245 results match your criteria Low Energy Availability in the Female Athlete


A prolonged bout of running increases hepcidin and decreases dietary iron absorption in trained female and male runners.

J Nutr 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Nutrition & Integrative Physiology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

Background: Declines in iron status are frequently reported in those who regularly engage in strenuous physical activity. A possible reason for the declines in iron status with physical activity is increases in the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which functions to inhibit dietary iron absorption and can be induced by the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6).

Objective: The current study aimed to determine the impact of a prolonged bout of running on hepcidin and dietary iron absorption in trained female and male runners. Read More

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An Assessment of the Early Symptoms of Energy Deficiency as a Female Athlete Triad Risk among the Polish National Kayaking Team Using LEAF-Q.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 05 13;19(10). Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Skłodowskiej-Curie Street 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Background: Kayaking is a high intensity sport that demands high levels of aerobic and anaerobic capacity as well as a great deal of strength and endurance. The aim of this study was an assessment of the frequency of occurrence of early low energy availability symptoms using the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire for women belonging to the Polish national kayaking team. Additionally, quantitative measurements of body composition and levels of calcium were performed. Read More

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Empowered, Yet Vulnerable: Motives for Sport Participation, Health Correlates, and Experience of Sexual Harassment in Female Combat-Sport Athletes.

Sports (Basel) 2022 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, 0863 Oslo, Norway.

Background: To explore motives for combat sport participation, weight regulation practices, symptoms of low energy availability (LEA), disordered eating (DE) or eating disorders (ED), and any experiences with sexual harassment (SH) among female combat-sport athletes.

Methods: In total, 29 athletes were recruited by social media and in clubs. Participants responded to a questionnaire on health behavior and mental health and completed diet registration and a DXA-scan. Read More

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Case Study: Improving Energy Status in a Wheelchair Athlete With Suppressed Resting Energy Expenditure.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2022 May 23:1-4. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich,Germany.

Purpose: Wheelchair athletes experience a reduction in fat-free mass due to the underlying condition and/or muscle disuse. This leads to a lower resting energy expenditure (REE), as well as a lower energy expenditure during exercise or daily activities. Traditional markers of low energy availability (LEA), including amenorrhea and low bone mineral density, are often inconclusive in wheelchair athletes. Read More

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Risk of Low Energy Availability, Disordered Eating, Exercise Addiction, and Food Intolerances in Female Endurance Athletes.

Front Sports Act Living 2022 3;4:869594. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a complex syndrome describing health and performance consequences of low energy availability (LEA) and is common among female endurance athletes. Various underlying causes of LEA have been reported, including disordered eating behavior (DE), but studies investigating the association with exercise addiction and food intolerances are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between DE, exercise addiction and food intolerances in athletes at risk of LEA compared to those with low risk. Read More

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Investigating the prevalence of low energy availability, disordered eating and eating disorders in competitive and recreational female endurance runners.

Eur J Sport Sci 2022 May 18:1-24. Epub 2022 May 18.

London Sports Institute, Middlesex University, London, NW4 4BT, United Kingdom.

Eating disorders (ED), disordered eating (DE) and low energy availability (LEA) can be detrimental to health and performance. Previous studies have independently investigated prevalence of ED, DE or LEA, however limited studies have combined methods identifying risk within female runners. The aim of this study was to identify prevalence of ED, DE and LEA in United Kingdom-based female runners and associations between age, competition level and running distance. Read More

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Screening for Low Energy Availability in Male Athletes: Attempted Validation of LEAM-Q.

Nutrients 2022 Apr 29;14(9). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Linnaeus University, 351 95 Vaxjo, Sweden.

A questionnaire-based screening tool for male athletes at risk of low energy availability (LEA) could facilitate both research and clinical practice. The present options rely on proxies for LEA such screening tools for disordered eating, exercise dependence, or those validated in female athlete populations. in which the female-specific sections are excluded. Read More

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The Influence of Low Energy Availability on Bone Mineral Density and Trabecular Bone Microarchitecture of Pubescent Female Athletes: A Preliminary Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 05 4;19(9). Epub 2022 May 4.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.

The influence of low energy availability (LEA) on bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone microarchitecture in pubescent female athletes is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of LEA on BMD and trabecular bone microarchitecture in 21 pubescent female athletes (age, 12-15 years; 11 track and field athletes, 10 gymnasts). We used two indices to assess LEA: energy availability and the percent of ideal body weight. Read More

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Fat-Free Mass Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis as an Alternative to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Calculating Energy Availability in Female Adolescent Athletes.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2022 May 6:1-9. Epub 2022 May 6.

Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro,Brazil.

Energy availability (EA) is calculated by subtracting exercise energy expenditure from energy intake, adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) obtained using accurate methods, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Unlike DXA, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is low in cost, simple and easy to carry out. This study aimed to test the concordance between the calculation of EA using FFM values from four BIA predictive equations and FFM obtained using DXA in female adolescent athletes (n = 94), recruited via social media. Read More

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Restrictive Eating and Prior Low-Energy Fractures Are Associated With History of Multiple Bone Stress Injuries.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2022 May 6:1-9. Epub 2022 May 6.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA,USA.

Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are common among athletes and have high rates of recurrence. However, risk factors for multiple or recurrent BSIs remain understudied. Thus, we aimed to explore whether energy availability, menstrual function, measures of bone health, and a modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) tool are associated with a history of multiple BSIs. Read More

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Female Athlete Triad and Male Athlete Triad Syndrome Induced by Low Energy Availability: An Animal Model.

Calcif Tissue Int 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8572, Japan.

Energy availability (EA) is defined the difference in energy intake and exercise energy expenditure. Reduction of EA (i.e. Read More

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Low energy availability surrogates associated with lower bone mineral density and bone stress injury site.

PM R 2022 05 16;14(5):587-596. Epub 2022 May 16.

Female Athlete Program, Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Exercise is an osteogenic stimulus that should increase bone mineral density (BMD) and protect against injury. However, some female athletes have lower BMD and increased bone stress injury (BSI) risk. Impaired bone health seen in athletes may be explained by low energy availability as described by concepts of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) and Female Athlete Triad (Triad). Read More

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Females with Eating Disorders and Urinary Incontinence: A Psychoanalytic Perspective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 04 17;19(8). Epub 2022 Apr 17.

Institute of Mental Health, 10 Buangkok View, Buangkok Green, Medical Park, Singapore 539747, Singapore.

Eating disorders (EDs) are complicated mental illnesses with significant treatment resistance and dropout rates. For successful treatment, it is important for clinicians to better understand the patients' narrative and their lived experiences. A thorough psychodynamic understanding of patients' childhood attachment and primary relationships, personality traits and mental processes is, therefore, crucial for managing patients with ED. Read More

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Knowledge of the Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport Among Female Cross-Country Athletes and Support Staff.

J Athl Train 2022 Apr;57(4):385-392

Syracuse University, NY.

Context: Female endurance athletes exhibit an increased risk of the female athlete triad (Triad) and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). The triad and RED-S are conditions that involve the health and performance consequences of low energy availability. Few authors of studies to date have assessed the knowledge that athletes, coaches, and athletic trainers (ATs) have regarding the Triad or RED-S. Read More

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Competing in Hot Conditions at the Tokyo Olympic Games: Preparation Strategies Used by Australian Race Walkers.

Front Physiol 2022 23;13:836858. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Cairns, QLD, Australia.

Introduction: The Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games was anticipated to expose athletes to the most challenging climatic conditions experienced in the history of the modern Olympic Games. This study documents strategies executed by Australian endurance athletes during the team holding camp and Olympic Games experiences, including (1) baseline physiological data, training data, and heat acclimation/acclimatization practices; (2) pre- and in-race cooling and nutritional strategies, and (3) Olympic Games race performance data.

Methods: Six athletes (three males, three females; age 24 ± 4 years; VO 63. Read More

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Is RED-S in athletes just another face of malnutrition?

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2022 04 8;48:298-307. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

University of Ljubljana, Medical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background & Aims: Relative energy deficiency syndrome in sport (RED-S) can impair the function of several body systems, resulting in short and long-term threats to athletes' health and performance. Research showed that these health and performance problems are often unrecognized, and the treatment is not adequate. The retrospective study presented in this paper aims to determine the prevalence of RED-S-related symptoms in a sample of Slovenian competitive athletes from various sports. Read More

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Vascular Function in Norwegian Female Elite Runners: A Cross-Sectional, Controlled Study.

Sports (Basel) 2022 Mar 2;10(3). Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0318 Oslo, Norway.

In general, aerobic exercise has a positive impact on the vascular system, but the syndrome of relative energy-deficiency in sports (RED-S) makes this impact less clear for the athlete. The present cross-sectional controlled study aimed to investigate the vascular function in female elite long-distance runners, compared to inactive women. Sixteen female elite long-distance runners and seventeen healthy controls were recruited. Read More

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Contributing Factors to Low Energy Availability in Female Athletes: A Narrative Review of Energy Availability, Training Demands, Nutrition Barriers, Body Image, and Disordered Eating.

Nutrients 2022 Feb 25;14(5). Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Patriot Performance Laboratory, Frank Pettrone Center for Sports Performance, Intercollegiate Athletics, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA.

Relative Energy Deficiency in sport is experiencing remarkable popularity of late, particularly among female athletes. This condition is underpinned by low energy availability, which is a byproduct of high energy expenditure, inadequate energy intake, or a combination of the two. Several contributing factors exist that may predispose an athlete to low energy availability, and therefore a holistic and comprehensive assessment may be required to identify the root causes. Read More

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February 2022

The Female Athlete Triad-the impact of running and type of diet on the regularity of the menstrual cycle assessed for recreational runners.

PeerJ 2022 2;10:e12903. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Basic Biomedical Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Background: The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) included three interrelated conditions including disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The American College of Sports Medicine updated the definition of FAT to reflect the interdependence of low energy availability with or without eating disorders. The main aim of the study was to assess the impact of recreational running on potential disturbances in the regularity of women's menstrual cycles. Read More

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Part II: Risk Factors for Stress Fractures in Female Military Recruits.

Mil Med 2022 Feb 27. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA.

Introduction: Stress fractures (SFx) represent a significant proportion of injuries in military recruits internationally. Stress fractures disproportionately affect female recruits, a disparity that has similarly been consistently demonstrated in female athletes. Stress fractures result in medical morbidity, financial burden, and medical discharge from military service. Read More

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February 2022

Nutrition for female athletes: What we know, what we don't know, and why.

Eur J Sport Sci 2022 May 20;22(5):669-671. Epub 2022 Mar 20.

Musculoskeletal Physiology Research Group, Sport Health and Performance Enhancement Research centre, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.

Men are often considered as the default sex for studies in sports nutrition. Indeed, most of the seminal work to date in sports nutrition has been exclusively conducted on male participants. The 2021 Olympic Games had 49% female participation, signalling [almost] parity between sportsmen and sportswomen at the most elite sporting level for the first time. Read More

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Impact of Low Energy Availability on Skeletal Health in Physically Active Adults.

Calcif Tissue Int 2022 05 16;110(5):605-614. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, 10 General Greene Ave, Natick, MA, 01760, USA.

For decades researchers reported that pre-menopausal women who engage in extensive endurance exercise and have menstrual dysfunction can develop low bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis. More recently, low energy availability has been recognized as the initiating factor for low BMD in these women. Furthermore, the relationship between low energy availability and poor skeletal health is not exclusive to women engaging in endurance exercise. Read More

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Examination of the Prevalence of Female Athlete Triad Components among Competitive Cheerleaders.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 01 26;19(3). Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine individual and combined Female Athlete Triad components within collegiate cheerleaders, an at-risk group. Cheerleaders ( = 19; age: 20.3 ± 1. Read More

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January 2022

Prevalence of Female Athlete Triad Risk Factors among Female International Volunteers and College Age-Matched Controls.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 01 22;19(3). Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics & Food Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

This study retrospectively compared the prevalence of factors related to the female athlete triad (low energy availability, secondary amenorrhea (SA), low bone mineral density (BMD)), and post-study BMD of female college students and female international volunteer missionaries (volunteers). Female college students (21-26 years) completed a survey that retrospectively assessed an 18-month study period (volunteer service or first 18 months of college); Diet History Questionnaire III (DHQ III) and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan were optional. One-way ANOVAs and chi-squared distributions assessed group differences. Read More

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January 2022

[Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2021 11 25;165. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Máxima MC, Veldhoven.

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports, RED-S, caused by reduced energy availability can lead to a variety of symptoms. Both male and female athletes on all performance levels and ages are at risk of developing RED-S.Case 1 describes a patient with a low energy availability due to a disturbed energy balance with increased training intensity. Read More

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November 2021

Study protocol: prevalence of low energy availability and its relation to health and performance among female football players.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2022 10;8(1):e001219. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Psychology, Tromsø, Norway.

Enduring low energy availability (LEA) is associated with several potentially serious physiological and mental conditions. LEA has been found highly prevalent among female elite athletes within endurance sports, thus hampering athletes' health and performance. The prevalence and the underpinning risk factors of LEA among female elite football players are less studied. Read More

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January 2022

The Female Athlete Triad - What it is and Why it is Important in Primary Care.

S D Med 2021 Oct;74(10):484-488

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

The female athlete triad (FAT) is a disorder involving greater energy expenditure than energy consumption leading to 1) low energy availability (EA) with or without disordered eating 2) menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea and 3) low bone mineral density. Consequences of FAT include osteoporosis, stress fractures, increased cardiovascular risk, infertility, and negative psychological effects. The key risk factor for FAT is inadequate caloric intake when compared to the amount and intensity of exercise. Read More

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October 2021

Level of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Weight Status among Adolescent Female Gymnasts: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 Dec 4;8(12). Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Department of Public Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of West Attica, 196 Alexandras Avenue, GR-11521 Athens, Greece.

Adolescent female gymnasts are a vulnerable population in terms of their diet, as their nutritional needs are higher due to their growth and high daily training demands. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a well-known dietary pattern that is associated with a greater nutritional adequacy and a lower prevalence of overweight. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the degree of adherence to the MD among adolescent female athletes who participated in all disciplines of gymnastics in Greece, as well as to explore the potential correlations between MD adherence, body weight, and body mass index (BMI). Read More

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December 2021

Examination of Athlete Triad Symptoms Among Endurance-Trained Male Athletes: A Field Study.

Front Nutr 2021 26;8:737777. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Exercise Science, Exercise Science Department, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Studies examining the physiological consequences associated with deficits in energy availability (EA) for male athletes are sparse. To examine male athlete triad components; low energy availability (LEA) with or without an eating disorder risk (ED), reproductive hormone [testosterone (T)], and bone mineral density (BMD) in endurance-trained male athletes during different training periods. A cross-sectional design with 14 participants (age: 26. Read More

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November 2021

Nutritional optimization for female elite football players-topical review.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2022 Apr 5;32 Suppl 1:81-104. Epub 2021 Dec 5.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Section of Molecular Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Women's football is an intermittent sport characterized by frequent intense actions throughout the match. The high number of matches with limited recovery time played across a long competitive season underlines the importance of nutritional strategies to meet these large physical demands. In order to maximize sport performance and maintain good health, energy intake must be optimal. Read More

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