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Association of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Fibrosis With Incident Dementia and Cognition: The Rotterdam Study.

Neurology 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Epidemiology Erasmus MC university medical center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Background: & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might affect brain health, via the so-called liver-brain axis. Whether this results in increased risk for dementia remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association of NAFLD and fibrosis with incident dementia and cognition among the elderly. Read More

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Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Does This Metabolic Condition Have Brain Function Sequelae?

Neurology 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, NIA/NIH/IRP, Baltimore, MD.

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Senescence-induced endothelial phenotypes underpin immune-mediated senescence surveillance.

Genes Dev 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0RE, United Kingdom.

Senescence is a stress-responsive tumor suppressor mechanism associated with expression of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Through the SASP, senescent cells trigger their own immune-mediated elimination, which if evaded leads to tumorigenesis. Senescent parenchymal cells are separated from circulating immunocytes by the endothelium, which is targeted by microenvironmental signaling. Read More

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Real-life experience of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for HCV infected Korean patients: a multicenter cohort study.

Korean J Intern Med 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

The Catholic University Liver Research Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected Korean patients in a real clinical setting.

Methods: A total of 273 patients who received LDV/SOF therapy between May 2016 and February 2021 were consecutively enrolled and analyzed. A per-protocol analysis was performed to evaluate the virologic response. Read More

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Bufalin stimulates antitumor immune response by driving tumor-infiltrating macrophage toward M1 phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 May;10(5)

Institute of Infectious Disease, Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, People's Republic of China

Background: Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibits limited clinical efficacy due to immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TIMs) account for the major component in the TME, and the dominance of M2 phenotype over M1 phenotype in the TIMs plays the pivotal role in sustaining the immunosuppressive character. We thus investigate the effect of bufalin on promoting TIMs polarization toward M1 phenotype to improve HCC immunotherapy. Read More

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Goldfish and crucian carp are natural models of anoxia tolerance in the retina.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2022 May 23:111244. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Canada; Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Canada. Electronic address:

Vertebrates need oxygen to survive. The central nervous system has an especially high energy demand, so brain and retinal neurons quickly die in anoxia. But fish of the genus Carassius are exceptionally anoxia-tolerant: the crucian carp (C. Read More

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Oncostatic activities of melatonin: Roles in cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy.

Biochimie 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. Electronic address:

Melatonin, the major secretory product of the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythms, mood, and sleep but also has actions in neoplastic processes which are being intensively investigated. Melatonin is a promising molecule which considered a differentiating agent in some cancer cells at both physiological and pharmacological concentrations. It can also reduce invasive and metastatic status through receptors MT1 and MT2 cytosolic binding sites, including calmodulin and quinone reductase II enzyme, and nuclear receptors related to orphan members of the superfamily RZR/ROR. Read More

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Helicobacter pylori acquisition rates and the associated risk factors amongst newlywed couples; a prospective cohort study in Tehran, Iran.

Microbes Infect 2022 May 23:104974. Epub 2022 May 23.

Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Cancer Biology Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The rates and routes of Helicobacter pylori transmission, in a high prevalent country like Iran, with gastric cancer as the leading cause of male cancer mortality is of essence. Here, we have studied the H. pylori-associated risk factors and the likelihood of interspousal transmission. Read More

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Uncertainty-guided man-machine integrated patient-specific quality assurance.

Radiother Oncol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Automation, Central South University, Changsha, Peoples' Republic of China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Providing the confidence level (Uncertainty) of prediction results and guiding patient-specific quality assurance (pQA) can enhance the safety of AI (Artificial intelligence)-based automatic pQA models. However, even state-of-the-art automatic pQA models can only predict the gamma passing rate (GPR) and cannot quantify the prediction uncertainty, limiting the safe clinical translation of these models. This study aims to develop an uncertainty-guided man-machine integrated pQA (UgMi-pQA) method to address this issue. Read More

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases: A Mendelian randomization study.

Metabolism 2022 May 23:155220. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the results are inconsistent, and the causality remains to be established.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the potential causal relationship between NAFLD and CVDs, including arterial stiffness, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, ischemic stroke and its subtypes using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). Read More

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Radiation segmentectomy for curative intent of unresectable very early to early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (RASER): a single-centre, single-arm study.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Diagnostic, Molecular and Interventional Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Unresectable solitary very early to early stage hepatocellular carcinoma is managed with ablation for curative intent. Radiation segmentectomy is a treatment option that delivers radioactive yttrium (Y)-bound microspheres transarterially to a segment of liver. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of radiation segmentectomy in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma deemed unfavourable for ablation. Read More

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High prevalence of SARS-Coronavirus-2 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and the role of soluble angiotensin converting Enzyme2.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2022 May 26:1-8. Epub 2022 May 26.

Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were found to have the higher intestinal expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme2 (ACE2) that could consequently increase susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. This study reports the outcomes of COVID-19 infection in a large cohort of IBD patients. We compare levels of serum ACE and IFN-α between COVID19 patients with and without IBD. Read More

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Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Current Global Burden.

Semin Liver Dis 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Internal Medicine Department, Cairo University Kasr Alainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt.

The map and global disease burden of chronic liver diseases are markedly changing, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) becoming the most common cause of liver affection coinciding with the current epidemics of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Understanding the incidence and prevalence of NAFLD is critical because of its linkage to a significant economic burden of hospitalization and changing patterns in consequences such as liver transplantation. Moreover, the long-term average healthcare expenses of NAFLD patients have exceeded those of other liver diseases. Read More

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Recombinant osmotin inclusion bodies from Calotropis procera produced in E. coli BL21(DE3) prevent acute inflammation in a mouse model of listeriosis.

Phytomedicine 2022 May 18;102:154186. Epub 2022 May 18.

Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: The osmotin from the medicinal plant Calotropis procera (CpOsm) has characteristics similar to adiponectin, a human protein with immunoregulatory actions.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether recombinant osmotin inclusion bodies from C. procera (IB/rCpOsm) produced in E. Read More

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Butyrate, a postbiotic of intestinal bacteria, affects pancreatic cancer and gemcitabine response in in vitro and in vivo models.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 May 24;151:113163. Epub 2022 May 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Viale dei Cappuccini, 1, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, FG, Italy. Electronic address:

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer. The characteristic excessive stromatogenesis accompanying the growth of this tumor is believed to contribute to chemoresistance which, together with drug toxicity, results in poor clinical outcome. An increasing number of studies are showing that gut microbiota and their metabolites are implicated in cancer pathogenesis, progression and response to therapies. Read More

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Detection of microwave ablation coagulation areas using ultrasound Nakagami imaging based on Gaussian pyramid decomposition: A feasibility study.

Ultrasonics 2022 May 13;124:106758. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Environment and Life, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, we explored the feasibility of using ultrasound Nakagami-m parametric imaging based on Gaussian pyramid decomposition (GPD) to detect microwave ablation coagulation areas. Monte Carlo simulation and phantom simulation results demonstrated that a 2-layer GPD model was sufficient to achieve the same m parameter estimation accuracy, smoothness and resolution as 3-layer and 4-layer. The performances of GPD, moment-based estimator (MBE) and window-modulated compounding (WMC) algorithms were compared in terms of parameter estimation, smoothness, resolution and contrast-to-noise (CNR). Read More

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Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a patient with situs inversus abdomenalis, a case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2022 May 18;95:107220. Epub 2022 May 18.

Radiology Department, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut University, Egypt.

Introduction And Importance: Situs Inversus (SI) is a rare congenital condition in which the abdominal and thoracic organs are located in a mirror image of the normal position in the sagittal plane. Although this condition does not affect normal health or longevity, its recognition is very important for treating many diseases, particularly those requiring surgical intervention. The relationship between situs inversus and cancer remain inconspicuous. Read More

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D-ribose-L-cysteine reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines to mitigate liver damage, and memory decline induced by copper sulfate in mice.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2022 May 18;73:127001. Epub 2022 May 18.

Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Background: Current evidences have implicated copper in amyloid aggregation that trigger the downstream oxidative stress-mediated neuroinflammation that characterized memory deterioration in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of D-Ribose-L-Cysteine (DRLC), a potent antioxidant agent, on copper sulfate (CuSO)-induced memory deterioration and the biochemical mechanisms underpinning its action in mice.

Methods: Male Swiss mice were randomly distributed into 5 groups (n = 10/group). Read More

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Partial Replacement of High-Fat Diet with Beef Tallow Attenuates Dyslipidemia and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in / Mice.

J Med Food 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea.

High-fat diet (HFD) consumption is closely associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndromes (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, the consumption of alternative and functional fatty acids to replace saturated fatty acids and/or -fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids has become an important dietary strategy for the prevention of MetS. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (-3) reduces various physiological complications, including CVDs, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance, related to inflammatory responses. Read More

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Efficiency of ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang 524023, China.

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties, and it may reduce the degree of liver damage caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the effectiveness of UDCA in improving liver function and histology in cases of NASH remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of UDCA in the treatment of NASH. Read More

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Organ-specific response after low-dose interleukin-2 therapy for steroid refractory chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Blood Adv 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Despite new therapeutic options, treatment of steroid-refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (SR-cGVHD) remains challenging as organ involvement and clinical manifestations are highly variable. In previous trials of low-dose interleukin-2 (LD IL-2), we established the safety and efficacy of LD IL-2 for treatment of SR-cGVHD. In the present report, we combined 5 phase I or II clinical trials conducted at our center to investigate organ-specific response rate, co-involvement of organs, predictors of organ-specific response and its possible association with immune response. Read More

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Feasibility of Deep Learning-Based Noise and Artifact Reduction in Coronal Reformation of Contrast-Enhanced Chest Computed Tomography.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a deep learning method for imaging artifact and noise reduction in coronal reformation of contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT).

Methods: A total of 19,052 coronal reformatted chest CT images of 110 CT image sets (55 pairs of concordant 16- and 320-row CT image sets) were included and used to train a deep learning algorithm for artifact and noise correction. For internal validation, 4093 coronal reformatted CT images of 25 patients from 16-row CT images underwent correction processing. Read More

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"Pseudowashout" artifact on liver haemangioma on CEUS: what to expect and how to avoid!

Med Ultrason 2022 May;24(2):254-255

Department of Radiology, AHEPA University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

Not applicable. Read More

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Hepatitis A in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a comprehensive review.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 May 26:2073146. Epub 2022 May 26.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

Introduction: With 583 million inhabitants, the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a worldwide hub for travel, migration, and food trade. However, there is a scarcity of data on the epidemiology of the hepatitis A virus (HAV).

Methods: The MEDLINE and grey literature were systematically searched for HAV epidemiological data relevant to the EMR region published between 1980 and 2020 in English, French, or Arabic. Read More

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Nanchangmycin regulates FYN, PTK2, and MAPK1/3 to control the fibrotic activity of human hepatic stellate cells.

Elife 2022 May 26;11. Epub 2022 May 26.

Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, United States.

Chronic liver injury causes fibrosis, characterized by the formation of scar tissue resulting from excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) myofibroblasts are the primary cell type responsible for liver fibrosis, yet there are currently no therapies directed at inhibiting the activity of HSC myofibroblasts. To search for potential anti-fibrotic compounds, we performed a high-throughput compound screen in primary human HSC myofibroblasts and identified 19 small molecules that induce HSC inactivation, including the polyether ionophore nanchangmycin (NCMC). Read More

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Coronavirus, adenovirus, or both? Hepatitis poses mystery.

Meredith Wadman

Science 2022 May 26;376(6596):906-907. Epub 2022 May 26.

Researchers scramble for data on the cause-and therefore the treatment-of liver disease in children. Read More

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Circulating microRNA-122 in HCV cirrhotic patients with high frequency of genotype 3.

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0268526. Epub 2022 May 26.

National Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is a liver abundant microRNA that is released upon liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the circulating miR-122 profiles in a Pakistani patients´ cohort with HCV chronic liver disease that was mainly based on HCV genotype 3 infections. From 222 patients with chronic HCV liver disease, classified as mild, moderate, or severe, serum samples were collected. Read More

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Stat3/IL-6 signaling mediates sustained pneumonia induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 May 26;16(5):e0010461. Epub 2022 May 26.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-Sen University), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, China.

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (AC) is well-documented that parasitizes the host brain and causes eosinophilic meningitis. The migration route of AC in permissive hosts is well demonstrated, while in nonpermissive hosts, it remains to be fully defined. In the present study, we exploited live imaging technology, morphological and pathological configuration analysis, and molecular biological technologies to explore the migration route of AC and the accompanying tissue damage in nonpermissive and permissive hosts. Read More

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Systematic screening for advanced liver fibrosis in patients with coronary artery disease: The CORONASH study.

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0266965. Epub 2022 May 26.

Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France.

Although coronary artery disease (CAD) and advanced liver fibrosis (AdLF) are commonly associated in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of AdLF and the diagnostic performance of non-invasive fibrosis tests (NITs) in CAD patients remains unknown. We aimed to prospectively screen for AdLF in patients with documented CAD using NITs and Fibroscan. High and intermediate zones of NITs were combined to define AdLF. Read More

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Flow-compensated diffusion encoding in MRI for improved liver metastasis detection.

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0268843. Epub 2022 May 26.

Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is often used to detect focal liver lesions (FLLs), though DWI image quality can be limited in the left liver lobe owing to the pulsatile motion of the nearby heart. Flow-compensated (FloCo) diffusion encoding has been shown to reduce this pulsation artifact. The purpose of this prospective study was to intra-individually compare DWI of the liver acquired with conventional monopolar and FloCo diffusion encoding for assessing metastatic FLLs in non-cirrhotic patients. Read More

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