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    Survivin and autoimmunity; the ins and outs.
    Immunol Lett 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Rheumatology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Rheumatology Expert Group (REG), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Autoimmunity is a status that immune mechanisms react against self-structure. The immune mechanisms, including cellular and molecular elements have been developed to immune body against foreign invades. Multiple factors such as genetic and epigenetic background, hormonal status, microbiome, and other factors can cause launching the autoreactive responses, in which the immune tolerance breaks and immune mechanisms are against self-antigens. Read More

    C-Jun expression in lichen planus, psoriasis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an immunohistochemical study.
    J Immunoassay Immunochem 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    c Dermatology Departments , Shibin Elkom Teaching Hospital , Egypt.
    The AP-1 transcription factor complex is a key player in regulating inflammatory processes, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell transformation. The aim of the present study is to investigate C-Jun (one of AP-1complex) expression and its proliferative role in skin samples of lichen planus, psoriasis as common inflammatory skin diseases and squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical method. The present study was carried out on skin biopsies of 15 psoriatic patients, 15 lichen planus patients, 15 SCC and 15 normal skin biopsies. Read More

    Novel Treatment Using Low-Dose Naltrexone for Lichen Planopilaris.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Nov;16(11):1140-1142

    Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is a variant of lichen planus that affects the scalp causing scarring hair loss. Patients also frequently experience symptoms of scalp itch, pain, and burning. To date, there are no long-term remittive nor curative therapies available. Read More

    Oral Lichen Planus: A Cross-Sectional/Descriptive Study of 33 Patients.
    Skinmed 2017 1;15(5):333-337. Epub 2017 Oct 1.
    Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College, Raipur, India.
    Oral lichen planus (OLP), a well-known entity, is often neglected; however, its assessment is considered essential for evolving future strategies for treatment. Thirty-three patients with OLP from 200 consecutive patients with oral mucosal lesions were studied according to demography. Tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol intake were recorded. Read More

    Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Iranian children and adolescents: a 12-year retrospective study.
    Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Aim: To investigate the prevalence of oral lichen planus in patients younger than 18 years, referred to a dermatology centre in Iran during 2002-2014. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory, immune-mediated disease that could affect the oral mucosa and is a pre-cancerous condition. The disease usually develops in middle age with female predominance and is rare in children. Read More

    Reduced miRNA‑214 expression in oral mucosa contributes to the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus by targeting CD44.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Prosthodontics, Jining Hospital of Stomatology, Jining, Shandong 272001, P.R. China.
    The present study aimed to investigate the role of miRNAs during the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP). OLP is a chronic inflammatory disorder, which involves T‑cell mediated autoimmunity and affects the skin, scalp, nails and mucosa. Abundant T lymphocytes have been demonstrated to infiltrate the oral mucosa, in which the activated T cells trigger apoptosis of oral epithelial cells. Read More

    Expression and role of p53 in oral lichen planus patients.
    J BUON 2017 Sep-Oct;22(5):1278-1286
    Clinic of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Purpose: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune skin and mucosal disorder. The range of malignant transformation in OLP varies between 0.1-3%. Read More

    Alteration of salivary glycopatterns in oral lichen planus.
    Biomarkers 2017 Nov 13:1-21. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    a Department of Immunology , the Fourth Military Medical University , Xi'an , 710032 , China.
    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common oral mucosal lesions affecting 0.5% to 2% of the adult population. It is difficult to distinguish between OLP and other oral mucosal diseases. Read More

    A prospective observational study to compare efficacy of topical triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% oral paste, oral methotrexate, and a combination of topical triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% and oral methotrexate in moderate to severe oral lichen planus.
    Dermatol Ther 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Topical corticosteroids are considered to be the most effective treatment for oral lichen planus (OLP). Methotrexate has been found to be effective in extensive cutaneous lichen planus. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of topical triamcinolone 0. Read More

    Management of Oral Lichen Planus by 980 nm Diode Laser.
    J Lasers Med Sci 2017 27;8(3):150-154. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Laser Research Center of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Tehran University of Medial Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a mucocutaneous disease with uncertain etiology. As the etiology is unknown standard treatment modalities are not available. The traditional and common treatment relies on corticosteroids whether topical or systemic. Read More

    Outcomes of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions treated with topical corticosteroid.
    Oral Dis 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    School of Dentistry. Instituto de Biomedicina de Granada, University of Granada, Spain.
    Objective: To determine corticosteroid treatment effectiveness in patients with Oral Lichen Planus/Oral Lichenoid Lesions (OLP/OLL).

    Material And Methods: Twenty-one OLP and eighty-one OLL patients received 0.05% clobetasol propionate (CP) or 0. Read More

    Looking Beyond the Cyclosporine "Swish and Spit" Technique in a Recalcitrant Case of Erosive Lichen Planus Involving the Tongue.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2017 Sep-Dec;9(3):177-183. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Delhi, India.
    Oral lichen planus is a relatively common autoimmune disease affecting the middle-aged population. Although no treatment is necessary for a benign asymptomatic case, in case of erosive lichen planus, topical corticosteroids form the mainstay of treatment. In case of failure, apart from tacrolimus, cyclosporine, using the "swish and spit" technique, is a valid therapeutic intervention. Read More

    Esophageal Lichen Planus: Understanding a Potentially Severe Stricturing Disease.
    Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2017 4;2017:5480562. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    A 67-year-old woman with a long-standing history of recurrent dysphagia and esophageal strictures failed to respond to aggressive antireflux management. She required multiple dilations for symptomatic strictures that were discovered throughout the esophagus. Intralesional, topical, and systemic glucocorticoid therapies were utilized without resolution in symptoms. Read More

    Oral Lichen Planus in a Pediatric Patient: A Novel Therapeutic Approach.
    J Dent (Tehran) 2017 Mar;14(2):109-114
    Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, P.D.M. Dental College, Bahadurgarh, Haryana, India.
    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease, predominantly affecting the middle-aged individuals and may be associated with a plethora of signs and symptoms related to the skin, scalp, nails and mucous membranes. The definitive etiology of lichen planus is not yet known and no therapeutic modality has yet been universally accepted. Lichen planus in pediatric patients is a rare phenomenon and its presence in the oral mucosa is even rarer. Read More

    Evidence of earlier thyroid dysfunction in newly diagnosed oral lichen planus patients: a hint for endocrinologists.
    Endocr Connect 2017 Nov;6(8):726-730
    Department of Surgical SciencesCIR-Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    The association between oral lichen planus (OLP) and hypothyroidism has been debated with conflicting results: some authors detected a statistically significant association between these two, while others did not confirm it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid status in patients with newly diagnosed OLP to test the null hypothesis that thyroid disease is not associated with an increased incidence of oral lesions, with a prospective case-control approach. A total of 549 patients have been evaluated, of whom 355 were female. Read More

    Syphilitic alopecia: uncommon trichoscopic findings.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2017 Jul 31;7(3):55-59. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Dermatology Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical and Neuro Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Syphilitic alopecia (SA) is considered an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis. SA can present in a diffuse form, resembling telogen effluvium, or in a moth-eaten form that mimics a variety of conditions (i.e. Read More

    Lichen planus pigmentosus and its variants: review and update.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Dermatology, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González", Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, México.
    Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is considered a rare variant of lichen planus (LP). It is characterized by acquired dark brown to gray macular pigmentation located on sun-exposed areas of the face, neck, and flexures, commonly found in dark-skinned patients. In patients with LPP, an inflammatory lichenoid response results in marked pigmentary incontinence. Read More

    Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide induces over production of CC chemokine ligand 2 via toll-like receptor-4 in oral lichen planus.
    J Oral Pathol Med 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Oral Medicine, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Background: We recently reported that the CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)-CC receptor 2 (CCR2) axis was involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP). However, the exact mechanism for the high expression of CCL2 in OLP specimens is not clear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the potential role of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) pathway in overproduction of CCL2 in OLP lesions. Read More

    A report on the clinical-pathological correlations of 788 gingival lesion.
    Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2017 Nov 1;22(6):e686-e693. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Turin, CIR - Dental School, Oral Medicine Section, Via Nizza 230, 10126 Turin, Italy,
    Background: The diagnosis and treatment of a variety of non-plaque related gingival diseases have become an integrated aspect of everyday dentistry. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between clinical appearance and histopathological features of gingival lesions in a large Northern Italian population.

    Material And Methods: A retrospective study of 788 cases of gingival and alveolar mucosal biopsies was set up. Read More

    Epstein Barr virus positive mucocutaneous ulcer in a background of Crohn's disease and Waldenström macroglobulinemia: a case report highlighting diagnostic pitfalls.
    Histopathology 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Histopathology department, The Royal Marsden Hospital. Sutton, Surrey, UK, SM2 5NG.
    A specialist haematopathology opinion was sought on a left palatine tonsillar excision biopsy performed for suspected carcinoma. The patient, a 72-year old male, presented with oropharyngeal dysphagia in May 2015 and was diagnosed with hypertrophic, ulcerated lichen planus on an incision biopsy of a white patch on the posterior third of the tongue. Topical steroids were commenced with clinical improvement. Read More

    Dermoscopy and patch testing in patients with lichen planus pigmentosus on face: A cross-sectional observational study in fifty Indian patients.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2017 Nov-Dec;83(6):656-662
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Lichen planus pigmentosus (LPP) is a common cause of facial melanosis in the dark-skinned population. At present, information on dermoscopy and patch testing in LPP is limited.

    Objectives: To describe dermoscopic findings and study the role of patch testing in patients with LPP on the face. Read More

    Correlation between tissue expression of microRNA-137 and CD8 in oral lichen planus.
    Clin Oral Investig 2017 Oct 15. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, inflammatory condition, classified by the World Health Organization as a premalignant lesion. We performed this study to evaluate the correlation between microRNA-137 (miR-137) and CD8 oral tissue expression in OLP patients.

    Materials And Methods: Twenty OLP patients [classified into three groups: (a) papular, reticular, or plaque; (b) atrophic; and (c) erosive] and 20 healthy controls were subjected to biopsy of the oral mucosa. Read More

    Lichen planus affecting the female genitalia: A retrospective review of patients at Mayo Clinic.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Dec 12;77(6):1053-1059. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:
    Background: Genital or vulval lichen planus (VLP) may have a disabling effect on a patient's quality of life. Evidence-based management guidelines are lacking for VLP.

    Objective: We sought to review clinical presentation and treatment of patients who received a diagnosis of VLP. Read More

    Spectrum of orocutaneous disease associations: Genodermatoses and inflammatory conditions.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2017 Nov;77(5):809-830
    Division of Dermatology, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:
    The oral cavity and cutaneous organ systems share a close embryologic origin. Therefore, there are numerous dermatologic conditions presenting with concomitant oral findings of which the dermatologist must be aware. The second article in this continuing medical education series reviews inflammatory orocutaneous conditions and a number of genodermatoses. Read More

    A Japanese Case of Esophageal Lichen Planus that Was Successfully Treated with Systemic Corticosteroids.
    Intern Med 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tsuyama Chuo Hospital, Japan.
    Esophageal lichen planus (ELP) is rare and only about 80 cases have been reported in the literature. An 85-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and odynophagia. Endoscopy revealed a severe stricture in the proximal esophagus. Read More

    Skin Manifestations Associated with Autoimmune Liver Diseases: a Systematic Review.
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Dermatologia Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Ospedale Regionale Bellinzona e Valli, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
    Autoimmune liver diseases, which include mainly autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and the variant syndromes, are often associated with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases. However, the association with cutaneous diseases is less well described. In the present article, we provide a systematic literature review on skin manifestations linked to each of these four autoimmune liver diseases, excluding skin manifestations of systemic diseases. Read More

    Ultrastructural Changes during the Life Cycle of Mycoplasma salivarium in Oral Biopsies from Patients with Oral Leukoplakia.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 21;7:403. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Division of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Iwate Medical UniversityShiwagun, Japan.
    Bacteria in genus Mycoplasma spp. are the smallest and simplest form of freely replicating bacteria, with 16 species known to infect humans. In the mouth, M. Read More

    Nicolau Syndrome following Intramatricial Triamcinolone Injection for Nail Lichen Planus.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Sep-Oct;8(5):350-351
    Department of Dermatology and STD, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Nicolau syndrome (Embolia cutis medicamentosa) is a rare complication following parenteral administration of a drug. It has been reported in association with intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous and intra-articular injections. However, Nicolau syndrome following intramatricial injection has not been described to the best of our knowledge. Read More

    DNA methylation patterns of genes related to immune response in the different clinical forms of oral lichen planus.
    J Oral Pathol Med 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Background: The oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease. Although its aetiology is not well understood, the role of T lymphocytes in its inflammatory events is recognised. Identifying the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this immune-mediated condition is fundamental for understanding the inflammatory reaction that occurs in the disease. Read More

    Dermatoscopic evaluation and histopathological correlation of acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Dec 3;56(12):1395-1399. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Background: Acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation (ADMH) is a hypernym encompassing Riehl's melanosis, lichen planus pigmentosus, and ashy dermatoses that show significant clinicopathological overlap. We sought to describe the dermatoscopic features of ADMH and correlate them with histopathological findings.

    Methods: This was a prospective observational study performed in two phases. Read More

    Role of Cathepsin B as a Marker of Malignant Transformation in Oral Lichen Planus: An Immunohistochemical Study.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Aug 1;11(8):ZC29-ZC32. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Reader, Department of Oral Pathology, Krishnadevaraya College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Introduction: Malignant transformation of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) remains a much discussed but very less understood realm. Various hypotheses and theories have been put forward to explain the same. Malignant transformation is a complex interplay of epithelial mesenchymal factors acting in tandem. Read More

    Annular atrophic lichen planus responds to hydroxychloroquine and acitretin.
    Cutis 2017 Aug;100(2):119-122
    Division of Dermatology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois, USA.
    Annular atrophic lichen planus (AALP) is a rare variant of lichen planus. The clinical presentation of AALP shows distinct atrophic plaques with elevated borders on the trunk and extremities. Histopathologic findings generally reveal a lichenoid dermatitis in active lesions with a distinct loss of elastic fibers in the center of the lesions. Read More

    Lichen planopilaris developed during childhood.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Jul-Aug;92(4):543-545
    Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
    Lichen planopilaris is a disease that appears with lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia. It is considered a follicular variant of lichen planus. The examination of affected areas shows alopecia with perifollicular erythema and scaling, revealing a predilection for hair follicles. Read More

    Acitretin Use in Dermatology.
    J Cutan Med Surg 2017 Nov/Dec;21(3_suppl):2S-12S. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    9 University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Background: Acitretin has been used for the treatment of severe psoriasis for over 20 years.

    Objective: The current project was conceived to optimise patient care by recognising the role acitretin can play in the treatment of patients with psoriasis and those with other disorders of keratinisation.

    Methods: A literature review was conducted to explore the role of acitretin and to assess its value for dermatologic disorders other than severe psoriasis. Read More

    Does the corticotropin-releasing hormone system play a role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus?
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Aug 1;34(4):322-327. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Health Sciences, Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Introduction: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, where the psychogenic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis.

    Aim: To determine the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) in LP.

    Material And Methods: Thirty-two LP patients and 17 age/gender-matched controls were included in the study. Read More

    [Oral cancer -diagnosis and therapy-.]
    Clin Calcium 2017;27(10):1427-1433
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Dental College, Japan.
    Oral cancer is a malignant neoplasm that occurs in the oral cavity. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for over 90%of the oral cancers, and others include adenocarcinoma derived from minor salivary gland, sarcoma, malignant lymphoma and metastatic cancer. The number of oral cancer patients in Japan is about 3-times higher than the current number. Read More

    MicroRNAs in cutaneous lichen planus.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Dec 22;42(8):898-901. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Dermatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt.
    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic, inflammatory, papulosquamous, autoimmune disease. The pathogenesis of LP appears to be complex, with interactions between genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs encoded in both protein coding and noncoding areas of the genome, and have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory skin diseases. Read More

    Lichen Planus triggered by infliximab biosimilar CT-P13 and recurred during secukinumab treatment.
    Br J Dermatol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Dermatology Unit, Department of Surgical and Translational Medicine, University of Florence.
    we read with interest the manuscript published by Gonzales et al,(1) highlighting lichenoid reactions as an emerging side effect of biologics, with special regard to infliximab-biosimilar. We recently observed a 50-year-old male patient with a long-standing history of moderate-to-severe psoriasis, who developed oral lichen planus (LP) triggered by infliximab biosimilar CT-P13. Interestingly the same patient experienced cutaneous and oral LP when treated with IL-17A blocker, secukinumab. Read More

    Mucin 5B in saliva and serum of patients with oral lichen planus.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 21;7(1):12060. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is among the most common oral diseases. Its etiopathogenesis has yet to be clearly identified. OLP patients complain of mouth dryness. Read More

    Validation of immunoexpression of tenascin-C in oral precancerous and cancerous tissues using ImageJ analysis with novel immunohistochemistry profiler plugin: An immunohistochemical quantitative analysis.
    J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2017 May-Aug;21(2):211-217
    Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, KLE University, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a molecular technique that has grown tremendously over the years. However, the assessment is only qualitative which is subjective and causes errors. Due to this limitation, several excellent markers have not gained importance and reached clinical trials. Read More

    Linear Lichen Planus: Continuum From Skin to Mucosa.
    J Cutan Med Surg 2017 Sep 1:1203475417733463. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    1 Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects middle-aged individuals. LP involves the skin and/or mucous membranes, including oral, vulvovaginal, esophageal, laryngeal, and conjunctival mucosa. Linear LP, a rare distinct variant of LP, is characterised by pruritic eruption of lichenoid and violaceous papules in a linear distribution. Read More

    Drug-induced oral lichenoid reactions: a real clinical entity? A systematic review.
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2017 Dec 13;73(12):1523-1537. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Libraries, New Orleans School of Dentistry, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1100 Florida Ave, New Orleans, LA, 70119, USA.
    Purpose: Drug-induced oral lichenoid reactions (DIOLRs) have been extensively reported in the literature, but the validity of the causality relationship between any drug and the oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) still remains questionable. We sought to determine whether this causality relationship really exists, whether a resolution of the oral lesions upon withdrawal occurs, and what the most common alleged offending medications are.

    Methods: Nine electronic databases from January 1966 to December 2016 were systematically searched to identify all relevant studies selected with specific inclusion criteria (a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of DIOLRs, and clearly statement on the systemic offending medication). Read More

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