154 results match your criteria Low Energy Availability in the Female Athlete


Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S): elucidation of endocrine changes affecting the health of males and females.

Hormones (Athens) 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Exercise & Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The purpose of this review is to present a different perspective of the relative energy deficiency syndrome, to improve understanding of associated endocrine alterations, and to highlight the need for further research in this area. The term "female athlete triad" was coined over 25 years ago to describe three interrelated components: disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mass. The syndrome's etiology is attributed to energy intake deficiency relative to energy expenditure required for health, function, and daily living. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42000-020-00214-wDOI Listing

Female Athlete Triad Coalition Cumulative Risk Assessment Tool: Proposed alternative scoring strategies.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Pennsylvania State University, 8082, Kinesiology, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States ;

We identified alternative scoring strategies for the Female Athlete Triad Coalition cumulative risk assessment (CRA) tool to be utilized when particular risk factors (bone mineral density (BMD), oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea) cannot be determined, objectively defined dietary restriction, and explored proxy measures of energy deficiency. This cross-sectional investigation of exercising women (n=166) utilized an existing database derived from multiple studies designed to assess health, exercise, and menstrual function. Data from the screening/baseline period of each study included: anthropometrics, DXA, disordered eating questionnaires, descriptive data, and proxy measures of energy deficiency (total triiodothyronine (TT3) and ratio of measured-to-predicted resting metabolic rate (mRMR/pRMR)). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0131DOI Listing

Crisis of confidence averted: Impairment of exercise economy and performance in elite race walkers by ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet is reproducible.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0234027. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australia.

Introduction: We repeated our study of intensified training on a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (CHO), high-fat diet (LCHF) in world-class endurance athletes, with further investigation of a "carryover" effect on performance after restoring CHO availability in comparison to high or periodised CHO diets.

Methods: After Baseline testing (10,000 m IAAF-sanctioned race, aerobic capacity and submaximal walking economy) elite male and female race walkers undertook 25 d supervised training and repeat testing (Adapt) on energy-matched diets: High CHO availability (8.6 g∙kg-1∙d-1 CHO, 2. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234027PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272074PMC

Resting Metabolic Rate in Female Rugby Players: Differences in Measured Versus Predicted Values.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sport Science, Institute for Sport and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

O'Neill, JERG, Walsh, CS, McNulty, SJ, Gantly, HC, Corish, ME, Crognale, D, and Horner, K. Resting metabolic rate in female rugby players: differences in measured versus predicted values. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study investigated (a) the accuracy of resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations in female rugby players and (b) factors that might explain poor prediction accuracy in some individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003634DOI Listing

Nutrition for Female Soccer Players-Recommendations.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Jan 10;56(1). Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), 159c Nowoursynowska Str., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. As its number of players is increasing, the number of female players is also on the rise. However, there are limited data about how the diets of female soccer players should be designed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56010028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022222PMC
January 2020

Low Energy Availability in Athletes 2020: An Updated Narrative Review of Prevalence, Risk, Within-Day Energy Balance, Knowledge, and Impact on Sports Performance.

Nutrients 2020 Mar 20;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Associate Professor Clare Corish, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, V04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland.

Low energy availability (EA) underpins the female and male athlete triad and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). The condition arises when insufficient calories are consumed to support exercise energy expenditure, resulting in compromised physiological processes, such as menstrual irregularities in active females. The health concerns associated with longstanding low EA include menstrual/libido, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular dysfunction and compromised bone health, all of which can contribute to impaired sporting performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146210PMC

Low energy availability in group of Polish female soccer players

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2020 ;71(1):89-96

Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Warsaw, Poland

Background: The most important element of a well-balanced diet is a proper energetic value. Energy deficiencies are often observed in athletes, especially women. Energy deficiencies can lead to low energy availability which can cause serious health problems and affect exercise capacities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32394/rpzh.2020.0106DOI Listing
January 2020

The risk of low energy availability in Chinese elite and recreational female aesthetic sports athletes.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Mar 4;17(1):13. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Exercise Biochemistry, Exercise Science School, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China.

Background: Low energy availability (LEA) is a medical condition observed in athletes, with a higher prevalence in aesthetic sports. For the first time, this study evaluated the relative prevalence of LEA in female elite athletes (ELA) and recreational athletes (REA) in aesthetic sports in China.

Methods: Female athletes from 6 sports (trampolining, rhythmic gymnastics, aerobics, dance sport, cheerleading and dance) were recruited, including ELA (n = 52; age = 20 ± 3) on Chinese national teams and REA (n = 114; Age = 20 ± 2) from Beijing Sport University. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-020-00344-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055083PMC

Case Study: Resumption of Eumenorrhea in Parallel With High Training Load After 4 Years of Menstrual Dysfunction: A 5-Year Follow-Up of an Elite Female Cyclist.

Authors:
José L Areta

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2020 Feb 27:1-6. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Liverpool John Moores University.

The female athlete triad is a condition where low energy availability is typically observed together with menstrual dysfunction and/or low bone mineral density. How this condition affects maximal work capacity in endurance athletes is not clear, and the recovery time course of menses with increased energy availability with concomitant high training load is unknown. This case study of an amenorrheic elite road cyclist reports resumption of normal menstrual function after weight gain during a 5-year period (2014-2019), while engaged in high training load and competition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0284DOI Listing
February 2020

Hypogonadism in Exercising Males: Dysfunction or Adaptive-Regulatory Adjustment?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 31;11:11. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Department of Nutrition, Gilling's School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

For decades researchers have reported men who engaged in intensive exercise training can develop low resting testosterone levels, alterations in their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and display hypogonadism. Recently there is renewed interest in this topic since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission coined the term "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports" (RED-S) as clinical terminology to address both the female-male occurrences of reproductive system health disruptions associated with exercise. This IOC Commission action attempted to move beyond the sex-specific terminology of the "Female Athlete Triad" (Triad) and heighten awareness/realization that some athletic men do have reproductive related physiologic disturbances such as lowered sex hormone levels, HPG regulatory axis alterations, and low bone mineral density similar to Triad women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005256PMC
January 2020

Energy Intake Deficiency Promotes Bone Resorption and Energy Metabolism Suppression in Japanese Male Endurance Runners: A Pilot Study.

Am J Mens Health 2020 Jan-Feb;14(1):1557988320905251

Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

It has been reported that male athletes face increased risk for low energy availability and resulting health consequences similar to female athletes. The present study aimed to reveal the energy status of Japanese male runners and to examine the association between energy deficiency and physiological characteristics such as energy metabolism, bone health, and hormonal status. Six male collegiate long-distance runners during a training season participated in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988320905251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036509PMC
February 2020

Nutritional Risks Among Female Athletes.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2020 May 10;29(5):693-702. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

McCosh Health Center, University Health Services Sports Nutrition Services, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.

Limited research studies have been conducted on nutritional risks among female athletes. Therefore, this literature review focuses on rigorously designed studies that examined nutritional risks among female athletes with further recommendations for athletes, coaches, parents, and health professionals, which would help improve the health of female athletes. This review evaluates the most recent research on nutritional risk among female athletes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2019.8180DOI Listing

Investigation of the Female Athlete Triad in Japanese Elite Wheelchair Basketball Players.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Dec 27;56(1). Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Miho Clinic, Miho 300-0415, Japan.

Para-sports have become increasingly competitive, necessitating greater physical activity; secondary disorder prevention is therefore crucial. Among secondary disorders, the female athlete triad (FAT) is defined as low energy availability (EA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD); although studied in able-bodied athletes, reports on female para-athletes are scarce. We retrospectively investigated the FAT in wheelchair basketball players in the Japanese national team. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022735PMC
December 2019

The Role of Energy Availability in Reproductive Function in the Female Athlete Triad and Extension of its Effects to Men: An Initial Working Model of a Similar Syndrome in Male Athletes.

Sports Med 2019 Dec;49(Suppl 2):125-137

Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

The Female Athlete Triad represents three interrelated conditions of (i) low energy availability (energy deficiency), presenting with or without disordered eating, (ii) menstrual dysfunction, and (iii) poor bone health, each of which can exist along a continuum of severity ranging from mild and moderate subclinical health concerns to severe clinical outcomes, including eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This review provides a brief overview of the Female Athlete Triad, including updating the current thinking regarding energy availability and how it relates to reproductive function, and sets the stage for an initial working model of a similar syndrome in males that will be based on currently available evidence and will later be defined and referred to as a Male Athlete Triad by the newly re-named Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition. A primary focus of this paper will be on the physiology of each Triad model with an emphasis on low energy availability and its role in reproductive function, with a brief introduction on its effects on bone health in men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01217-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901401PMC
December 2019
1 Read

Physical health and symptoms of relative energy deficiency in female fitness athletes.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020 Jan 20;30(1):135-147. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Competing in aesthetic sports increases the risk of low energy availability and associated health impairments. Fitness physique sport is a popular, but understudied aesthetic sport. We evaluated health and symptoms of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-s) in female fitness athletes (FA) and female references (FR) during a competitive season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916539PMC
January 2020
2 Reads

Prevalence of Low Energy Availability in Competitively Trained Male Endurance Athletes.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Oct 1;55(10). Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA.

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) has been introduced as a broad-spectrum syndrome leading to possible dysfunction in numerous physiological systems, driven primarily by low energy availability (EA). Research in females has identified specific EA cut-points indicative of risk level for developing physiological and performance disturbances. Cut-points in males have yet to be evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6843850PMC
October 2019
4 Reads

Anti-Osteoporotic Effect of Soy Isoflavones Intake on Low Bone Mineral Density Caused by Voluntary Exercise and Food Restriction in Mature Female Rats.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2019 ;65(4):335-342

National Institutes of Biochemical Innovation, Health and Nutrition.

Female athlete triad (FAT) is an interrelationship between menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability with or without eating disorder, and decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in female athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether isoflavone intake can prevent bone loss caused by voluntary wheel running under energy-restricted condition. We used a female rat model of osteoporosis for female athletes established previously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.65.335DOI Listing
February 2020
1 Read

Part I: epidemiology and risk factors for stress fractures in female athletes.

Phys Sportsmed 2020 02 11;48(1):17-24. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

: Stress fractures (SFx) are a common athletic injury, occurring in up to 40% of athletes at some point in their career. These injuries can cause pain, permanent disability, financial burden, and loss of playing time. This review presents updated epidemiology and comprehensive analysis of risk factors for stress fractures, especially as it pertains to female athletes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2019.1632158DOI Listing
February 2020
25 Reads

A Narrative Review on Female Physique Athletes: The Physiological and Psychological Implications of Weight Management Practices.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2019 Jun 13:1-8. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

1 Liverpool John Moores University.

Physique competitions are events in which aesthetic appearance and posing ability are valued above physical performance. Female physique athletes are required to possess high lean body mass and extremely low fat mass in competition. As such, extended periods of reduced energy intake and intensive training regimens are used with acute weight loss practices at the end of the precompetition phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0037DOI Listing
June 2019
15 Reads

Calorie-Containing Recovery Drinks Increase Recreational Runners' Voluntary Energy and Carbohydrate Intake, with Minimal Impact on Fluid Recovery.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2019 07 1;29(4):359–363. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

1 Griffith University.

This study assessed voluntary dietary intake when different beverages were provided within a recovery area following recreational exercise. Participants completed two 10-km runs 1 week apart. Immediately after the first run, "beer drinkers" ( = 54; mean ± : age = 23. Read More

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0043DOI Listing
July 2019
6 Reads

Molecular Pathways Mediating Immunosuppression in Response to Prolonged Intensive Physical Training, Low-Energy Availability, and Intensive Weight Loss.

Front Immunol 2019 3;10:907. Epub 2019 May 3.

Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Exercise and exercise-induced weight loss have a beneficial effect on overall health, including positive effects on molecular pathways associated with immune function, especially in overweight individuals. The main aim of our study was to assess how energy deprivation (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511813PMC
May 2019
31 Reads

Bone mineral density, energy availability, and dietary restraint in collegiate cross-country runners and non-running controls.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2019 Aug 17;119(8):1747-1756. Epub 2019 May 17.

Department of Health and Human Sciences, Loyola Marymount University, 1 LMU Drive, MS 8888, Los Angeles, CA, 90045, USA.

Purpose: Weight-bearing activities such as running have been shown to be osteogenic. However, investigations have also shown that running may lead to site-specific deficiencies in bone mineral density (BMD) as well as overall low BMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate and compare the BMD of female and male collegiate cross-country runners with non-running controls. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00421-019-04164-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-019-04164-zDOI Listing
August 2019
13 Reads

Risk factors of stress fractures due to the female athlete triad: Differences in teens and twenties.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019 Oct 9;29(10):1501-1510. Epub 2019 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Background: The female athlete triad (Triad), defined by the American College of Sports Medicine as low energy availability (LEA) with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD), is associated with stress fractures and athletes aged 16-17 years are most susceptible.

Purpose: To examine whether the Triad increases the risk of stress fractures, athletes were assigned to a "teenage" group and a "20s" group.

Methods: This prospective study enrolled 390 elite female athletes and was conducted from 2012 to 2016 at Japan Institute of Sports Sciences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13464DOI Listing
October 2019
12 Reads

Bone Health in Adaptive Sports Athletes.

Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2019 Jun;27(2):60-66

Kelley Adaptive Sports Research Institute.

Adaptive sports athletes represent a growing population within the athletic community worldwide. Given potential cardiometabolic and psychosocial benefits of adaptive sports participation, the impact on bone health and injury risk in adaptive athletes is of increasing clinical interest. Impaired bone health as a result of low energy availability has been well described in able-bodied athletic women and, more recently, men as part of the female athlete triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00132585-201906000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSA.0000000000000235DOI Listing
June 2019
20 Reads

Nutritional Intake, Sports Nutrition Knowledge and Energy Availability in Female Australian Rules Football Players.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Centre for Sport Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Melbourne, VIC 3125, Australia.

This study aimed to assess nutritional intake, sports nutrition knowledge and risk of Low Energy Availability (LEA) in female Australian rules football players. Victorian Football League Women's competition (VFLW) players (n = 30) aged 18-35 (weight: 64.5 kg ± 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11050971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567108PMC
April 2019
25 Reads

Characterization of Risk Quantification Differences Using Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport Clinical Assessment Tool.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2019 Jun 12:1-7. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

1 Boston Children's Hospital.

This study's objective was to identify differences in risk for low energy availability and athletic clearance level by comparing scores on Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment (Triad CRA) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport Clinical Assessment Tool (RED-S CAT). A total of 1,000 female athletes aged 15-30 years participating in ≥4 hr of physical activity/week for the previous ≥6 months completed an extensive survey assessing health, athletic history, family disease history, and specific Triad/RED-S risk factors. Retrospective chart review ascertained laboratory and bone mineral density measures. Read More

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0002DOI Listing
June 2019
33 Reads

Energy Status and Body Composition Across a Collegiate Women's Lacrosse Season.

Nutrients 2019 Feb 23;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO 63301, USA.

Little data is available regarding the energy and nutritional status of female collegiate team sport athletes. Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse athletes (mean ± SD: 20.4 ± 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412364PMC
February 2019
23 Reads

Resting metabolic rate prediction equations and the validity to assess energy deficiency in the athlete population.

Exp Physiol 2019 04 4;104(4):469-475. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Faculty of Health, Sport and Human Performance, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? We review the issues with using predicted resting metabolic rate equations in athletic populations. What advances does it highlight? The use of dated predicted resting metabolic rate equations is not appropriate for athletic populations until more studies have been conducted among these unique populations.

Abstract: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the amount of energy the body uses at rest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087512DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and impaired bone health: A survey of elite para athletes.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019 May 6;29(5):678-685. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a syndrome describing three interrelated conditions: low energy availability (LEA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD). Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) expands the Triad to include multiple physiologic consequences of LEA in both sexes. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of factors associated with the Triad/RED-S in an elite para athlete population. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sms.13385
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13385DOI Listing
May 2019
40 Reads

Energy Availability in Athletics: Health, Performance, and Physique.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2019 Mar 26;29(2):152-164. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

5 McMaster University.

The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18% and 58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0201DOI Listing
March 2019
22 Reads

Bone stress injuries in male distance runners: higher modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment scores predict increased rates of injury.

Br J Sports Med 2019 Feb 22;53(4):237-242. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Objectives: Bone stress injuries (BSI) are common in runners of both sexes. The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment tool would predict BSI in male distance runners.

Methods: 156 male runners at two collegiate programmes were studied using mixed retrospective and prospective design for a total of 7 years. Read More

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http://bjsm.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099861
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099861DOI Listing
February 2019
31 Reads

Elevated Creatine Kinase and Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase and Decreased Osteocalcin and Uncarboxylated Osteocalcin are Associated with Bone Stress Injuries in Young Female Athletes.

Sci Rep 2018 12 21;8(1):18019. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Stress fractures are a limitation for athletes not only in sports performance but in activities of daily living. Thus, preventing them is crucial. In female athletes, a triad of symptoms including low energy availability, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and osteoporosis are considered risk factors for stress injuries, but biomarkers predictive of these outcomes are not available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36982-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303336PMC
December 2018
28 Reads

Self-Reported Periodization of Nutrition in Elite Female and Male Runners and Race Walkers.

Front Physiol 2018 3;9:1732. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Athletes should achieve event-specific physiological requirements through careful periodization of training, underpinned by individualized and targeted nutrition strategies. However, evidence of whether, and how, elite endurance athletes periodize nutrition is scarce. Accordingly, elite international female ( = 67) and male ( = 37) middle/long-distance athletes (IAAF score: 1129 ± 54, corresponds to 13:22. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2018.01732
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286987PMC
December 2018
14 Reads

Physiologic, Metabolic, and Nutritional Attributes of Collegiate Synchronized Swimmers.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2019 May 21;14(5):658-664. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Synchronized swimming is a sport that requires high levels of strength, power, and endurance, as well as artistic skill to perform in an aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to identify physiological characteristics and dietary habits of collegiate synchronized swimmers. A total of 21 female participants (mean [SD] age = 20. Read More

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijspp.2018-05
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0547DOI Listing
May 2019
46 Reads

Female Athlete Triad.

Prim Care 2018 Dec 4;45(4):615-624. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

KentuckyOne Health, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA; Department of Family and Geriatric Medicine, Centers for Primary Care, University of Louisville, 215 Central Avenue, Suite 205, Louisville, KY 40208, USA.

The female athlete triad is a condition seen in physically active female athletes, consisting of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. The condition should be viewed as a metabolic injury. It can have an impact on female athletes at any age or level. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00954543183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2018.07.004DOI Listing
December 2018
44 Reads

Screening for risk of low energy availability in athletic and recreationally active females in Ireland.

Eur J Sport Sci 2019 Feb 10;19(1):112-122. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

a School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science , University College Dublin , Dublin , Ireland.

Introduction: Low energy availability (LEA) results in physiological adaptations, which can contribute to unfavourable health outcomes. Little information exists on risk of LEA in active individuals competing in different sports or levels of competition. The aims of this study were to (1) identify risk of LEA in females competing at different levels of competition and (2) investigate associations between risk of LEA, illness and dietary habits. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17461391.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1526973DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Structural and functional body components in athletic health and performance phenotypes.

Authors:
Analiza M Silva

Eur J Clin Nutr 2019 02 4;73(2):215-224. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculdade Motricidade Humana, Universidade Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, 1499-002, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal.

Advances in body composition assessment enable a detailed body composition analyses and the respective organization at different levels. Sports-related professionals are interested in understanding how and which body components are relevant for improving performance, prevent injury risk, and monitor athletic health. The aim of this review is to propose an integrative model that links performance, injury risk, and athletic health with body components, and to report their cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-018-0321-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0321-9DOI Listing
February 2019
67 Reads

Amenorrhoea in adolescent female athletes.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2018 09 6;2(9):677-688. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Massachussets General Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Female athletes often experience amenorrhoea at various times during training, but this should not be considered normal. Low energy availability is a common cause of menstrual dysfunction, and amenorrhoea can serve as a warning sign of some of the health and performance consequences associated with inadequate energy, including poor bone accrual and low bone mineral density. Adolescence is an important time for bone accrual, growth, and development, making delayed menarche and secondary amenorrhoea particularly concerning in young athletes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23524642183014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30145-7DOI Listing
September 2018
18 Reads

Energy and Nutrient Issues in Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury: Are They at Risk for Low Energy Availability?

Nutrients 2018 Aug 13;10(8). Epub 2018 Aug 13.

United States Olympic Committee, Chula Vista, CA 91915, USA.

Low energy availability (LEA) and nutrient intake have been well studied in able-bodied athletes, but there is a lack of research examining these issues amongst athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, there have been no studies that have examined energy availability (EA) amongst this population. Furthermore, athletes with SCI may experience unique challenges around nutrition that may increase their risk of LEA. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/8/1078
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10081078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116042PMC
August 2018
47 Reads

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport in Male Athletes: A Commentary on Its Presentation Among Selected Groups of Male Athletes.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 24;28(4):364-374. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Harvard Medical School.

Low energy availability (LEA) is a key element of the Female Athlete Triad. Causes of LEA include failure to match high exercise energy expenditure (unintentional) or pathological behaviors of disordered eating (compulsive) and overzealous weight control programs (misguided but intentional). Recognition of such scenarios in male athletes contributed to the pronouncement of the more inclusive Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0182DOI Listing
July 2018
22 Reads

Pitfalls of Conducting and Interpreting Estimates of Energy Availability in Free-Living Athletes.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 20;28(4):350-363. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

University of Copenhagen.

The human body requires energy for numerous functions including, growth, thermogenesis, reproduction, cellular maintenance, and movement. In sports nutrition, energy availability (EA) is defined as the energy available to support these basic physiological functions and good health once the energy cost of exercise is deducted from energy intake (EI), relative to an athlete's fat-free mass (FFM). Low EA provides a unifying theory to link numerous disorders seen in both female and male athletes, described by the syndrome Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport, and related to restricted energy intake, excessive exercise or a combination of both. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0142DOI Listing
July 2018
72 Reads

Endocrine Effects of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2018 Jul 14;28(4):335-349. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Harvard Medical School.

The term Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport was introduced by the International Olympic Committee in 2014. It refers to the potential health and performance consequences of inadequate energy for sport, emphasizing that there are consequences of low energy availability (EA; typically defined as <30 kcal·kg fat-free mass·day) beyond the important and well-established female athlete triad, and that low EA affects populations other than women. As the prevalence and consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport become more apparent, it is important to understand the current knowledge of the hormonal changes that occur with decreased EA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0127DOI Listing
July 2018
80 Reads

Nutritional Intake in Elite Cross-Country Skiers During Two Days of Training and Competition.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2019 May 28;29(3):273-281. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

5 University of Copenhagen.

This study investigated the energy, macronutrient, and fluid intakes, as well as hydration status (urine specific gravity), in elite cross-country skiers during a typical day of training (Day 1) and a sprint skiing competition the following day (Day 2). A total of 31 (18 males and 13 females) national team skiers recorded their food and fluid intakes and urine specific gravity was measured on Days 1 and 2. In addition, the females completed the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire to assess their risk of long-term energy deficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0411DOI Listing
May 2019
36 Reads

Genetic variation in Wnt/β-catenin and ER signalling pathways in female and male elite dancers and its associations with low bone mineral density: a cross-section and longitudinal study.

Osteoporos Int 2018 Oct 5;29(10):2261-2274. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

The Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Gorway Rd, Walsall, WS1 3BD, UK.

The association of genetic polymorphisms with low bone mineral density in elite athletes have not been considered previously. The present study found that bone mass phenotypes in elite and pre-elite dancers are related to genetic variants at the Wnt/β-catenin and ER pathways.

Introduction: Some athletes (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-018-4610-xDOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

Cortical and trabecular bone analysis of professional dancers using 3D-DXA: a case-control study.

J Sports Sci 2019 Jan 18;37(1):82-89. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

b The Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing , University of Wolverhampton , Wolverhampton , United Kingdom.

Given the lack of relevant data, the aim of this study was to examine femur cortical and trabecular bone in female and male professional ballet dancers. 40 professional ballet dancers and 40 sex- and age-matched non-exercising controls volunteered. Femoral bone density was scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1483178DOI Listing
January 2019
15 Reads

Energy Expenditure, Availability, and Dietary Intake Assessment in Competitive Female Dragon Boat Athletes.

Sports (Basel) 2017 Jun 21;5(2). Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Human Nutrition Research Centre, Newcastle University, 172A Ang Mo Kio Ave 8, Singapore 567739, Singapore.

Dragon boat racing requires high physical activity levels during competition and training. The female athletic triad refers to a number of negative health consequences (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports5020045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968976PMC
June 2017
12 Reads

Risk factors for precompetitive sleep behavior in elite female athletes.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2019 Apr 7;59(4):708-716. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Medical Faculty of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background: Sleep is of major importance for the athletes' short and long-term health, performance and recovery; however, published studies on athletes' sleep and even fewer before competition are scarce. This study evaluated the risk factors of sleep in young female gymnasts before an international competition.

Methods: Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts (M=18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08498-0DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

Low energy availability surrogates correlate with health and performance consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport.

Br J Sports Med 2019 May 2;53(10):628-633. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Female Athlete Program, Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Low energy availability (EA) is suspected to be the underlying cause of both the Female Athlete Triad and the more recently defined syndrome, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defined RED-S as a syndrome of health and performance impairments resulting from an energy deficit. While the importance of adequate EA is generally accepted, few studies have attempted to understand whether low EA is associated with the health and performance consequences posited by the IOC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098958DOI Listing
May 2019
67 Reads