Background: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a molecular technique that has grown tremendously over the years. However, the assessment is only qualitative which is subjective and causes errors. Due to this limitation, several excellent markers have not gained importance and reached clinical trials. Read More
1 Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects middle-aged individuals. LP involves the skin and/or mucous membranes, including oral, vulvovaginal, esophageal, laryngeal, and conjunctival mucosa. Linear LP, a rare distinct variant of LP, is characterised by pruritic eruption of lichenoid and violaceous papules in a linear distribution. Read More
Purpose: Drug-induced oral lichenoid reactions (DIOLRs) have been extensively reported in the literature, but the validity of the causality relationship between any drug and the oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) still remains questionable. We sought to determine whether this causality relationship really exists, whether a resolution of the oral lesions upon withdrawal occurs, and what the most common alleged offending medications are.
Methods: Nine electronic databases from January 1966 to December 2016 were systematically searched to identify all relevant studies selected with specific inclusion criteria (a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of DIOLRs, and clearly statement on the systemic offending medication). Read More
Eastman Dental Institute, University College London.
Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic T-cell-mediated mucocutaneous inflammatory disease that targets stratified epithelia, including those lining the oral cavity. The intraoral variant of LP (OLP) is associated with interferon (IFN)-γ production by infiltrating T lymphocytes; however, the role of epithelial cells in the etiopathogenesis OLP is not completely understood. There is however a growing body of evidence regarding the involvement of epithelial-derived cytokines, immune receptors, and costimulatory molecules in the pathobiological processes that promote and sustain OLP. Read More
Background And Objectives: In the oral cavity, the mucosal tissues may develop a number of different pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis) and autoimmune disorders (eg, oral lichen planus) that require therapy. The application of topical drugs is one common therapeutic approach. However, their efficacy is limited. Read More
Duke University Medical Center, Department of Dermatology and Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA -
Cutaneous lichen planus (CLP) is a chronic autoimmune disease classically associated with severely pruritic, polygonal, violaceous, flat-topped papules and plaques. Subtypes such as hypertrophic and bullous lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. Treatment can be challenging, and prospective controlled studies are lacking. Read More
Arch Oral Biol 2017 Aug 26;83:334-339. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Guangzhou 510055, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects keratinocytes in the mucosa or skin, and persistent infection with HPV may lead to premalignant lesions and invasive cancer, especially cervical cancer. It has also been hypothesized that HPV infection is an etiological factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral precancerous disorders such as lichen planus, leukoplakia, and erythroplakia. A high percentage of HPV in oral lesions supports the possible viral contribution, but an association of HPV infection with these lesions remains to be established. Read More
Syphilis is an infection caused by Treponema pallidum, mainly transmitted by sexual contact. Since 2001, primary and secondary syphilis rates started to rise, with an epidemic resurgence. The authors describe an exuberant case of secondary syphilis, presenting with annular and lichen planus-like lesions, as well as one mucocutaneous lesion. Read More
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a variant of LP, a common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease. While cutaneous lesions of LP are self-limiting, OLP lesions are non-remissive, alternating periods of exacerbation and quiescence, and only symptomatic treatments exist for OLP. The precise etiology and pathogenesis of OLP are hardly understood, which is a major obstacle to the development of new therapeutics for this disease. Read More
Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland.
The association between Lichen planus (LP) and cancer has been under debate for decades. We studied the connection via population-based Finnish register data. All women with the diagnosis of LP (n = 13,100) were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Registry from 1969-2012. Read More
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, has prolonged courses, repeated attacks and resistance to treatment. The traditional narrow spectrum UVB treatment has an established efficacy on skin lichen planus, and high safety. However, most of ultraviolet phototherapy devices have a huge volume, thereby cannot be used in the treatment of OLP. Read More
Background: Clinical and dermoscopic features of Bowen's disease (BD) show great diversity. Some lesions of BD are often difficult to be differentiated from seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, lichen planus-like keratosis, etc. It is necessary to fully describe the dermoscopic features of the disease, considering differential diagnosis. Read More
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2017 Sep 23;124(3):e183-e189. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:
Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has a role in the progression of the oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of this meta-analysis study was to evaluate the salivary and serum TNF-α levels in patients with OLP.
Study Design: We searched in the databases of PubMed/Medline, Science direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for studies reported from 1983 to 2016. Read More
Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India.
Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. Read More
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and is commonly preceded by oral premalignant lesions. The mortality rates have remained unchanged (50% within 5 years after diagnosis), and it is related to tobacco smoking and alcohol intake. Novel molecular markers for early diagnosis are urgently needed. Read More
Background: Scoring systems have been widely used to evaluate the severity and activity of oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of the present study was to compare two existing (one modified) scoring systems in the evaluation of OLP severity and correlation with pain. Three differently experienced raters were involved. Read More
Background: Certain changes in the microRNA expression are considered to be associated with chronic inflammatory processes and with the malignant transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders. The purpose of this systematic review is to update the existing data on the aberrant microRNA expression profiles identified in oral lichenoid disease (OLD).
Material And Methods: A search in PubMed-Medline and Scopus was performed on the English literature published between 2010 and August 2016 using the following keywords: oral lichenoid disease, oral lichen planus and microRNA. Read More
Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), a subset of pemphigus, is a unique autoimmune blistering condition that can affect multiple organs other than the skin. It is a life-threatening disease associated with an underlying malignancy, most commonly of lymphoproliferative origin. The clinical picture may resemble pemphigus, pemphigoid, erythema multiforme, graft-versus-host disease, or lichen planus. Read More
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is an autoimmune disease which may initially present solely with lip lesions. Due to a wide spectrum of presentation, these features may initially be misdiagnosed as other oral diseases such as lichen planus, erythema multiforme (EM), and actinic cheilitis, leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss a case of severely crusted cheilitis which was initially diagnosed as EM, with subsequent development of subacute cutaneous LE, and progression to systemic LE. Read More
Background: "Lichenoid esophagitis" is a descriptive term for a lichenoid pattern of inflammation in the esophagus for which a precise histologic diagnosis cannot be established. The differential diagnosis includes lichen planus, a drug-related reaction, and viral infection. Lichenoid esophagitis causing death has not been reported previously. Read More
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine molecular alterations on the protein level in lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy mucosa.
Materials And Methods: Global protein profiling methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used, with a special emphasis on evaluation of deregulated extracellular matrix molecules expression, as well as on analyses of IG2F and IGFR2 expression in healthy mucosa, OLP and OSCC tissues by comparative semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry.
Results: Mass spectrometry-based proteomics profiling of healthy mucosa, OLP and OSCC tissues (and accompanied histologically unaltered tissues, respectively) identified 55 extracellular matrix proteins. Read More
Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous condition with a myriad of clinical manifestations. There are 3 forms of lichen planus that effect the vulva: papulosquamous, hypertrophic, and erosive. Erosive lichen planus can progress to vulvar scaring, vaginal stenosis, and squamous cell carcinoma; these long-term sequelae cause sexual distress, depression, and decreased quality of life for patients. Read More
Background: Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs) could have a significant psychological impact on patients, principally because of the unknown risk of malignant transformation, while the physical and functional impairments could differ. This study aimed to assess the impact of three different OPMDs and their disease stages on the Quality of Life (QoL) of affected patients.
Methods: Oral Leukoplakia (OL), Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) and Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) patients who were undergoing treatment at an oral medicine clinic of a dental teaching hospital in India were the study population. Read More
Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been proposed as a potential treatment strategy for the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP). The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of LLLT, in comparison with corticosteroid therapy, in the treatment of OLP.
Materials And Methods: This systematic review aimed to address the following focused question: "Does LLLT yield better clinical outcomes than corticosteroid therapy in the treatment of OLP?" Indexed databases were searched up to and including April 2017. Read More
Chronic, inflammatory and ulcerating mucocutaneous diseases that can affect the vulvar area are reviewed: lichen sclerosus, lichen planus, plasma cell vulvitis, complex aphthosis, Behcet's disease, pyoderma gangrenosum, metastatic Crohn's disease, dyskeratotic skin diseases (Hailey-Hailey disease and Darier's disease), autoimmune bullous diseases (mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris) and hidradenitis suppurativa. Also, vulvodynia and vestibulodynia, zinc and vitamin B deficiency are described. Read More
Chemokine mediated CD8(+) T cell recruitment is an essential but not well-established event for the persistence of oral lichen planus (OLP). Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D)/CD100 is implicated in immune dysfunction, chemokine modulation and cell migration, which are critical aspects for OLP progression, but its implication in OLP pathogenesis has not been determined. In this study, we sought to explicate the effect of Sema4D on human oral keratinocytes and its capacity to drive CD8(+) T cell lesional trafficking via chemokine modulation. Read More
Departamento de Cirugía y Especialidades Médico-Quirúrgicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España.
In this systematic review, 55 structured articles on the therapeutic efficacy against pain and clinical signs of oral lichen planus (OLP) were analysed. The literature search was developed according to the criteria of the PRISMA system, selecting the tests performed using one of the following methodological designs: drug (active ingredient) vs. drug in different excipient or concentration, drug vs. Read More
The aim of present study was to evaluate salivary matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-13 levels in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) as well as in healthy controls. Thirty cases of OLP (bilateral lesions, papular and reticular lesions, and Wickham lines) clinically and histopathologically (group A), 30 with oral SCCs (group B), and 30 with no history of oral cancer, other lesions or lichen planus (group C) were enrolled at the Department of Oral Medicine School of Dentistry, Zahedan, Iran. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and laboratory measurement of salivary concentration of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-13 was conducted by immuno-sorbent enzyme-linked methods. Read More
In a recently published study "Topical tocopherol for treatment of reticular oral lichen planus: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study" (Oral Diseases, January 2017), the authors have assessed the efficacy of topical tocopherol acetate in improving the lesions and oral discomfort of patient's suffering from reticular oral lichen planus comparing it with the results achievable by administering placebo. ((1)) In the study, 34 patients with clinically diagnosed and histologically confirmed ROLP were randomly assigned to two groups, which received first one of two treatments (treatment 1 or 2) for a month, then the other (treatment 2 or 1) for another month, with a two-week washout between them. One treatment contained tocopherol acetate, the other only liquid paraffin. Read More
Resveratrol is a polyphenol which has been gaining momentum in therapeutics in the last years. In this work, we hypothesized that it could act in the prophylaxis and/or treatment of inflammatory lesions of the oral cavity through its delivery from two different formulations of buccal mucoadhesive tablets. This was assessed through permeation studies, in order to verify the drug diffusivity through the buccal mucosa, using a porcine model to predict the human in vivo behavior. Read More
Objective: Oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, is considered a potentially malignant oral disorder. The aim of the present study was to analyze candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) and genes from patients with OLP and healthy controls (HCs).
Study Design: Biopsy specimens of the oral mucosa were collected from patients with OLP (n = 9) and from HCs (n = 4). Read More
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5-hmC) in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared with those in benign, reactive inflammatory lesions and to explore whether DNA hydroxymethylation may serve as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC.
Study Design: The study included normal mucosa from uninvolved margins of 9 fibromas, 10 oral lichen planus, 15 OED, and 23 OSCC. Cultured human keratinocyte lines from benign oral mucosa, OED, and OSCC, as well as a murine model in which OSCC was induced with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, were also evaluated. Read More
Mucocutaneous diseases affect the oral cavity and can present a diagnostic challenge. They can have systemic involvement, necessitating multidisciplinary management. Frequently, patients will see their general dentists initially for evaluation. Read More
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of IL-17A G197A polymorphism and serum levels with oral lichen planus susceptibility and clinical presentation.
Subjects And Methods: Eighty three individuals diagnosed with oral lichen planus (OLP) and ninety nine healthy controls (C) were consecutively recruited. All participants had desquamating oral mucosal cells collected and DNA isolated for IL-17A (G197A) genotyping. Read More
Objective: Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy.
Study Design: Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Read More
Background: The relationship between levels of salivary and serum interleukin (IL)-6 and oral lichen planus (OLP) is not understood fully. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare levels of salivary and serum IL-6 among people with OLP and healthy control participants.
Methods: The authors searched the literature for studies whose investigators had evaluated the relationships between IL-6 and OLP before treatment. Read More
Background: Hormonal fluctuations during menopause lead to endocrine changes in women, especially in their sex steroid hormone production. Studies have documented the role of estrogen and progesterone (Pg) on autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Lichen planus (LP), an autoimmune disorder, seen frequently in perimenopausal women, may also get affected by sex steroid hormones, but no direct relationship has been established yet. Read More
A 46-year-old woman with a 30 pack-year smoking history presented with a worsening eruption on the left cheek that failed to improve with metronidazole gel. The cutaneous eruption spread to most of her face and did not respond to a brief tapering course of prednisone. During the initial evaluation at our institution, approximately 6 weeks after the onset of the cutaneous eruption, the patient had erythematous, crusted plaques on her face and scalp (Figure 1A); they were also present on the V-area of the anterior aspect of the neck and upper region of the chest, the shoulders, and the arms, with isolated lesions on the trunk and legs. Read More
Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, flagellate, microaerophilic bacterium identified for the first time about 30 years ago, as a pathogenic factor of gastritis and peptic ulcer. Soon after, it was linked to several gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases (hematological, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary and ocular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, growth retardation and extragastric MALT lymphoma). Association and possible cause-effect correlation with H. Read More
Background: This study aimed to assess the salivary levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and OLP + DM patients in comparison with healthy individuals.
Materials And Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 75 patients (30 with OLP, 5 with both OLP and DM, 20 with DM and 20 healthy controls). The salivary levels of IL-8 and fasting blood sugar and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels were measured in all the subjects. Read More