1,152,939 results match your criteria Lipids in Health and Disease [Journal]


Diurnal distribution of carbohydrates and fat affects substrate oxidation and adipokine secretion in humans.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1209-1219

Departments of Clinical Nutrition.

Background: A diet in which fat is mainly eaten in the morning and carbohydrates mainly in the evening (compared with the reverse order) was recently shown to worsen glycemic control in people with prediabetes.

Objective: We investigated the effects of these dietary patterns on energy metabolism, and on the daily profiles of circulating lipids, adipokines, and inflammatory markers.

Design: In a randomized controlled crossover trial, 29 nonobese men (with normal glucose tolerance, n = 18; or impaired fasting glucose/glucose tolerance, n = 11) underwent 2 isocaloric 4-wk diets: 1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 1330 and fat-rich meals between 1630 and 2200 (HC/HF); or 2) the inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). Read More

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December 2018

A 12-wk whole-grain wheat intervention protects against hepatic fat: the Graandioos study, a randomized trial in overweight subjects.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1264-1274

Wageningen University, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Whole-grain wheat (WGW) is described as nutritionally superior to refined wheat (RW) and thus advocated as the healthy choice, although evidence from intervention studies is often inconsistent. The liver, as the central organ in energy metabolism, might be an important target organ for WGW interventions.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of WGW consumption compared with RW consumption on liver health and associated parameters. Read More

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December 2018

Haemodynamic stress-induced breaches of the arterial intima trigger inflammation and drive atherogenesis.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

INSERM U1148, Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS), DHU FIRE, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 46 rue Henri Huchard, Paris, France.

Aims: Inflammatory mediators, including blood cells and their products, contribute critically to atherogenesis, but the igniting triggers of inflammation remain elusive. Atherosclerosis develops at sites of flow perturbation, where the enhanced haemodynamic stress could initiate the atherogenic inflammatory process due to the occurrence of mechanic injury. We investigated the role of haemodynamic stress-induced breaches, allowing the entry of blood cells in the arterial intima, in triggering inflammation-driven atherogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) among candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery: Emphasis to possible beneficial role of TAC on serum vitamin D.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208806. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Research, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: Recently, the clinical importance of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its protective role against several chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and several types of cancers has been reported. However, its association with cardio-metabolic risk factors among patients candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has not been evaluated yet. CABG is associated with increased oxidative stress and free radicals; so, the current study was aimed to evaluate the potential association of TAC with cardiovascular risk factors among patients candidate for CABG. Read More

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December 2018
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The influence of cholesterol on melittin lipidation in neutral membranes.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Chemistry Department, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.

The effects of cholesterol on the process of intrinsic lipidation, whereby an acyl chain is transferred from a lipid as donor to a membrane-associated acceptor molecule, have been explored using melittin as the acceptor. Membranes comprising lipids with saturated acyl chains (1,2-dipalmitoyl sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC; 1,2-dimyristoyl sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DMPC) yielded no acyl transfer, whereas membranes composed of lipids with unsaturated acyl chains (1,2-dioleoyl sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DOPC; 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, POPC) produced detectable lipidation activity. For all lipids, inclusion of cholesterol led to a significant increase in lipidation activity, with the greatest effect observed for 20 mol% cholesterol in POPC. Read More

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December 2018

Lysobacter tabacisoli sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Nicotiana tabacum L.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1​State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, PR China.

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain C8-1, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Nicotiana tabacum L. collected from Kunming, south-west China. The cells showed oxidase-positive and catalase-positive reactions. Read More

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December 2018
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Lutibaculum pontilimi sp. nov., isolated from a tidal mudflat and emended description of the genus Lutibaculum.

Authors:
Soon Dong Lee

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Science Education, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Republic of Korea.

A novel Gram-reaction-negative bacterium, designated strain GH1-34, was isolated from a sample of tidal mudflat collected at the seashore of Gangwha Island, Republic of Korea. Cells of the bacterium were strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile by means of a polar flagellum and rod shaped. It was found to grow at 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, 20-45 °C and pH 6-10. Read More

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December 2018
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Pedobacter miscanthi sp. nov., isolated from Miscanthus sinensis.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

3​Northwest Hubei Research Institute of Traditional Fermented Food, College of Food Science and Technology, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441053, PR China.

In a survey of endophytic bacteria in Miscanthus sinensis, a strain of Gram-negative, non-endospore-forming, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium was isolated and designated as RS10. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain RS10 was affiliated with the genus Pedobacter and exhibited the highest sequence similarities to Pedobacter kyungheensis KACC 16221 (97.78 %), Pedobacter roseus KCTC 22187 (97. Read More

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December 2018
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Nonomuraea lactucae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2​State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, PR China.

A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-YG30, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of lettuce collected in Heilongjiang province, north-east China. The taxonomic position of the strain was investigated using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain NEAU-YG30 belongs to the genus Nonomuraea, and shared highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis KCTC 29233 (97. Read More

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December 2018

Vallitalea okinawensis sp. nov., isolated from Okinawa Trough sediment and emended description of the genus Vallitalea.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

4​RCEECAS Joint-Lab of Microbial Technology for Environmental Science, Beijing, PR China.

A polyphasic study was conducted to characterize an obligately anaerobic bacterial strain, S15, that was isolated from Okinawa Trough sediment. Strain S15 was Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped. Spores were not observed. Read More

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December 2018

[Nutritional adequacy and food waste in Early Childhood Education Centers].

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4177-4188

Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas. BR 104 Norte Km 97, Tabuleiro do Martins. 57072-900 Maceió AL Brasil.

Analyzing quantitative and qualitative aspects of school meals represents the initial stage to ensure that the National School Food Program (PNAE) is an effective space for the promotion of healthy eating habits and establishing individual rights. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of meals served and consumed, as well as quantifying food waste in Child Daycare Centers in Maceió, in the state of Alagoas. All meals served and consumed by 359 children (aged 17 to 63 months) were analyzed by the direct weighing method for three non-consecutive days in all institutions. Read More

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December 2018

A new multistep purification method for simultaneously determining organic ultraviolet absorbents in fish tissue.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 11;191(1):16. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition of National Health Commission, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100021, China.

More information is required to improve our understanding of the presence of organic ultraviolet absorbents (UVAs) in organisms and the risks posed to biota. Effective removal of lipids in the determination of UVAs in biological samples is a sample-processing bottleneck. In this study, we optimized a multistep purification method for fish tissue samples extracted using an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method. Read More

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December 2018

Intricate role of mitochondrial lipid in mitophagy and mitochondrial apoptosis: its implication in cancer therapeutics.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Life Science, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, 769008, India.

The efficacy of chemotherapy is mostly restricted by the drug resistance developed during the course of cancer treatment. Mitophagy, as a pro-survival mechanism, crucially maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and it is one of the mechanisms that cancer cells adopt for their progression. On the other hand, mitochondrial apoptosis, a precisely regulated form of cell death, acts as a tumor-suppressive mechanism by targeting cancer cells. Read More

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December 2018
5.808 Impact Factor

Association of Early Life Exposure to Phthalates With Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits in Childhood: Sex Specific Associations.

Front Public Health 2018 27;6:327. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

Few studies have investigated longitudinal associations between early life phthalate exposure and subsequent obesity and cardiovascular risks in children with inconsistent results. We aimed to evaluate the associations between phthalate exposure during gestation and childhood with offspring obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in 500 mother-child pairs from the Rhea pregnancy cohort in Crete, Greece. Seven phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)] were quantified in spot urine samples collected from mothers (1st trimester) and their children at 4 years of age. Read More

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November 2018

Brain of the blind: transcriptomics of the golden-line cavefish brain.

Curr Zool 2018 Dec 12;64(6):765-773. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

The genus (golden-line barbel) includes 25 species of cave-dwelling blind fish (cavefish) and more than 30 surface-dwelling species with normal vision. Cave environments are dark and generally nutrient-poor with few predators. Cavefish of several genera evolved convergent morphological adaptations in visual, pigmentation, brain, olfactory, and digestive systems. Read More

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December 2018
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Lipid surface modifications increase mesoporous silica nanoparticle labeling properties in mesenchymal stem cells.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 20;13:7711-7725. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Instructive Biomaterials Engineering, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, 6229 ER MD, Maastricht, the Netherlands,

Background: Nanoparticles have emerged as promising cell-labeling tools, as they can be precisely tailored in terms of chemical and physical properties. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), in particular, are easily tunable with regard to surface and core chemistry, and are able to confine dyes and drug molecules efficiently.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lipid and polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modifications on MSN stem-cell-tracking abilities. Read More

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November 2018

Postnatal induction of muscle fatty acid oxidation in mice differing in propensity to obesity: a role of pyruvate dehydrogenase.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Adipose Tissue Biology, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background/objective: Adaptation to the extrauterine environment depends on a switch from glycolysis to catabolism of fatty acids (FA) provided as milk lipids. We sought to learn whether the postnatal induction of muscle FA oxidation in mice could reflect propensity to obesity and to characterize the mechanisms controlling this induction.

Methods: Experiments were conducted using obesity-resistant A/J and obesity-prone C57BL/6J (B6) mice maintained at 30 °C, from 5 to 28 days after birth. Read More

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December 2018

-Containing Vacuoles Capture PtdIns(4)-Rich Vesicles Derived from the Golgi Apparatus.

MBio 2018 Dec 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland

is the causative agent of a pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The facultative intracellular bacterium employs the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) and a plethora of translocated "effector" proteins to interfere with host vesicle trafficking pathways and establish a replicative niche, the -containing vacuole (LCV). Internalization of the pathogen and the events immediately ensuing are accompanied by host cell-mediated phosphoinositide (PI) lipid changes and the Icm/Dot-controlled conversion of the LCV from a PtdIns(3)-positive vacuole into a PtdIns(4)-positive replication-permissive compartment, which tightly associates with the endoplasmic reticulum. Read More

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December 2018

Heme oxygenase-1 induction by hemin prevents oxidative stress-induced acute cholestasis in the rat.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (IFISE-CONICET) y Area Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, UNR, Suipacha 570, Rosario, S2002LRL, Argentina

We previously demonstrated in and models that physiological concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin prevent oxidative stress (OS)-induced hepatocanalicular dysfunction and cholestasis. Here, we aimed to ascertain, in the whole rat, whether a similar cholestatic OS injury can be counteracted by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction that consequently elevates endogenous bilirubin (BR) levels. This was achieved through the administration of hemin, an inducer of HO-1, the rate-limiting step in BR generation. Read More

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December 2018

New roles of NO TRANSMITTING TRACT and SEEDSTICK during medial domain development in Arabidopsis fruits.

Development 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Unidad de Genómica Avanzada (LANGEBIO), Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Irapuato 36824, Guanajuato, México

The gynoecium, the female reproductive part of the flower, is key for plant sexual reproduction. During its development, inner tissues such as the septum and the transmitting tract tissue, important for pollen germination and guidance, are formed. In Arabidopsis, several transcription factors are known to be involved in the development of these tissues. Read More

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December 2018

Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and leaves extract on HaCaT and BJ fibroblast cells.

Lipids Health Dis 2018 Dec 11;17(1):280. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow, Kielnarowa 386a, 36-020, Tyczyn, Poland.

Background: Extracts from plants, rich in antioxidants may be used as active ingredients of many preparations, mainly due to their antioxidant, regenerative and anti-aging properties. The work involved a comprehensive evaluation of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) leaf and tuber extract as a multifunctional raw material. Read More

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December 2018

Polydatin Attenuates Atherosclerosis in ApoE Mice through PBEF Mediated Reduction of Cholesterol Deposition.

Am J Chin Med 2018 Dec 11:1-19. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

† School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, P. R. China.

Cholesterol metabolism becomes imbalanced during the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) has recently been found to affect lipid deposition and inflammation in atherosclerosis. Here, we aimed to study the effects and molecular mechanism of Polydatin on atherosclerosis in ApoE-knockout (ApoE ) mice. Read More

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December 2018

Resveratrol Ameliorates Lipid Droplet Accumulation in Liver Through a SIRT1/ ATF6-Dependent Mechanism.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 11;51(5):2397-2420. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Research Center for Nutrition and Food Safety, Institute of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chongqing,

Background/aims: Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic organelles that store neutral lipids during times of energy excess, and an increased accumulation of LDs in the liver is closely linked to hepatic steatosis. Our previous studies suggested that resveratrol (RSV) supplement could improve hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanism, particularly which related to LD accumulation, has not yet been elucidated.

Methods: A high-fat diet (HFD) and palmitic acid were used to induce hepatic steatosis in mouse liver and hepatocytes, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
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Independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males: A prospective cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center / National Clinical Research Center for Cancer / Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

To investigate the independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males, a prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 109,798 males with baseline information on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and non-HDL were prospectively observed from 2006 to 2015 for cancer incidence. Cox proportional hazards models and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Read More

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December 2018

Exosomes as a novel cell-free therapeutic approach in gastrointestinal diseases.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cell communication through extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been defined for many years and it is not limited only to neighboring cells, but also distant ones in organisms receive these signals. These vesicles are secreted from the variety of cells and are composed of a distinctive component such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. EVs have different classified subgroups regarding their cell origin, in this context, exosomes are the most appealing particles in cell biology, especially clinical in recent years and are represented as novel therapeutic agents with numerous advantages alongside and/or over cell therapy. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
3.839 Impact Factor

Increased biomass and lipid production by continuous cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina transformant overexpressing a bHLH transcription factor.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Advanced Biomass R&D Center, 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Microalgae are promising feedstocks for sustainable and eco-friendly production of biomaterials, which can be improved by genetic engineering. It is also necessary to optimize the processes to produce biomaterials from engineered microalgae. We previously reported genetic improvements of an industrial microalga Nannochloropsis salina by overexpressing a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (NsbHLH2). Read More

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December 2018

Projected Long-Chain n-3 Fatty Acid Intake Post-Replacement of Vegetables Oils with Stearidonic Acid-Modified Varieties: Results from a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 Analysis.

Lipids 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake is well below the amount recommended by the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (0.25 g/day), supporting the need for alternative dietary sources. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enriched soybeans were bioengineered to endogenously synthesize SDA, which can be readily metabolized to EPA in humans; thus, incorporating the derived SDA-enriched soybean oil into the food supply is a potential strategy to increase EPA. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Gibberellin Promotes Cell Growth and Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis and Upregulates Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Genes in Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biofuels and nutritional inventions. Recent studies from our lab have shown that two plant hormones, auxin and jasmonic acid, influence microalgae growth and fatty acid accumulation. Therefore, in this study, a high oil-producing strain Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 was selected for hormonal study using gibberellin (GA). Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Body Mass Index less than 30 kg/m.

Obes Surg 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, 130033, China.

Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been proved to be the most effective treatment strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m achieving high remission rates. However, there are few clinical studies on the treatment of T2DM patients with a body mass index less than 30 kg/m by LSG. This study aims to study the effect of LSG on type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in patients with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 kg/m. Read More

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December 2018

Liposomal Permeabilization Assay to Study the Functional Interactions of the BCL-2 Family.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1877:111-119

Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death that is important for development and homeostasis, is regulated by the BCL-2 family of proteins. Over twenty BCL-2 family members have been classified in three groups based on structural homology and function. The multidomain antiapoptotic proteins promote survival, whereas the multidomain and the BH3-only proapoptotic members induce cell death. Read More

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January 2019

Cytosolic lipid excess-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is the cause or effect of high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance: a molecular insight.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytopharmacy, TIFAC CORE in Herbal Drugs, JSS College of Pharmacy (A Constituent College of JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India), P.B. 20, Rocklands, Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu, 643001, India.

Mitochondria play a central role in the energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells by generating ATP via oxidative metabolism of nutrients. Excess lipid accumulation and impairments in mitochondrial function have been considered as putative mechanisms for the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Accumulation of lipids in tissues occurs due to either excessive fatty acid uptake, decreased fatty acid utilization or both. Read More

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December 2018

Cellular Metabolism at a Glance.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;109:3-27

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Metabolism is highly coordinated component of the cellular activity that involves sequential chemical transformations, within a so-called metabolic network. Through these coordinated actions, living organisms acquire energy and biosynthetic precursors to maintain cellular homeostasis and function. Metabolism relies on the breaking down of macromolecules to produce energy [catabolism] and/or intermediary metabolites that are then used to construct essential building blocks for macromolecule production [anabolism]. Read More

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January 2018

Role of the mTOR‑FOXO1 pathway in obesity‑associated renal tubulointerstitial inflammation.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, P.R. China.

Since obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence of renal tubulointerstitial inflammation, exploration into the mechanisms of obesity‑associated tubulointerstitial inflammation is essential. Studies have demonstrated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial molecule in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation, including regulating the expression of inflammatory factors. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the role of mTOR in obesity‑associated tubulointerstitial inflammation. Read More

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December 2018
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Hydrophobicity drives the systemic distribution of lipid-conjugated siRNAs via lipid transport pathways.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Efficient delivery of therapeutic RNA beyond the liver is the fundamental obstacle preventing its clinical utility. Lipid conjugation increases plasma half-life and enhances tissue accumulation and cellular uptake of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, the mechanism relating lipid hydrophobicity, structure, and siRNA pharmacokinetics is unclear. Read More

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December 2018
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Further evaluation of a slope-ratio precision-fed rooster assay and a limit-fed broiler chicken growth assay for relative metabolizable energy and relative bioavailable energy values of fats and oils.

Poult Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.

Three slope-ratio precision-fed rooster assays were conducted wherein roosters were precision-fed 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% (levels varied among experiments) refined soy oil, refined corn oil (RCO), poultry fat, crude soy oil, crude corn oil, palm oil, vegetable blend acid oil 1 and 2, soy acid oil, tallow, or choice white grease as part of a ground corn diet. Multiple regression slope-ratio analysis of nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy regressed on dietary fat level was used to estimate relative metabolizable energy (RME) values. The RME values were calculated as the regression coefficient of the test lipid divided by the regression coefficient of the reference refined soy oil or RCO (set at 100%). Read More

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December 2018

Use of a pooled cohort to impute cardiovascular disease risk factors across the adult life course.

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: In designing prevention strategies, it may be useful to understand how early and midlife cardiovascular disease risk factor (CVDRF) exposures affect outcomes that primarily occur in mid to late life. Few single US cohorts have followed participants from early adulthood to late life.

Methods: We pooled four prospective cohorts that represent segments of the adult life course, and studied 15 001 White and Black adults aged 18 to 95 years at enrollment. Read More

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December 2018

The role of the testa during the establishment of physical dormancy in the pea seed.

Ann Bot 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Experimental Plant Biology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: A water-impermeable testa acts as a barrier to a seed's imbibition, thereby imposing dormancy. The physical and functional properties of the macrosclereids are thought to be critical determinants of dormancy; however, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of and release from dormancy in pea are not well understood.

Methods: Seeds of six pea accessions of contrasting dormancy type were tested for their ability to imbibe and the permeability of their testa was evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Bioaccumulation of polystyrene nanoplastics and their effect on the toxicity of Au ions in zebrafish embryos.

Nanoscale 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Hazards Monitoring Bionano Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea. and KRIBB School, University of Science and Technology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

As nano- and micro-sized plastics accumulate in the environment and the food chain of animals, including humans, it is imperative to assess the effects of nanoplastics in living organisms in a systematic manner, especially because of their ability to adsorb potential toxicants such as pollutants, heavy metals, and organic macromolecules that coexist in the environment. Using the zebrafish embryo as an animal model, we investigated the bioaccumulation and in vivo toxicity of polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics individually or in combination with the Au ion. We showed that smaller PS nanoplastics readily penetrated the chorion and developing embryos and accumulated throughout the whole body, mostly in lipid-rich regions such as in yolk lipids. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Exosomes-the enigmatic regulators of bone homeostasis.

Bone Res 2018 7;6:36. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

1Centre for Orthopaedic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009 Australia.

Exosomes are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures, which mediate crosstalk interaction between cells. Recent studies have revealed a close relationship between exosomes and bone homeostasis. It is suggested that bone cells can spontaneously secret exosomes containing proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, which then to regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia revisited: A systematic review of inactivity prevalence and perceived barriers to active living.

Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2018 Nov-Dec;12(6):50-64

Lifestyle and Health Research, Health Science Research Center, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Saudi Arabia has recently witnessed enormous economic growth accompanied by undesirable lifestyle behaviors, along with an associated increase in non-communicable diseases (NCD's). This systematic review presents a comprehensive and an updated overview of the status of physical activity (PA) or inactivity among the Saudi population and examines the major barriers and correlates of PA.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis, Purification, and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Stable Isotope-Labeled Amadori-Glycated Phospholipids.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 19;3(11):15725-15733. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Center for Translational Biomedical Research, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, North Carolina 28081, United States.

Nonenzymatic glycation of lipids plays an important role in several physiological and pathological processes, such as normal aging and complications of diabetes mellitus. To develop liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric (LC-MS) methods for accurate analysis of Amadori compound-glycated lipids from biological samples, it is essential to obtain isotope-labeled Amadori-lipid standards. Herein, we report optimized methods for the preparation of six stable isotope-labeled Amadori-glycated lipid standards covering four types of lipids, including [C]Amadori-phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), -phosphatidyl serine (PS), -LysoPE, and -LysoPS. Read More

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November 2018

Lipoproteins in Cardiovascular Calcification: Potential Targets and Challenges.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2018 23;5:172. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Previously considered a degenerative process, cardiovascular calcification is now established as an active process that is regulated in several ways by lipids, phospholipids, and lipoproteins. These compounds serve many of the same functions in vascular and valvular calcification as they do in skeletal bone calcification. Hyperlipidemia leads to accumulation of lipoproteins in the subendothelial space of cardiovascular tissues, which leads to formation of mildly oxidized phospholipids, which are known bioactive factors in vascular cell calcification. Read More

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November 2018

Gradients in compositions in the starchy endosperm of wheat have implications for milling and processing.

Trends Food Sci Technol 2018 Dec;82:1-7

Plant Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, UK.

Background: Wheat is the major food grain consumed in temperate countries. Most wheat is consumed after milling to produce white flour, which corresponds to the endosperm storage tissue of the grain. Because the starchy endosperm accounts for about 80% of the grain dry weight, the miller aims to achieve flour yields approaching this value. Read More

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December 2018

Transcriptome-wide responses of adult melon thrips (Thrips palmi) associated with capsicum chlorosis virus infection.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208538. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Thrips palmi is a widely distributed major agricultural pest in the tropics and subtropics, causing significant losses in cucurbit and solanaceous crops through feeding damage and transmission of tospoviruses. Thrips palmi is a vector of capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) in Australia. The present understanding of transmission biology and potential effects of CaCV on T. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of longitudinal canal tissue in the acorn barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208352. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., United States of America.

The morphology and composition of tissue located within parietal shell canals of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite are described. Longitudinal canal tissue nearly spans the length of side shell plates, terminating near the leading edge of the specimen basis in proximity to female reproductive tissue located throughout the peripheral sub-mantle region, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Quantification of protein mobility and associated reshuffling of cytoplasm during chemical fixation.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 10;8(1):17756. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Systemic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto-Hahn-Str.11, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.

To understand cellular functionalities, it is essential to unravel spatio-temporal patterns of molecular distributions and interactions within living cells. The technological progress in fluorescence microscopy now allows in principle to measure these patterns with sufficient spatial resolution. However, high resolution imaging comes with long acquisition times and high phototoxicity. Read More

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December 2018
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Cross-Platform Comparison of Untargeted and Targeted Lipidomics Approaches on Aging Mouse Plasma.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 10;8(1):17747. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California, 94305, USA.

Lipidomics - the global assessment of lipids - can be performed using a variety of mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches. However, choosing the optimal approach in terms of lipid coverage, robustness and throughput can be a challenging task. Here, we compare a novel targeted quantitative lipidomics platform known as the Lipidyzer to a conventional untargeted liquid chromatography (LC)-MS approach. Read More

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December 2018

Improving effect of vitamin D supplementation on obesity-related diabetes in rats.

Minerva Endocrinol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Medicine, Shanghai Children's Medical Center Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R. China -

Background: Vitamin D, a fat-soluble secosteroid, plays a key role in several metabolic diseases like diabetes. Diabetes is becoming a third leading chronic disease in the world, which seriously threatens human health.

Methods: In current study, we found the beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in obesity-related diabetes rat. Read More

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December 2018

Lucky, times ten: A career in Texas science.

Authors:
David W Russell

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec;293(49):18804-18827

From the Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9046

On January 21, 2017, I received an E-mail from Herb Tabor that I had been simultaneously hoping for and dreading for several years: an invitation to write a "Reflections" article for the On the one hand, I was honored to receive an invitation from Herb, a man I have admired for over 40 years, known for 24 years, and worked with as a member of the Editorial Board and Associate Editor of the for 17 years. On the other hand, the invitation marked the waning of my career as an academic scientist. With these conflicting emotions, I wrote this article with the goals of recording my career history and recognizing the many mentors, trainees, and colleagues who have contributed to it and, perhaps with pretension, with the desire that students who are beginning a career in research will find inspiration in the path I have taken and appreciate the importance of luck. Read More

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December 2018

Dietary lysophosphatidylcholine-EPA enriches both EPA and DHA in the brain: Potential treatment for depression.

J Lipid Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Illinois at Chicago, United States;

EPA and DHA protect against multiple metabolic and neurologic disorders. Although DHA appears more effective for neuroinflammatory conditions, EPA is more beneficial for depression. However, the brain contains negligible amounts of EPA, and dietary supplements fail to increase it appreciably. Read More

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December 2018
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