1732. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Athletes should achieve event-specific physiological requirements through careful periodization of training, underpinned by individualized and targeted nutrition strategies. However, evidence of whether, and how, elite endurance athletes periodize nutrition is scarce. Accordingly, elite international female ( = 67) and male ( = 37) middle/long-distance athletes (IAAF score: 1129 ± 54, corresponds to 13:22. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2018.01732
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286987PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Physiologic, Metabolic and Nutritional Attributes of Collegiate Synchronized Swimmers.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2018 Nov 14:1-26. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

1 Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

Purpose:: The purpose of this study was to identify physiological characteristics and dietary habits of collegiate synchronized swimmers.

Methods:: Twenty-one female participants (mean ± SD, age: 20.4 ± 1. Read More

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijspp.2018-05
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0547DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Female Athlete Triad.

Prim Care 2018 Dec 4;45(4):615-624. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

KentuckyOne Health, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA; Department of Family and Geriatric Medicine, Centers for Primary Care, University of Louisville, 215 Central Avenue, Suite 205, Louisville, KY 40208, USA.

The female athlete triad is a condition seen in physically active female athletes, consisting of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. The condition should be viewed as a metabolic injury. It can have an impact on female athletes at any age or level. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00954543183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2018.07.004DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Structural and functional body components in athletic health and performance phenotypes.

Authors:
Analiza M Silva

Eur J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb 4;73(2):215-224. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculdade Motricidade Humana, Universidade Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, 1499-002, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal.

Advances in body composition assessment enable a detailed body composition analyses and the respective organization at different levels. Sports-related professionals are interested in understanding how and which body components are relevant for improving performance, prevent injury risk, and monitor athletic health. The aim of this review is to propose an integrative model that links performance, injury risk, and athletic health with body components, and to report their cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-018-0321-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0321-9DOI Listing
February 2019
32 Reads

Amenorrhoea in adolescent female athletes.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2018 Sep 6;2(9):677-688. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Massachussets General Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Female athletes often experience amenorrhoea at various times during training, but this should not be considered normal. Low energy availability is a common cause of menstrual dysfunction, and amenorrhoea can serve as a warning sign of some of the health and performance consequences associated with inadequate energy, including poor bone accrual and low bone mineral density. Adolescence is an important time for bone accrual, growth, and development, making delayed menarche and secondary amenorrhoea particularly concerning in young athletes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23524642183014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30145-7DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

Energy and Nutrient Issues in Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury: Are They at Risk for Low Energy Availability?

Nutrients 2018 Aug 13;10(8). Epub 2018 Aug 13.

United States Olympic Committee, Chula Vista, CA 91915, USA.

Low energy availability (LEA) and nutrient intake have been well studied in able-bodied athletes, but there is a lack of research examining these issues amongst athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, there have been no studies that have examined energy availability (EA) amongst this population. Furthermore, athletes with SCI may experience unique challenges around nutrition that may increase their risk of LEA. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/8/1078
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10081078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116042PMC
August 2018
18 Reads

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport in Male Athletes: A Commentary on Its Presentation Among Selected Groups of Male Athletes.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 24;28(4):364-374. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

5 Harvard Medical School.

Low energy availability (LEA) is a key element of the Female Athlete Triad. Causes of LEA include failure to match high exercise energy expenditure (unintentional) or pathological behaviors of disordered eating (compulsive) and overzealous weight control programs (misguided but intentional). Recognition of such scenarios in male athletes contributed to the pronouncement of the more inclusive Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0182DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Pitfalls of Conducting and Interpreting Estimates of Energy Availability in Free-Living Athletes.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 20;28(4):350-363. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

3 University of Copenhagen.

The human body requires energy for numerous functions including, growth, thermogenesis, reproduction, cellular maintenance, and movement. In sports nutrition, energy availability (EA) is defined as the energy available to support these basic physiological functions and good health once the energy cost of exercise is deducted from energy intake (EI), relative to an athlete's fat-free mass (FFM). Low EA provides a unifying theory to link numerous disorders seen in both female and male athletes, described by the syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, and related to restricted energy intake, excessive exercise or a combination of both. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142DOI Listing
July 2018
36 Reads

Endocrine Effects of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 14;28(4):335-349. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

4 Harvard Medical School.

The term Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport was introduced by the International Olympic Committee in 2014. It refers to the potential health and performance consequences of inadequate energy for sport, emphasizing that there are consequences of low energy availability (EA; typically defined as <30 kcal·kg fat-free mass·day) beyond the important and well-established female athlete triad, and that low EA affects populations other than women. As the prevalence and consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport become more apparent, it is important to understand the current knowledge of the hormonal changes that occur with decreased EA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0127DOI Listing
July 2018
36 Reads

Genetic variation in Wnt/β-catenin and ER signalling pathways in female and male elite dancers and its associations with low bone mineral density: a cross-section and longitudinal study.

Osteoporos Int 2018 Oct 5;29(10):2261-2274. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

The Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Gorway Rd, Walsall, WS1 3BD, UK.

The association of genetic polymorphisms with low bone mineral density in elite athletes have not been considered previously. The present study found that bone mass phenotypes in elite and pre-elite dancers are related to genetic variants at the Wnt/β-catenin and ER pathways.

Introduction: Some athletes (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-018-4610-xDOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Cortical and trabecular bone analysis of professional dancers using 3D-DXA: a case-control study.

J Sports Sci 2018 Jun 18:1-8. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

b The Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing , University of Wolverhampton , Wolverhampton , United Kingdom.

Given the lack of relevant data, the aim of this study was to examine femur cortical and trabecular bone in female and male professional ballet dancers. 40 professional ballet dancers and 40 sex- and age-matched non-exercising controls volunteered. Femoral bone density was scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1483178DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Energy Expenditure, Availability, and Dietary Intake Assessment in Competitive Female Dragon Boat Athletes.

Sports (Basel) 2017 Jun 21;5(2). Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Human Nutrition Research Centre, Newcastle University, 172A Ang Mo Kio Ave 8, Singapore 567739, Singapore.

Dragon boat racing requires high physical activity levels during competition and training. The female athletic triad refers to a number of negative health consequences (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports5020045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968976PMC
June 2017
4 Reads

Risk factors for precompetitive sleep behavior in elite female athletes.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Medical Faculty of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: Sleep is of major importance for the athletes' short and long-term health, performance and recovery; however, published studies on athletes' sleep and even fewer before competition are scarce. This study evaluated the risk factors of sleep in young female gymnasts before an international competition.

Method: Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts (M=18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08498-0DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Low energy availability surrogates correlate with health and performance consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport.

Br J Sports Med 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Female Athlete Program, Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Low energy availability (EA) is suspected to be the underlying cause of both the Female Athlete Triad and the more recently defined syndrome, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defined RED-S as a syndrome of health and performance impairments resulting from an energy deficit. While the importance of adequate EA is generally accepted, few studies have attempted to understand whether low EA is associated with the health and performance consequences posited by the IOC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098958DOI Listing
June 2018
24 Reads

Prevalence of Indicators of Low Energy Availability in Elite Female Sprinters.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Sep 17;28(5):490-496. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

2 University of Guelph.

Low energy availability (LEA), and subsequent relative energy deficiency in sport, has been observed in endurance, aesthetic, and team sport athletes, with limited data on prevalence in athletes in short-burst activities such as sprinting. We examined prevalence of signs and symptoms of LEA in elite female sprinters at the start of the training season (PRE), and at the end of a 5-month indoor training period (POST). Four of 13 female sprinters (31%) presented at PRE testing with at least one primary (amenorrhea, low bone mineral density, low follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or estradiol, resting metabolic rate ≤29 kcal/kg fat-free mass, Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire score ≥8) and one secondary indicator of LEA (fasting blood glucose <4 mmol/L, free triiodothyronine <3. Read More

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0397DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

A Review of Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport in Artistic (Synchronized) Swimming.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 3;28(4):375-384. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

2 McMaster University and FINA Sports Medicine Committee.

The syndrome of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a clinical entity characterized by low energy availability, which can negatively affect the health and performance of both male and female athletes. The underlying mechanism of RED-S is an inadequacy of dietary energy to support optimal health and performance. This syndrome refers to impaired physiological function, including metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, and cardiovascular health, with psychological consequences that can either precede (through restrictive dietary habits) or result from RED-S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0329DOI Listing
July 2018
20 Reads

Bone and Inflammatory Responses to Training in Female Rowers over an Olympic Year.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Sep;50(9):1810-1817

Department of Kinesiology, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, CANADA.

Introduction/purpose: To examine whether fluctuations in training load during an Olympic year lead to changes in bone mineral densities and factors that regulate bone (sclerostin, osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand), energy metabolism (insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin), and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6) in elite heavyweight female rowers.

Methods: Blood samples were drawn from 15 female heavyweight rowers (27.0 ± 0. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005768-201809000-0001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001640DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

The female athlete triad: It takes a team.

Cleve Clin J Med 2018 Apr;85(4):313-320

Division of Women's Health, Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.

The female athlete triad is a syndrome consisting of low energy availability (ie, burning more calories than one is taking in), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density, although all 3 components need not be present. Many providers, physical therapists, and coaches are unaware of it and thus do not screen for it. Early intervention using a team approach is essential in patients with any component of the female athlete triad to prevent long-term adverse health effects. Read More

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https://www.mdedge.com/ccjm/article/162141/womens-health/fem
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.85a.16137DOI Listing
April 2018
6 Reads

Low Energy Availability, Plasma Lipids, and Hormonal Profiles of Recreational Athletes.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Oct;32(10):2816-2824

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Black, K, Slater, J, Brown, RC, and Cooke, R. Low energy availability, plasma lipids, and hormonal profiles of recreational athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2816-2824, 2018-It has been postulated that low energy availability (LEA) impacts bone health, hormonal concentrations, and cardiovascular function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002540DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Management of the female athlete triad.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Jun 2;44(6):1007-1014. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The female athlete triad (FAT) is defined by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) as low energy availability (low EA), functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. In low EA, lutein dysfunction first develops, followed by anovulation and, subsequently, oligomenorrhea, leading to amenorrhea. Moreover, low estradiol concentrations due to amenorrhea decrease bone mineral density (BMD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.13614DOI Listing
June 2018
16 Reads

Sleep duration, body composition, dietary profile and eating behaviours among children and adolescents: a comparison between Portuguese acrobatic gymnasts.

Eur J Pediatr 2018 Jun 3;177(6):815-825. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

CENC, Sleep Medicine Center, Lisbon, Portugal.

Sleep, body composition and dietary intake are crucial for athletes' health and performance but have never been investigated in acrobatic gymnasts. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate sleep, body composition, dietary intake and eating behaviours of acrobatic gymnasts. Using a cross-sectional study, 82 Portuguese acrobatic gymnasts (12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-018-3124-zDOI Listing
June 2018
7 Reads

Impact of Energy Availability, Health, and Sex on Hemoglobin-Mass Responses Following Live-High-Train-High Altitude Training in Elite Female and Male Distance Athletes.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2018 Sep 13;13(8):1090-1096. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Purpose: The authors investigated the effects of sex, energy availability (EA), and health status on the change in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) in elite endurance athletes over ∼3-4 wk of live-high-train-high altitude training in Flagstaff, AZ (2135 m; n = 27 women; n = 21 men; 27% 2016 Olympians).

Methods: Precamp and postcamp Hbmass (optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method) and iron status were measured, EA was estimated via food and training logs, and a Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAFQ) and a general injury/illness questionnaire were completed. Hypoxic exposure (h) was calculated with low (<500 h), moderate (500-600 h), and high (>600 h) groupings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0547DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

Low Energy Availability Is Difficult to Assess but Outcomes Have Large Impact on Bone Injury Rates in Elite Distance Athletes.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 12;28(4):403-411. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

1 Australian Catholic University.

We aimed to (a) report energy availability (EA), metabolic/reproductive function, bone mineral density, and injury/illness rates in national/world-class female and male distance athletes and (b) investigate the robustness of various diagnostic criteria from the Female Athlete Triad (Triad), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire, and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) tools to identify risks associated with low EA. Athletes were distinguished according to benchmarks of reproductive function (amenorrheic [n = 13] vs. eumenorrheic [n = 22], low [lowest quartile of reference range; n = 10] versus normal testosterone [n = 14]), and EA calculated from 7-day food and training diaries (< or >30 kcal·kg fat-free mass·day). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0313DOI Listing
July 2018
18 Reads

Within-day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018 Mar 5;28(3):1139-1146. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n = 10) and MD (n = 15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n = 11), MD not related to low EA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) had been excluded. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sms.13030
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13030DOI Listing
March 2018
7 Reads

No Difference in Young Adult Athletes' Resting Energy Expenditure When Measured Under Inpatient or Outpatient Conditions.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Sep 25;28(5):464-467. Epub 2018 May 25.

1 Australian Institute of Sport and Australian Catholic University.

Low energy availability can place athletes at increased risk of injury and illness and can be detected by a lower metabolic rate. The lowest metabolic rate is captured at the bedside, after an overnight fast and termed inpatient resting energy expenditure (REE). Measurements done in a laboratory with a shorter overnight fast are termed outpatient REE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0315DOI Listing
September 2018
10 Reads

Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games.

Br J Sports Med 2018 Jan 22;52(1):47-53. Epub 2017 Oct 22.

Department of Physiotherapy, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australia.

Objective: Establish the prevalence of illness symptoms, poor sleep quality, poor mental health symptoms, low energy availability and stress-recovery state in an Olympic cohort late in the 3 months prior to the Summer Olympic Games.

Methods: Olympic athletes (n=317) from 11 sports were invited to complete questionnaires administered 3 months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These questionnaires included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Dispositional Resilience Scale, Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098208DOI Listing
January 2018
21 Reads

Low Energy Availability in Athletes: A Review of Prevalence, Dietary Patterns, Physiological Health, and Sports Performance.

Sports Med 2018 01;48(1):73-96

School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

In a high-performance sports environment, athletes can present with low energy availability (LEA) for a variety of reasons, ranging from not consuming enough food for their specific energy requirements to disordered eating behaviors. Both male and female high-performance athletes are at risk of LEA. Longstanding LEA can cause unfavorable physiological and psychological outcomes which have the potential to impair an athlete's health and sports performance. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40279-017-0790-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0790-3DOI Listing
January 2018
23 Reads

Female Athlete Triad: Future Directions for Energy Availability and Eating Disorder Research and Practice.

Clin Sports Med 2017 Oct 10;36(4):671-686. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, PO Box 800729, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

Despite more than 3 decades of research on the Female Athlete Triad, research gaps remain. Although low energy availability (EA) is the key etiologic factor in the Triad and the pathways to low EA are varied, its effects can be modified by several factors. Accurate screening, diagnosis, and treatment of disordered eating are a challenge; however, recent techniques combined with novel educational and behavior interventions prove promising. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02785919173005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2017.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5657497PMC
October 2017
16 Reads

Effects of reduced energy availability on bone metabolism in women and men.

Bone 2017 Dec 25;105:191-199. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Musculoskeletal Physiology Research Group, Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The short-term effects of low energy availability (EA) on bone metabolism in physically active women and men are currently unknown.

Purpose: We evaluated the effects of low EA on bone turnover markers (BTMs) in a cohort of women and a cohort of men, and compared effects between sexes.

Methods: These studies were performed using a randomised, counterbalanced, crossover design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2017.08.019DOI Listing
December 2017
8 Reads

Nutrition Status of Young Elite Female German Football Players.

Pediatr Exerc Sci 2018 02 20;30(1):157-167. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

1 German Sport University Cologne.

Purpose: To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters.

Methods: A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/pes.2017-0072DOI Listing
February 2018
24 Reads

Female athlete triad.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct;29(5):301-305

Departments Ob/Gyn and Pediatrics, Norton Children's Hospital Louisville, Clinical Faculty University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) may be the first provider to have the opportunity to recognize and diagnose female athlete triad. This review will help the ob/gyn to understand the female athlete triad and what is new on this topic, how to screen and diagnose the condition and the ob/gyn's role in treatment.

Recent Findings: Female athlete triad, also known as relative energy deficiency in sports, involves an interrelationship among energy availability, menstrual function and low bone density. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GCO.0000000000000396DOI Listing
October 2017
9 Reads

Reduced energy availability: implications for bone health in physically active populations.

Eur J Nutr 2018 Apr 18;57(3):847-859. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Musculoskeletal Physiology Research Group, Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK.

Purpose: The present review critically evaluates existing literature on the effects of short- and long-term low energy availability (EA) on bone metabolism and health in physically active individuals.

Methods: We reviewed the literature on the short-term effects of low EA on markers of bone metabolism and the long-term effects of low EA on outcomes relating to bone health (bone mass, microarchitecture and strength, bone metabolic markers and stress fracture injury risk) in physically active individuals.

Results: Available evidence indicates that short-term low EA may increase markers of bone resorption and decrease markers of bone formation in physically active women. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00394-017-1498-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1498-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861178PMC
April 2018
16 Reads

Committee Opinion No.702: Female Athlete Triad.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2017 06;129(6):e160-e167

The female athlete triad is a medical condition observed in physically active females involving three components: 1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, 2) menstrual dysfunction, and 3) low bone density. An individual does not need to show clinical manifestations of all three components of the female athlete triad simultaneously to be affected by the condition. Consequences of these clinical conditions may not be completely reversible, so prevention, early diagnosis, and intervention are critical. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002113DOI Listing
June 2017
23 Reads

Committee Opinion No. 702 Summary: Female Athlete Triad.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2017 06;129(6):1151-1152

The female athlete triad is a medical condition observed in physically active females involving three components: 1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, 2) menstrual dysfunction, and 3) low bone density. An individual does not need to show clinical manifestations of all three components of the female athlete triad simultaneously to be affected by the condition. Consequences of these clinical conditions may not be completely reversible, so prevention, early diagnosis, and intervention are critical. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002109DOI Listing
June 2017
22 Reads

Negative Consequences of Low Energy Availability in Natural Male Bodybuilding: A Review.

Authors:
Petter Fagerberg

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 3;28(4):385-402. Epub 2018 May 3.

1 Karolinska Institutet.

Energy availability (EA) is a scientific concept describing how much energy is available for basic metabolic functions such as reproduction, immunity, and skeletal homeostasis. Carefully controlled studies on women have shown pathological effects of EA < 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM), and this state has been labeled low EA (LEA). Bodybuilding is a sport in which athletes compete to show muscular definition, symmetry, and low body fat (BF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0332DOI Listing
July 2018
30 Reads

[Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Stress fracture in female athletes.]

Clin Calcium 2017;27(5):699-706

Clinical Center for Sports Medicine and Sports Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University/Hyperbaric Medical Center, Japan.

Stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes, especially in long-distance runner, jumping sports and gymnastics in female athletes. The pathology of stress fracture mainly includes repeated biomechanical loading, which leads to bone micro-damage and failure of bone structure. Female athlete triad(FAT), which includes low energy availability with or without an eating disorder, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, is a serious healthcare concern in female athletes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/CliCa1705699706DOI Listing
October 2017
9 Reads

Treatment strategies for the female athlete triad in the adolescent athlete: current perspectives.

Open Access J Sports Med 2017 4;8:85-95. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad), which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD). Read More

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https://www.dovepress.com/treatment-strategies-for-the-femal
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S100026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388220PMC
April 2017
11 Reads

A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games.

J Sci Med Sport 2017 Aug 21;20(8):745-750. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Australian Institute of Sport, Australia; University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Australia.

Objectives: Illness can disrupt training and competition performance of athletes. Few studies have quantified the relative contribution of the known medical, behavioural and lifestyle risk factors.

Design: Cross-sectional. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.010DOI Listing
August 2017
21 Reads

Low Energy Availability, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Low Bone Mineral Density in Individuals with a Disability: Implications for the Para Athlete Population.

Sports Med 2017 Sep;47(9):1697-1708

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and low bone mineral density are three interrelated conditions described in athletic women. Although described as the female athlete triad (Triad), males experience similar health concerns. The literature suggests that individuals with a disability may experience altered physiology related to these three conditions when compared with the able-bodied population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0696-0DOI Listing
September 2017
14 Reads

[The study for effect of running on bone.]

Authors:
Naomi Omi

Clin Calcium 2017;27(1):55-65

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Sports & Exercise Nutrition, University of Tsukuba, Japan.

Running-exercise is a weight-bearing-exercise. Power of an effect for running-exercise might be different by exercise intensity, running speed, and duration time. In general, running-exercise could be effective on bone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/CliCa17015565DOI Listing
March 2017
7 Reads

Female Recreational Exercisers at Risk for Low Energy Availability.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2016 Oct 24;26(5):421-427. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Low energy availability (LEA) describes the disruption in normal physiological function existent when insufficient energy intake is combined with exercise. To conserve energy a range of endocrine adaptations occur, impairing health and athletic performance. The prevalence of LEA has not been fully established especially among recreational exercisers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2015-0245DOI Listing
October 2016
12 Reads

Vegetarian, Gluten-Free, and Energy Restricted Diets in Female Athletes.

Sports (Basel) 2016 Oct 21;4(4). Epub 2016 Oct 21.

School of Biological and Population Sciences, Nutrition and Exercise Science, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Female athletes who follow a diet that fails to meet energy and nutrient needs are at risk for musculoskeletal injuries, menstrual disturbances, and poor sports performance. Common nutritional concerns for the female athlete include low energy availability (EA) (i.e. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4663/4/4/50
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports4040050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968895PMC
October 2016
10 Reads

Low Energy Availability in Exercising Women: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions.

Sports Med 2017 Feb;47(2):207-220

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Research on the health of female athletes has developed substantially over the past 50 years. This review aims to provide an overview of this research and identify directions for future work. While early cross-sectional studies focused primarily on menstruation, research has progressed to now encompass hormonal changes, bone health and lipid profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0583-0DOI Listing
February 2017
15 Reads