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    1281 results match your criteria Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

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    Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 Sep-Oct;91(5 suppl 1):81-83
    Clinical Center of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade - Belgrade, Serbia.
    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by atrophic and sclerotic plaques in both genital and extragenital regions. Extensive bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (BLSA) is a severe variant of the disease with no widely accepted treatment. We present a 63-year-old woman with extensive extragenital, ivory-colored, atrophic plaques on her trunk and extremities and disseminated hemorrhagic bullae. Read More

    [Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus: about a case].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 24;25:190. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Service de Dermatologie, CHU Ibn Sina Rabat, Maroc.
    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis, characterized by a specific external genital mucosal tissue tropism. Isolated cutaneous manifestation is rare. We report a case of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in a woman with purely cutaneous involvement, in order to highlight the importance of evoking this diagnosis in the absence of obvious genital involvement. Read More

    Silk textile with antimicrobial AEM5772/5 (Dermasilk): a pilot study with positive influence on acne vulgaris on the back.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 May 27;56(5):589-591. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Center of Aesthetic Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Background: The use of special silk textiles (Dermasilk) has shown positive effects on chronic inflammatory diseases like lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, atopic dermatitis, diabetic ulcerations, and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Objective: Wearing T-shirts of this particular fabric could be useful in the management of patients with acne vulgaris on the back and trunk.

    Material And Methods: Dermasilk T-shirts were given to 14 patients with acne vulgaris papulopustulosa on the back. Read More

    Bleeding after circumcision is more likely in children with lichen sclerosus (balanitis xerotica obliterans).
    J Pediatr Urol 2016 Dec 9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Paediatric Surgery, E Prescot Rd, Liverpool, L14 5AB, UK.
    Introduction: Over 27,000 circumcisions were performed in England in 2012-13. The complication rate is generally perceived to be low, although published figures vary widely. Balanitis xerotica obliterans, more correctly termed Lichen Sclerosus et atrophicus (LS), is one of the commonest indications for medical circumcision. Read More

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in a surgical scar treated with fractional laser.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Apr 2;19(2):106-108. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    a Dermatology Department , Clínica Dermitek , Bilbao , Spain.
    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause that typically affects the genital area (1). It has been reported in post-traumatic areas as a result of Koebner phenomenon. LSA responds poorly to treatment making it a therapeutic challenge (2). Read More

    Effect of Lichen Sclerosis on Success of Urethroplasty.
    Urol Clin North Am 2017 Feb;44(1):77-86
    Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, DUMC 3146, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
    Lichen sclerosis (LS) is a chronic, relapsing disease with a variable presentation. In men, genitourinary LS may affect the penile foreskin, glans, meatus, and urethra. Treatment is multifaceted, ranging from pharmacotherapy to surgery. Read More

    Histopathological and clinical traps in lichen sclerosus: a case report.
    Rom J Morphol Embryol 2016 ;57(2 Suppl):817-823
    Department of Ophthalmology, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iassy, Romania;
    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and limited systemic scleroderma (acrosclerosis) are inflammatory skin diseases that ultimately evolve into two distinct modes of atrophic scar formation, but which can easily be confused clinically. They are very rarely associated. The literature has reported cases in which lichen sclerosus was associated with various forms of scleroderma, but often with localized morphea. Read More

    [Nomenclature of squamous cell precursor lesions of the lower female genital tract : Current aspects].
    Pathologe 2016 Nov;37(6):526-533
    Institut für Pathologie, Abteilung Mamma-, Gynäko- und Perinatalpathologie, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig AöR, Liebigstraße 26, 04103, Leipzig, Deutschland.
    The majority of precancerous lesions of the lower female genital tract (intraepithelial neoplasia, IN) are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections resulting in cellular atypia and in turn an altered tissue architecture. Depending on the pathogenesis, a distinction is made between vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) classified as classical VIN associated with high-risk HPV infections (u-VIN) and differentiated VIN (d-VIN), which is associated with lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and p53 alterations. In the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification a novel grading system for squamous cell precancerous lesions of the lower female genital tract has been proposed, differentiating low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (L-SIL) including condyloma and HPV-associated alterations plus VIN 1, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN 1) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1) from high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (H-SIL) with VIN 2 and 3, VaIN 2 and 3 as well as CIN 2 and 3. Read More

    Female lichen sclerosus genitalis: discomfort and adaptation.
    Clin Ter 2016 Jul-Aug;167(4):113-20
    Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Second University of Naples.
    Introduction: Female genitalis lichen sclerosus (FGLS) occurs on skin and mucous membranes and shows inflammatory lesions, chronic atrophic, itching and pain. These physical damages produce a decline in sex and a resulting relational couple discomfort.

    Aim: We describe the discomfort and the relationship between physical and psychological damage. Read More

    Effects of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions in a Neuropathic Pain Patient with Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2016 May-Aug;8(2):164-70. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
    Florida Spine Institute, Clearwater, Fla., USA.
    A patient reported to the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, Fla., USA) with severe lichen sclerosus of the anogenital region and legs. The patient's pain presentation was neuropathic with hypersensitivity, allodynia, swelling, and weakness. Read More

    Folliculocentric Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus in a 10-Year-Old Girl.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Jan;39(1):59-61
    *Departments of Pathology, and †Dermatology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC.
    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is a chronic inflammatory scarring disease with a predilection for the anogenital area; however, 15%-20% of LSA cases are extragenital. The folliculocentric variant is rarely reported and less well understood. The authors report a rare case of extragenital, folliculocentric LSA in a 10-year-old girl. Read More

    Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis (of Youth) Immunohistochemical and Serological Evidence for Another Clinical Presentation of Borrelia Infection in Patients of Western Austria.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Mar;39(3):177-180
    *Private Dermatohistological Laboratory, Nuernberg, Germany; †Institute of Pathology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; ‡Private Pathological Laboratory, Salzburg, Austria; and §Clinical Department of Dermatology & Venereology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth (ALDY) is a more recently described inflammatory disease of the skin of unknown etiology with clinical similarities to morphea. The authors clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically investigated 14 biopsies from 12 patients in western Austria with this disease. There were 6 female and 6 male patients with solitary (n = 7) and multiple lesions (n = 5) affecting the trunk (n = 11), upper arm (n = 2), thigh (n = 1), and calf (n = 1). Read More

    [Dermatological diseases of the external male genitalia : Part 1].
    Urologe A 2016 Jun;55(6):829-42
    Gemeinschaftspraxis für Dermatologie und Urologie, Gießen, Deutschland.
    The urological examination of male patients includes an inspection of the external genitalia whereby a variety of dermatological alterations can be found. Not all dermatological findings are of clinical relevance. Pearly penile papules and heterotopic sebaceous glands are examples of normal physiological variations. Read More

    Diversity of patient profile, urethral stricture, and other disease manifestations in a cohort of adult men with lichen sclerosus.
    Investig Clin Urol 2016 May 10;57(3):202-7. Epub 2016 May 10.
    Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Purpose: Lichen sclerosus (LS) in men is poorly understood. Though uncommon, it is often severe and leads to repeated surgical interventions and deterioration in quality of life. We highlight variability in disease presentation, diagnosis, and patient factors in male LS patients evaluated at a tertiary care center. Read More

    Gorlin Syndrome, Vulvar Basal Cell Carcinomas, Vismodegib, and Lichen Sclerosus: From the ISSVD Case Consultation Committee.
    J Low Genit Tract Dis 2016 Jul;20(3):e40-1
    1Maternity and Gynaecology, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton, New South Wales; 2Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, East Melbourne, Victoria; and 3Anatomical Pathology, Pathology North, Hunter New England, New Lambton, New South Wales; and Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

    NEVUS FLAMMEUS ASSOCIATED WITH DYSPLASTIC NEVI AND LICHEN SCLEROSUS: THE FIRST REPORT IN THE MEDICAL LITERATURE.
    Georgian Med News 2016 Feb(251):58-64
    1Department "Medicinal Information and Non-interventional studies", Bulgarian Drug Agency, Sofia, Bulgaria; 2"Onkoderma"- Ambulatory Clinic for Dermatology and Skin Surgery, Sofia, Bulgaria; 3Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Medical Faculty, "Saint Kliment Ohridski University"; 4Dermatology Department, University Hospital of Coimbra, Praceta Mota Pinto, Portugal; 5Department of General and Clinical pathology, Medical University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria; 6Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany.
    We describe a rare case of a 28 year-old male patient presenting with pruritus and increased sensitivity of the prepuce accompanied by erythematous confluent papules, unilateral nevus flammeus (NF) along almost the whole length of the right lower limb and two dysplastic nevi (DN), one located on the mid back and the other on the medial border of the right fifth toe, the latter coinciding with the NF. A biopsy of the prepuce revealed lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA). Mental health assessment revealed anxiety disorder and predisposition to panic attacks. Read More

    Urethral Reconstruction with Rectal Mucosa Graft Onlay: A Novel, Minimally Invasive Technique.
    J Urol 2016 Sep 9;196(3):782-6. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
    Institute of Urology, Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery (PWM), Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Alternative grafts are needed for patients who are not suitable candidates for oral mucosa graft harvest or who have a paucity of oral mucosa graft available for reconstruction. Circumferential colonic mucosal grafts have demonstrated feasibility for urethral reconstruction, although sigmoid resection has been required for graft retrieval. We report the feasibility and short-term outcomes of urethral reconstruction using a rectal mucosa graft harvested by a novel, minimally invasive, transanal endoscopic microsurgical technique. Read More

    Polarized Microscopy in Lesions With Altered Dermal Collagen.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Aug;38(8):593-7
    *Department of Dermatology, Ackerman Academy of Dermatopathology, New York, NY; †Dermatology Department, Kasr Alainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; ‡Department of Dermatology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Piscataway, NJ; and §Department of Dermatology, The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC.
    Alterations in dermal collagen are noted in dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, hypertrophic scars, and keloids. The authors sought to determine whether variations in birefringence of collagen by polarized microscopy could be of help in diagnosing such conditions. Representative hematoxylin and eosin sections of 400 cases, including dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, hypertrophic scars, keloid, morphea, and lichen sclerosus, were examined under polarized microscopy. Read More

    Pathological Investigation of Childhood Foreskin: Are Lichen Sclerosus and Phimosis Common?
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Feb;26(2):134-7
    Clinic of Urology, Samsun Training and Research Hospital, Samsun, Turkey.
    Objective: To evaluate histopathological results of foreskin removed during circumcision in the pediatric age group and the relationship between these and the degree of phimosis.

    Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

    Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Urology, Samsun Training and Research Hospital, Samsun, Turkey, from June to December 2014. Read More

    Genital Lichen Sclerosus in Male Patients: A New Treatment with Polydeoxyribonucleotide.
    Urol Int 2016 2;97(1):98-103. Epub 2016 Feb 2.
    Department of Urology and Andrology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory and chronic disease that causes itching, pain, dysuria, urinary retention, dyspareunia and sexual dysfunction, in both men and women. The first line pharmacological treatment is based on the use of topical steroids, which have proved their efficacy in 60-70% of cases but with a high rate of relapses in time (50-80% of the patients of both sexes). The purpose of our non-randomised prospective pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a new loco regional therapy with polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRN) in the treatment of male genital LS. Read More

    Complications after surgery for the relief of dyspareunia in women with lichen sclerosus: a case series.
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2016 Apr 18;95(4):467-72. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
    Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyse complications after surgical intervention on the vulva, especially with grafting of the vaginal epithelium, for the relief of dyspareunia in women with lichen sclerosus.

    Material And Methods: A case series of 23 women with histologically confirmed lichen sclerosus who underwent vulvar surgery because of disabling sexual dysfunction. Surgical care was provided in a university hospital (tertiary referral center) between 2008 and 2012. Read More

    Leprosy in the Bible.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 Jan-Feb;34(1):3-7. Epub 2015 Nov 17.
    Domestic and Specialized Medicine Centre "Dilmed", ul. Bohaterów Monte Cassino 3, 40-231 Katowice, Poland. Electronic address:
    For many years, the biblical term tzaraat has referred to leprosy. In fact, the disease or diseases described under this name have no relationship to leprosy, as it was known in the Middle Ages or today; moreover, the term referred not only to skin disease, but also to the state of the ritual impurity and punishment for the sins. Although the real nature of tzaraat remains unknown, the differential diagnosis might include the following: Psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, favus, dermatophyte infections, nummular dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, crusted scabies, syphilis, impetigo, sycosis barbae, alopecia areata, furuncles, scabies, neurodermatitis, scarlet fever, lupus erythematosus, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, folliculitis decalvans, morphea, sarcoidosis, and lichen planopilaris. Read More

    Primary dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures in patients with lichen sclerosus.
    Int Urol Nephrol 2016 Apr 11;48(4):541-5. Epub 2016 Jan 11.
    Sava Perovic Foundation (RD), Belgrade, Serbia.
    Purpose: To report our ongoing experience with dorsal buccal mucosa graft (BMG) urethroplasty for the primary repair of anterior urethral strictures in patients with lichen sclerosus (LS).

    Patients And Methods: A total of 32 men with LS underwent BMG urethroplasty from January 2010 to September 2012. In 27 patients, stricture was limited to the penile urethra, while in five patients, both bulbar and penile urethra were involved. Read More

    Atypical presentations of eosinophilic fasciitis.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2016 Jan-Feb;82(1):47-52
    Department of Dermatology, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disease that may mimic and overlap with other sclerosing disorders such as morphea and lichen sclerosus. Herein, we report four patients (two men and two women, aged 16-64 yeas) with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was overlap with both morphea and lichen sclerosus in 2 patients and with morphoea alone in 1 patient. Read More

    Intraurethral Steroids are a Safe and Effective Treatment for Stricture Disease in Patients with Biopsy Proven Lichen Sclerosus.
    J Urol 2016 Jun 18;195(6):1790-6. Epub 2015 Dec 18.
    School of Medicine, Duke University (BAP), Durham, North Carolina; Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
    Purpose: We investigated outcomes of the contemporary practice of administering intraurethral steroids to treat stricture disease in patients with biopsy proven lichen sclerosus.

    Materials And Methods: We performed an institutional review board approved review of the records of patients with biopsy proven lichen sclerosus stricture disease from October 2010 to September 2015. Study inclusion criteria were age 18 years or greater and male gender. Read More

    Lichen sclerosus and granuloma annulare of the foreskin: a significant association.
    Rom J Morphol Embryol 2015 ;56(3):1179-83
    Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of Cantabria and IDIVAL, Santander, Spain;
    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is considered to be a disease resulting of local immune dysregulation. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and cell-mediated immune response are hypothesized to be the pathogenesis of granuloma annulare (GA). The case is presented of an uncircumcised 45-year-old man who developed lesions of LS and GA in his foreskin. Read More

    New therapeutic approaches in the treatment of anogenital lichen sclerosus: does photodynamic therapy represent a novel option?
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017 Apr 3;152(2):117-121. Epub 2015 Dec 3.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is an inflammatory, mucocutaneous disorder that affects male and especially female with a debilitating impact on the quality of life. Common localization is the anogenital area. If not treated LSA can leave scars, functional impairment and can evolve in squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides With Lichen Sclerosus-Like Clinical and Histopathological Features.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Feb;38(2):138-43
    *Department of Dermatology, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; †Kempf und Pfaltz, Histologische Diagnostik, Zürich, Switzerland; and ‡Department of Pathology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Mycosis fungoides (MF) simulates a variety of dermatologic disorders histopathologically and clinically, well deserving the designation of a great mimicker. Interstitial MF is a rare, but well-recognized histopathological variant resembling the interstitial form of granuloma annulare or the inflammatory phase of morphea. From a clinical standpoint, MF can have a wide array of manifestations, including an anecdotal presentation with lesions clinically suggestive of lichen sclerosus (LS). Read More

    Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus along the lines of Blaschko.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2015 Sep-Oct;6(5):342-4
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Pramukshwami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, India.
    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Extragenital involvement is uncommon and commonly affects the neck, shoulders, and upper portion of the trunk. It is predominant in women with a male-to-female ratio of 1:6 and occurs at any age. Read More

    Understanding the Relationship between Chronic Systemic Disease and Lichen Sclerosus Urethral Strictures.
    J Urol 2016 Feb 5;195(2):363-8. Epub 2015 Sep 5.
    Purpose: Lichen sclerosus is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition of the genitalia of unknown origin that accounts for nearly 10% of urethral stricture disease. In this study we determine systemic comorbidities associated with lichen sclerosus in men.

    Materials And Methods: We analyzed data from 1,151 men who were enrolled in a multi-institutional prospective urethroplasty outcomes database. Read More

    Bullous and hemorrhagic lichen sclerosus--Case report.
    An Bras Dermatol 2015 May-Jun;90(3 Suppl 1):118-20
    Fundação Alfredo da Matta, Manaus, AM, BR.
    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease, usually located in the genital area. The etiology of lichen sclerosus is multifactorial, with participation of genetic, autoimmune, infectious and hormonal factors. Bullous clinical form stems from hydropic degeneration of the basal membrane, constituting a less frequent variant of the disease. Read More

    The presence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in male Chinese lichen sclerosus patients: a single center study.
    Asian J Androl 2016 Jul-Aug;18(4):650-3
    Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine Affililated Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai, China.
    This study aimed to investigate the presence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in male lichen sclerosus patients. We extracted DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded foreskin tissue blocks of 47 male LS patients and 30 healthy men and performed real-time PCR test to detect HPV and EBV. None of the 47 LS patients and 30 healthy men had detectable HPV infection. Read More

    Extragenital Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus.
    Indian J Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug;60(4):420
    Department of Dermatology, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences (VIMS), Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratisthan, 99, Sarat Bose Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis with anogenital and extragenital presentations. Extragenital lichen sclerosus is most common on the neck, shoulders and upper trunk. Linear lesions are uncommon in LSA. Read More

    Evidence-based (S3) Guideline on (anogenital) Lichen sclerosus.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Oct 22;29(10):e1-43. Epub 2015 Jul 22.
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory skin disease that usually involves the anogenital area. All patients with symptoms or signs suspicious of lichen sclerosus should be seen at least once initially by a physician with a special interest in the disease in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, as early treatment may cure the disease in some and reduce or prevent scarring. The diagnosis is made clinically in most cases. Read More

    Eosinophils in lichen sclerosus et atrophicus.
    J Cutan Pathol 2015 Oct 10;42(10):693-8. Epub 2015 Aug 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Background: The classic histopathologic features of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LS) include lymphoplasmacytic inflammation below a zone of dermal edema and sclerosis. The presence of eosinophils in LS has received little attention, but the finding of tissue eosinophils, particularly eosinophilic spongiosis in LS, has been suggested as a marker for the coexistence of autoimmune bullous disease or allergic contact dermatitis (or both). We sought to determine whether the histopathologic presence of dermal eosinophils or eosinophilic spongiosis (or both) in biopsies from patients with LS is associated with autoimmune bullous disease, autoimmune connective tissue disease or allergic contact dermatitis. Read More

    A retrospective analysis of pediatric patients with lichen sclerosus treated with a standard protocol of class I topical corticosteroid and topical calcineurin inhibitor.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2016 3;27(1):64-6. Epub 2015 Jul 3.
    a Department of Dermatology and.
    Background: Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic, inflammatory condition of the skin, affecting primarily the anogenital region potentially leading to changes in vaginal architecture and vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Current recommended treatment for LS is high-potency corticosteroids. Calcineurin inhibitors may also have a role. Read More

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