197 results match your criteria Low Energy Availability in the Female Athlete


The role of age in the physiological adaptations and psychological responses in bikini-physique competitor contest preparation: a case series.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Jun 9;18(1):45. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Kinesiology, Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Lab, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 78412, USA.

The increased popularity of the bikini-physique competitions has not translated to greater research identifying the influence of age on adaptations during contest preparation. The purpose of this case series was to observe how age may influence the adaptations normally seen during preparation and the exploration of newer protocols to address adaptations more relative to the judging standards. Over a 16-week pre-contest preparation, a 32-y bikini competitor (BC) and 44-y master's bikini competitor (MBC) visited the laboratory bi-weekly to observe changes in body fat mass (BF), lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density (BMD), total body water (TBW); exploratory measures of deltoid cross-sectional area (Delt), gluteus maximus muscle thickness (GM), and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (SAT); reproductive hormones estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and energy balance hormones triiodothyronine (T), leptin and ghrelin; hydration status during contest preparation and the week of competition; resting metabolic rate (RMR); psychometric data related to perceived anxiety, stress, and body image were assessed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Male Athlete Triad-A Consensus Statement From the Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition Part II: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Return-To-Play.

Clin J Sport Med 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Physical Medicine & Rehabiilitation, Stanford University, Stanford, California; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, California; Department of Kinesiology and Physiology Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah; and Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Abstract: The Male Athlete Triad is a medical syndrome most common in adolescent and young adult male athletes in sports that emphasize a lean physique, especially endurance and weight-class athletes. The 3 interrelated conditions of the Male Athlete Triad occur on spectrums of energy deficiency/low energy availability (EA), suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and impaired bone health, ranging from optimal health to clinically relevant outcomes of energy deficiency/low EA with or without disordered eating or eating disorder, functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and osteoporosis or low bone mineral density with or without bone stress injury (BSI). Because of the importance of bone mass acquisition and health concerns in adolescence, screening is recommended during this time period in the at-risk male athlete. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Male Athlete Triad-A Consensus Statement From the Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition Part 1: Definition and Scientific Basis.

Clin J Sport Med 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Sports Medicine and Non-Operative Orthopaedics, Departments of Family Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Kinesiology, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California; Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, California; and Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Abstract: The Male Athlete Triad is a syndrome of 3 interrelated conditions most common in adolescent and young adult male endurance and weight-class athletes and includes the clinically relevant outcomes of (1) energy deficiency/low energy availability (EA) with or without disordered eating/eating disorders, (2) functional hypothalamic hypogonadism, and (3) osteoporosis or low bone mineral density with or without bone stress injury (BSI). The causal role of low EA in the modulation of reproductive function and skeletal health in the male athlete reinforces the notion that skeletal health and reproductive outcomes are the primary clinical concerns. At present, the specific intermediate subclinical outcomes are less clearly defined in male athletes than those in female athletes and are represented as subtle alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and increased risk for BSI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Female Athlete Triad/Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S).

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Maternidade Dr. Alfredo da Costa, Centro Hospitalar Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal.

In a healthy athlete, the caloric intake is sufficient for sports energy needs and body physiological functions, allowing a balance between energy availability, bone metabolism, and menstrual cycle. On the other hand, an imbalance caused by low energy availability due to a restrictive diet, eating disorders or long periods of energy expenditure leads to multisystemic deregulation favoring the essential functions of the body. This phenomenon, described as the female athlete triad, occurs in a considerable percentage of high-performance athletes, with harmful consequences for their future. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Performance and Health Decrements Associated With Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport for Division I Women Athletes During a Collegiate Cross-Country Season: A Case Series.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:524762. Epub 2021 May 12.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

The purpose of this case series was to evaluate the presence of low Energy Availability (EA) and its impact on components of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) in a population of female collegiate runners. Seven female NCAA Division I athletes (age: 22.3 ± 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nutritional Considerations for Female Athletes in Weight Category Sports.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 May 27:1-25. Epub 2021 May 27.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University,, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, England, UK.

Weight making can be described as the process of reducing body mass in events where aesthetics, propulsion or the requirement to meet a specific weight category limit, are considered to be of competitive importance. Cross sectional research specifically focussed on weight category sports, has highlighted behaviours and practices that are similar in athletes of both sexes. Regardless of this and despite parallel participation in weight category sporting events, females are drastically underrepresented in studies examining body mass loss interventions across both chronic and acute timeframes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adolescent Endurance Runners Exhibit Suboptimal Energy Availability and Intakes of Key Nutrients.

J Am Coll Nutr 2021 May 25:1-8. Epub 2021 May 25.

Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Despite the evidence of an elevated prevalence of low bone mass in adolescent endurance runners, reports on dietary intake in this population is limited. This study aimed to evaluate energy availability (EA) and dietary intake among 72 (n = 60 female, n = 12 male) high school cross-country runners. The sample consisted of a combined dataset of two cohorts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Energy deficiency, menstrual disorders, and low bone mineral density in female athletes: a systematic review.

Hormones (Athens) 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Purpose: Low energy availability (LEA) may lead to menstrual disorders and low bone mineral density, predisposing to the female athlete triad. The primary aim of the present review was to systematically investigate the impact of chronic strenuous exercise on the energy status of professional female athletes compared to sedentary, recreationally active controls as concerns their menstrual status and bone mineral density (BMD). A secondary aim was evaluation of the combined prevalence of the components of the female athlete triad in athletes as compared to non-athletes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The relationship between the female athlete triad and injury rates in collegiate female athletes.

PeerJ 2021 6;9:e11092. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Athlete Support Research Center, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan, Niigata, Niigata, Japan.

Background: This study aimed to clarify the relationship between the triad risk assessment score and the sports injury rate in 116 female college athletes (average age, 19.8 ± 1.3 years) in seven sports at the national level of competition; 67 were teenagers, and 49 were in their 20s. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Specific dietary practices in female athletes and their association with positive screening for disordered eating.

J Eat Disord 2021 Apr 17;9(1):50. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Female Athlete Program, Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 319 Longwood Avenue - 6th Floor, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: To determine if following specific diets was associated with reporting behaviors that are consistent with disordered eating compared to non-diet-adherent athletes. We hypothesized that athletes adhering to specific diets were more likely to report disordered eating than those not following a diet.

Methods: One thousand female athletes (15-30 years) completed a comprehensive survey about athletic health and wellness. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Low energy availability in female athletes: From the lab to the field.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 May 3:1-11. Epub 2021 May 3.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Decades of laboratory research have shown impairments to several body systems after only 4-5 days of strictly controlled consistent low energy availability (LEA); where energy availability (EA) = Energy Intake (EI) - Exercise Energy Expenditure (EEE)/Fat-Free Mass. Meanwhile, cross-sectional reports exist on the interrelatedness of LEA, menstrual dysfunction and impaired bone health in females (the Female Athlete Triad). These findings have demonstrated that LEA is the key underpinning factor behind a broader set of health and performance outcomes, recently termed as Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Risk of Low Energy Availability in National and International Level Paralympic Athletes: An Exploratory Investigation.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 18;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

United States Olympic and Paralympic Committee, Chula Vista, CA 91915, USA.

(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the symptoms of low energy availability (LEA) and risk of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) symptoms in para-athletes using a multi-parameter approach. (2) Methods: National level para-athletes ( = 9 males, = 9 females) completed 7-day food and activity logs to quantify energy availability (EA), the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to assess bone mineral density (BMD), and hormonal blood spot testing. (3) Results: Based on EA calculations, no athlete was at risk for LEA (females < 30 kcal·kg FFM·day; and males < 25 kcal·kg FFM·day; thresholds for able-bodied (AB) subjects). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Risk of Low Energy Availability among Female and Male Elite Runners Competing at the 26th European Cross-Country Championships.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 7;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Nutrition & Metabolism, NOVA Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal.

Low energy availability (LEA) causes impaired physiological functioning. Cross-country running is a weight-sensitive sport, making athletes more prone to LEA. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of elite European cross-country athletes at risk of LEA using the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and to analyze demographic and physical characteristics that are associated with LEA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Review: questionnaires as measures for low energy availability (LEA) and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) in athletes.

J Eat Disord 2021 Mar 31;9(1):41. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Physical Education and Sports Science, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore, 637616, Singapore.

Background: A sustained mismatch between energy intake and exercise energy expenditure (EEE) can lead to Low Energy Availability (LEA), health and performance impairments characteristic of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Questionnaires can conveniently identify symptoms and/or LEA/ RED-S risk factors. This study aimed to systematically identify, and critique questionnaires used or developed to measure LEA/ RED-S risk in athletic populations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Markers of Low Iron Status Are Associated with Female Athlete Triad Risk Factors.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School/Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, MA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, CA Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI.

Purpose: The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is common in female athletes. The Triad is caused by low energy availability (EA), which is often difficult to measure and has been postulated to be associated with low iron status. Here, we explore whether markers of low iron status may be associated with indicators of low EA including Triad risk factors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Body Composition, Energy Availability, Training, and Menstrual Status in Female Runners.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Mar 9:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Purpose: To determine body composition, energy availability, training load, and menstrual status in young elite endurance running athletes (ATH) over 1 year, and in a secondary analysis, to investigate how these factors differ between nonrunning controls (CON), and amenorrheic (AME) and eumenorrheic (EUM) ATH. Correlations to injury, illness, and performance were also examined.

Methods: Altogether 13 ATH and 8 CON completed the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Decreased energy availability during training overload is associated with non-functional overreaching and suppressed ovarian function in female runners.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

University of California Davis, 8789, Sports Performance Laboratory, Sports Medicine Program, Sacramento, California, United States.

Low energy availability (EA) suppresses many physiological processes, including ovarian function in female athletes. Low EA could also predispose athletes to develop a state of overreaching. This study compared the changes in ad libitum energy intake (EI), exercise energy expenditure (ExEE), and EA among runners completing a training overload (TO) phase. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reduced Endurance Capacity and Suboptimal Energy Availability in Top-Level Female Cyclists.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Feb 24:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Purpose: Women's professional cycling has grown in popularity, and this increase is also apparent in Brazil, which has increased its female cycling calendar in recent years. The aim of this observational study was to (1) determine training and competition loads of a top-level Brazilian female cycling team, (2) evaluate nutrition and clinical health, and (3) measure whether exercise capacity changed throughout the season.

Methods: Training and competition data were collected over the season using global positioning system monitors, while laboratory-based physiological and performance measures (incremental cycling test, 30-s Wingate, 4-km time trial) and clinical and nutritional analyses were performed at time points throughout the season. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Presence and Perceptions of Menstrual Dysfunction and Associated Quality of Life Measures Among High School Female Athletes.

J Athl Train 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

1Sports Medicine Center, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.

Context: Adolescent female athletes are at risk for menstrual dysfunction in the setting of exercise and low energy availability. Education regarding menstrual dysfunction and its associated consequences is important to promote athlete well-being.

Objectives: The primary aim was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of female athletes who believe that losing their period is a normal response to high training demands. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Low energy availability and impact sport participation as risk factors for urinary incontinence in female athletes.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Jan 30. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, Boston Children's Hospital, 319 Longwood Avenue, Ste 6, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck St, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, 457B, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a clinical syndrome that includes the many complex health and performance consequences of low energy availability (EA) in athletes, when there is insufficient caloric intake to meet exercise-related energy expenditure and to support basic physiologic functions. There is a high prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in female athletes and it is more common in female athletes than non-athletes. The objective of this study was to determine if low EA is associated with UI in a population of adolescent and young adult female athletes and to evaluate for an association between sport categories and UI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Current Predictive Resting Metabolic Rate Equations Are Not Sufficient to Determine Proper Resting Energy Expenditure in Olympic Young Adult National Team Athletes.

Front Physiol 2021 4;12:625370. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Predictive resting metabolic rate (RMR) equations are widely used to determine athletes' resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it remains unclear whether these predictive RMR equations accurately predict REE in the athletic populations. The purpose of the study was to compare 12 prediction equations (Harris-Benedict, Mifflin, Schofield, Cunningham, Owen, Liu's, De Lorenzo) with measured RMR in Turkish national team athletes and sedentary controls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Low Energy Availability Interferes With Exercise-Associated Bone Effects in Female Long-Distance Triathletes as Detected by HR-pQCT.

J Clin Densitom 2021 Jan 30. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Division of Endocrinology, Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Female Athlete Triad, initially described as the association of disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis, was further redefined to focus on low energy availability (EA), which has a central role in development of hypoestrogenism and low bone mineral density (BMD). However, the contribution of each variable, that is, low EA and hypoestrogenism, for bone derangements is still an open question. To evaluate body composition and bone status in long-distance triathletes without hypoestrogenism, as compared to non-athletes, using DXA and HR-pQCT, and the influence of EA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

"I'd got self-destruction down to a fine art": a qualitative exploration of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) in endurance athletes.

J Sports Sci 2021 Feb 11:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

School of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK.

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a syndrome of impaired health and performance that occurs as a result of low energy availability (LEA). Whilst many health effects associated with RED-S have been widely studied from a physiological perspective, further research exploring the psychological antecedents and consequences of the syndrome is required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to qualitatively explore athlete experiences of RED-S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

A Review of Nonpharmacological Strategies in the Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2021 Jan 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

University of Guelph.

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) can result in negative health and performance outcomes in both male and female athletes. The underlying etiology of RED-S is low energy availability (LEA), which occurs when there is insufficient dietary energy intake to meet exercise energy expenditure, corrected for fat-free mass, leaving inadequate energy available to ensure homeostasis and adequate energy turnover (optimize normal bodily functions to positively impact health), but also optimizing recovery, training adaptations, and performance. As such, treatment of RED-S involves increasing energy intake and/or decreasing exercise energy expenditure to address the underlying LEA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The effects of short-term low energy availability, achieved through diet or exercise, on cognitive function in oral contraceptive users and eumenorrheic women.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Jan 5:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Musculoskeletal Physiology Research Group, Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement Research Centre, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

To date, no research has explored the effects of low energy availability on cognitive performance using dietary and exercise regimens relevant to athletes. Twenty female participants (10 eumenorrheic, 10 oral contraceptive [OC] users) completed three 3-day conditions: 1) controlled-balanced energy availability without exercise (BAL; 45 kcal·kg lean body mass [LBM]·day); 2) diet-induced low energy availability without exercise (DIET; 15 kcal·kg LBM·day); and 3) exercise-induced low energy availability (EX; 15 kcal·kg LBM·day, including 30 kcal·kg LBM·day treadmill running at 70% maximal oxygen uptake). A cognitive test battery was completed before and after each 3-day condition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Energy Availability with or without Eating Disorder Risk in Collegiate Female Athletes and Performing Artists.

J Athl Train 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

University of South Carolina, Email: Twitter Handle:

Context: Female athletes/performing artists can present with low energy availability (LEA) either through unintentional (e.g., inadvertent undereating) or intentional methods (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Effects of Low Energy Availability on Bone Health in Endurance Athletes and High-Impact Exercise as A Potential Countermeasure: A Narrative Review.

Sports Med 2021 Mar;51(3):391-403

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK.

Endurance athletes expend large amounts of energy in prolonged high-intensity exercise and, due to the weight-sensitive nature of most endurance sports, often practice periods of dietary restriction. The Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport models consider endurance athletes at high-risk for suffering from low energy availability and associated health complications, including an increased chance of bone stress injury. Several studies have examined the effects of low energy availability on various parameters of bone structure and markers of bone (re)modelling; however, there are differences in findings and research methods and critical summaries are lacking. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Indicators and correlates of low energy availability in male and female dancers.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2020 26;6(1):e000906. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Science4Performance, London, UK.

Objectives: To investigate indicators and correlates of low energy availability (LEA) in male and female dancers.

Methods: A Dance-Specific Energy Availability Questionnaire (DEAQ) was developed and administered online internationally to dancers training at preprofessional, professional or advanced amateur level. The DEAQ drew on current validated, published questionnaires for LEA, linked to the clinical outcomes of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Food restriction reduces cortical bone mass and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and promotes uterine atrophy in mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 01 4;534:165-171. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan; Department of Advanced Therapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders II, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan; Department of Musculoskeletal Reconstruction and Regeneration Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan. Electronic address:

Low energy availability in female athletes often causes hypothalamic amenorrhea and osteoporosis, in turn promoting stress fractures. Mechanisms underlying these conditions remain unclear. Here we show that model mice subjected to food restriction (FR) or FR-plus-voluntary running exercise exhibit significantly reduced bone mineral density, cortical bone parameters and uterine weight than do control mice, and that these parameters worsen in the FR-plus-exercise group. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport: an Orthopaedic Perspective.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Jan;29(1):e14-e21

From the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, University of Kansas Health Systems (L. Vopat), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center (Mackay), the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, University of Kansas Health Systems (B.G. Vopat), Kansas City, KS, and Women's Sports Medicine Program, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (Mulcahey).

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a constellation of clinical findings related to low energy availability. Manifestations are variable but may include endocrine and reproductive dysfunction, impaired bone and muscle health, psychological complaints, and performance issues, among many others. Unlike the previously common terminology, the female athlete triad, RED-S encompasses a broader range of signs and symptoms and includes descriptions for the male athlete. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021