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    Arthropod-borne pathogens of dogs and cats: From pathways and times of transmission to disease control.
    Vet Parasitol 2018 Feb 27;251:68-77. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, 70010, Valenzano, Italy. Electronic address:
    Vector-borne pathogens have developed a close relationship with blood feeding arthropod ectoparasites (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, phlebotomine sand flies, black flies, fleas, kissing bugs, lice) and exploited a huge variety of vector transmission routes. Read More

    First-aid management of tonic-clonic seizures among healthcare personnel: A survey by the Apulian section of the Italian League Against Epilepsy.
    Epilepsy Behav 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Epilepsy Centre - Clinic of Nervous System Diseases, Riuniti Hospital, Foggia, Italy.
    Introduction: To evaluate the knowledge of healthcare workers about first-aid measures to be performed during and after a tonic-clonic seizure.

    Methods: One hundred and fifty-four healthcare workers (86 physicians) working at 8 tertiary hospitals in the Apulia region, Italy, responded to a questionnaire comprising of 28 questions based on available Italian and international recommendations about what to do during a tonic-clonic seizure.

    Results: One hundred and fifty-four healthcare workers completed and returned surveys with a response rate of 96. Read More

    Identification and characterisation of the ecdysone biosynthetic genes neverland, disembodied and shade in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Caligidae).
    PLoS One 2018 5;13(2):e0191995. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Sea Lice Research Centre, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway.
    The salmon louse is a marine ectoparasitic copepod on salmonid fishes. Its lifecycle consists of eight developmental stages, each separated by a molt. In crustaceans and insects, molting and reproduction is controlled by circulating steroid hormones such as 20-hydroxyecdysone. Read More

    Parasites of small Indian mongoose, Herpestes auropunctatus, on St. Kitts, West Indies.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, West Indies, Saint Kitts and Nevis.
    Herpestes auropunctatus, the small Indian mongoose, is an invasive omnivore introduced to the Caribbean, including the island of St. Kitts over 150 years ago. It has played a role in changing native fauna and can carry zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Read More

    Ectoparasitic copepod infestation on a wild population of Neotropical catfishBloch, 1794: Histological evidences of lesions on host.
    Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2017 Dec 6;6(3):344-348. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Carrera de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Campo Gustavo Galindo, Km. 30,5 Vía Perimetral, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
    We analyzed the infestation of the attached copepod speciessp on a wild population of. The infestation and occurrence of attached copepods were related to body size, maturity and sex of host and the presence of lesions on fish skin were described. In 61 fish specimens (37 males and 24 females), total of 218 ectoparasitic copepods, including 204 mature and 14 immature stages were found. Read More

    RNA sequencing reveals distinct gene expression patterns during the development of parasitic larval stages of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).
    J Fish Dis 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Sea Lice Research Centre, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), an ectoparasitic copepod on salmonids, has become a major threat for the aquaculture industry. In search for new drugs and vaccines, transcriptome analysis is increasingly used to find differently regulated genes and pathways in response to treatment. However, the underlying gene expression changes going along with developmental processes could confound such analyses. Read More

    Response of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) to Volatiles of Whole and Individual Components of the Human Scalp.
    J Med Entomol 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Centro de investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (UNIDEF-CONICET), Juan Bautista de Lasalle 4397 (B1603ALO), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    The head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) is a cosmopolitan human ectoparasite causing pediculosis, one of the most common arthropod parasitic conditions of humans. The mechanisms and/or chemicals involved in host environment recognition by head lice are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the response of head lice to volatiles that emanate from the human scalp. Read More

    Case Report: Family Cluster of Japanese Spotted Fever.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Infectious Disease, Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan.
    Spotted fever group rickettsioses are transmitted by several types of arthropods (including ticks, chiggers, fleas, and lice) and are distributed worldwide. Japanese spotted fever (JSF) was discovered as an emerging rickettsiosis in 1984. The annual number of cases has increased 3-fold during the last decade. Read More

    What's eating you? head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis).
    Cutis 2017 Dec;100(6):389-392
    Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.
    The head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is a blood-sucking arthropod of the suborder Anoplura. Infestation continues in epidemic proportions in children of all socioeconomic groups. Although not implicated as a disease vector, infestation can lead to considerable distress, missed days of school, and secondary infections. Read More

    Genetic fingerprinting of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) populations in the North-East Atlantic using a random forest classification approach.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 19;8(1):1203. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Caligid sea lice represent a significant threat to salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Population genetic analyses have consistently shown minimal population genetic structure in North Atlantic Lepeophtheirus salmonis, frustrating efforts to track louse populations and improve targeted control measures. The aim of this study was to test the power of reduced representation library sequencing (IIb-RAD sequencing) coupled with random forest machine learning algorithms to define markers for fine-scale discrimination of louse populations. Read More

    Human ectoparasites and the spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Feb 16;115(6):1304-1309. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway;
    Plague, caused by the bacterium, can spread through human populations by multiple transmission pathways. Today, most human plague cases are bubonic, caused by spillover of infected fleas from rodent epizootics, or pneumonic, caused by inhalation of infectious droplets. However, little is known about the historical spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic (14-19th centuries), including the Black Death, which led to high mortality and recurrent epidemics for hundreds of years. Read More

    Gene silencing reveals multiple functions of Na/K-ATPase in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).
    Exp Parasitol 2018 Feb 12;185:79-91. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Sea Lice Research Centre, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgate 55, 5008, Bergen, Norway.
    Na/K-ATPase has a key function in a variety of physiological processes including membrane excitability, osmoregulation, regulation of cell volume, and transport of nutrients. While knowledge about Na/K-ATPase function in osmoregulation in crustaceans is extensive, the role of this enzyme in other physiological and developmental processes is scarce. Here, we report characterization, transcriptional distribution and likely functions of the newly identified L. Read More

    Molecular Evidence of Rickettsia slovaca in Wild Boar Lice, in Northeastern Algeria.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Feb 10;18(2):114-116. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    5 Ecole Supérieure en Sciences de l'Aliment et des Industries Agroalimentaires d'Alger , Algiers, Algeria .
    Using molecular assays, Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of a spotted fever group rickettsia was assessed in 92/325 lice collected on 117 wild boars hunted in the far northeast of Algeria. Overall, 7/92 (7.61%) Haematopinus suis were found positive to R. Read More

    In vitro Investigation of the Pediculicidal Activities of the Volatile Oil Components of Some Medical Plants Raised in Turkey.
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2017 Dec;41(4):208-213
    Ege Üniversitesi, Eczacılık Fakültesi, İzmir, Türkiye.
    Objective: The human head louse Pediculus capitis has recently acquired resistance to commercially available insecticides, which has expanded the search concerning the pediculicidal activities of some herbal products. The present study aimed to assess the in vitro pediculicidal activities of volatile oils extracted from 10 medical plants raised in Turkey: Rosa damascena (red provins rose), Pelargonium graveolens (geranium), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender), Salvia triloba (salvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary; two different chemotypes), Citrus bergamia (citrus tree), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Citrus limonum (lemon), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass).

    Methods: Head lice obtained from school children in Manisa Province were initially grouped as adults and nymphs and were then kept under optimal conditions (temperature of 27°C and humidity of 50%). Read More

    Half-jumping plant lice - a taxonomic revision of the distinctive psyllid genusKuwayama with a reassessment of morphology (Hemiptera, Psylloidea).
    Zookeys 2017 27(716):63-93. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China.
    Togepsyllinae is a distinctive group within Psylloidea, with its systematic status treated variously by different authors. Of the only two known genera,is better known and distributed in temperate and tropical East Asia. In this study, the taxonomy and morphology ofwas studied in detail. Read More

    Risk factors associated with time to first clinical case of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) in farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) in New Brunswick, Canada.
    Prev Vet Med 2018 Jan 13;149:98-106. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Health Management and Centre for Veterinary Epidemiologic Research (CVER), Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI, C1A4P3, Canada.
    Infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum, the cause of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) occurs in salmon populations in many locations, including the east coast of Canada. However, information about risk factors for BKD and their effects in the saltwater phase of the salmon aquaculture industry in the region is inadequate. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using industry health records in which BKD was recorded in New Brunswick, Canada, between 2006 and 2012. Read More

    The unusual reproductive system of head and body lice (Pediculus humanus).
    Med Vet Entomol 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
    Insect reproduction is extremely variable, but the implications of alternative genetic systems are often overlooked in studies on the evolution of insecticide resistance. Both ecotypes of Pediculus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), the human head and body lice, are human ectoparasites, the control of which is challenged by the recent spread of resistance alleles. The present study conclusively establishes for the first time that both head and body lice reproduce through paternal genome elimination (PGE), an unusual genetic system in which males transmit only their maternally derived chromosomes. Read More

    In vitro efficacy of five essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Feb 20;117(2):603-609. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Parasitology-Mycology Department, AP-HP, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny, France.
    Treatment of head lice has relied mainly on the use of topical insecticides. Today, conventional topical pediculicides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. There is increasing interest in the use of natural products such as essential oils for head louse control, and many of them are now incorporated into various over-the-counter products presented as pediculicides, often without proper evaluation. Read More

    The Number of Louse Eggs on Wild Japanese Macaques () Varies with Age, but Not with Sex or Season.
    Int J Primatol 2017 10;38(6):1090-1101. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8602 Japan.
    During grooming, primates remove harmful ectoparasites, such as ticks and lice, and there is direct evidence for a health benefit of tick removal. Grooming behaviors differ among primates with respect to age and sex. Moreover, the number of ectoparasite may exhibit seasonal variation. Read More

    Coinfection takes its toll: Sea lice override the protective effects of vaccination against a bacterial pathogen in Atlantic salmon.
    Sci Rep 2017 Dec 19;7(1):17817. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Escuela de Ciencias del Mar, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.
    Vaccination is considered crucial for disease prevention and fish health in the global salmon farming industry. Nevertheless, some aspects, such as the efficacy of vaccines, can be largely circumvented during natural coinfections. Sea lice are ectoparasitic copepods that can occur with a high prevalence in the field, are frequently found in co-infection with other pathogens, and are highly detrimental to fish health. Read More

    Sensitivity assessment of sea lice to chemotherapeutants: Current bioassays and best practices.
    J Fish Dis 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Aquaculture Section, Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland.
    Traditional bioassays are still necessary to test sensitivity of sea lice species to chemotherapeutants, but the methodology applied by the different scientists has varied over time in respect to that proposed in "Sea lice resistance to chemotherapeutants: A handbook in resistance management" (2006). These divergences motivated the organization of a workshop during the Sea Lice 2016 conference "Standardization of traditional bioassay process by sharing best practices." There was an agreement by the attendants to update the handbook. Read More

    Characterization of three salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) genes with fibronectin II domains expressed by tegumental type 1 glands.
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 2018 Jan 12;219:1-9. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    SLCR Sea Lice Research Center, Institute of Marine Research, 5817 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:
    The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae), is currently the most significant pathogen affecting the salmon farming industry in the Northern Hemisphere. Exocrine glands of blood-feeding parasites are believed to be important for the host-parasite interaction, but also in the production of substances for integument lubrication and antifouling. In L. Read More

    Generic synopsis of the jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea) from Colombia.
    Zootaxa 2017 Nov 20;4350(3):436-468. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Museo Entomológico UNAB. Sistemática de Insectos Agronomía, SIA. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Cra 30, 45-03. Bogotá, D.C..
    Jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea) are a group of phloem-feeding insects with nearly 4000        described species. Previous records from Colombia comprise 19 genera of all eight known families. The revision of material deposited in six Colombian and three foreign museums yielded another nine genera that constitute new country records. Read More

    [School Entrance Examination for Lateral Entrants - What Can and What Should They be Able to Do? A Discussion Contribution Based on the Data from the Health Authority Frankfurt am Main 2006-2016].
    Gesundheitswesen 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Abteilung Infektiologie und Hygiene, Gesundheitsamt, Frankfurt am Main.
    The medical investigation of school beginners is one of the essential tasks of the child and youth services of the health authorities. While in all federal states in Germany, the examination of all school beginners is legally clearly stipulated, the situation for "lateral entry", that is, children of school age, who are moving from a foreign country to a local German community and attending school there, is not clearly regulated in the respective school laws. This article presents the experiences of the lateral entry investigations in Frankfurt am Main. Read More

    Quantitative risk assessment of salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolt Atlantic salmon.
    Epidemics 2017 Dec 2. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    The Norwegian Veterinary Institute, PB. 750 Sentrum, N-0106 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:
    The Norwegian government recently implemented a new management system to regulate salmon farming in Norway, aiming to promote environmentally sustainable growth in the aquaculture industry. The Norwegian coast has been divided into 13 production zones and the volume of salmonid production in the zones will be regulated based on salmon lice effects on wild salmonids. Here we present a model for assessing salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolts of Atlantic salmon. Read More

    Origin and transformation of the in-flight wing-coupling structure in Psocodea (Insecta: Paraneoptera).
    J Morphol 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Systematic Entomology, School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8589, Japan.
    Many four-winged insects have mechanisms that unite the forewings and hindwings in a single plane. Such an in-flight wing coupling apparatus may improve flight performance in four-winged insects, but its structure is variable among different insect groups. The wings of bark lice (Insecta: Psocodea: "Psocoptera") also have an in-flight wing coupling apparatus, but to date, its morphology has not been studied in detail. Read More

    [EXPERIENCE IN THE APPLICATION OF DATABASES ON BLOODSUCKING INSECTS IN ZOOLOGICAL STUDIES].
    Parazitologiia 2016 Nov-Dec;50(2):471-82
    The paper summarizes long-term experience of accumulating and summarizing the faunistic information by means of separate databases (DB) and information analytical systems (IAS), and also prospects of its representation by modern multi-user informational systems. The experience obtained during development and practical use of the PARHOST1 IAS for the study of the world flea fauna and work with personal databases created for the study of bloodsucking insects (lice and blackflies) is analyzed. Research collection material on type series of 57 species and subspecies of fleas of the fauna of Russia was approved as a part of multi-user information retrieval system on the web-portal of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Read More

    Common Child and Adolescent Cutaneous Infestations and Fungal Infections.
    Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2018 Jan 6;48(1):3-25. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Wright State University, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH.
    Cutaneous infections and infestations are common among children and adolescents. Ectoparasitic infestations affect individuals across the globe. Head lice, body lice, scabies, and infestations with bed bugs are seen in individuals who reside in both resource poor areas and in developed countries. Read More

    Endosymbiosis and its significance in dermatology.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Warmia and Mazury University, Olsztyn, Poland.
    Proposed at the beginning of the twentieth century to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary. In dermatology, the role of endosymbionts in skin ectoparasitosis has aroused great interests in the past years. Read More

    Influence of body condition on the population dynamics of Atlantic salmon with consideration of the potential impact of sea lice.
    J Fish Dis 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar is an iconic species of high conservation and economic importance. At sea, individuals typically are subject to sea lice infestation, which can have detrimental effects on their host. Over recent decades, the body condition and marine survival in NE Atlantic stocks have generally decreased, reflected in fewer adults returning to rivers, which is partly attributable to sea lice. Read More

    Sea trout adapt their migratory behaviour in response to high salmon lice concentrations.
    J Fish Dis 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim, Norway.
    Sea trout face growth-mortality trade-offs when entering the sea to feed. Salmon lice epizootics resulting from aquaculture have shifted these trade-offs, as salmon lice might both increase mortality and reduce growth of sea trout. We studied mortality and behavioural adaptations of wild sea trout in a large-scale experiment with acoustic telemetry in an aquaculture intensive area that was fallowed (emptied of fish) synchronically biannually, creating large variations in salmon lice concentrations. Read More

    Horizontal and vertical distribution of sea lice larvae (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in and around salmon farms in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.
    J Fish Dis 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Cooke Aquaculture Inc., Back Bay, NB, Canada.
    The sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is parasitic to salmonid species in the Northern Hemisphere and has become a widespread biological and economic problem for the salmon farming industry. A better understanding is needed of their spatial distribution and early life history to disrupt the life cycle of the sea louse. In this study, sea lice larval densities within salmon farms, between salmon farms and reference sites, and at various depths were quantified using both plankton pumps and plankton nets. Read More

    An overview of cleaner fish use in Ireland.
    J Fish Dis 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Carna Research Station, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Carna, Co. Galway, Ireland.
    Sea lice infestations represent one of the most significant challenges facing the salmon farming industry, giving rise to lost production, additional costs of treatment and potential negative interactions with wild stocks. At present, cleaner fish, which actively remove lice from salmon, are an effective, biological, long-term option which has been adopted by many countries. In Ireland, several key studies were conducted in the 1990s on the use of wild-caught wrasse (corkwing, goldsinny and rock cook) as cleaner fish in experimental and commercial scale trials. Read More

    Invest more and die faster: The life history of a parasite on intensive farms.
    Evol Appl 2017 Oct 21;10(9):890-896. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of BiologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway.
    Organisms are expected to respond to alterations in their survival by evolutionary changes in their life history traits. As agriculture and aquaculture have become increasingly intensive in the past decades, there has been growing interest in their evolutionary effects on the life histories of agri- and aquacultural pests, parasites, and pathogens. In this study, we used salmon lice () to explore how modern farming might have affected life history evolution in parasites. Read More

    A pedigree-based experiment reveals variation in salinity and thermal tolerance in the salmon louse,.
    Evol Appl 2017 Dec 16;10(10):1007-1019. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Institute of Marine ResearchBergenNorway.
    The salmon louse is a highly abundant ectoparasitic copepod of salmonids in the North Pacific and Atlantic. Widespread and rapid development of resistance to chemical agents used to delouse salmonids on marine farms is now threatening the continued development of the aquaculture industry and have served as a potent catalyst for the development of alternative pest management strategies. These include freshwater and warm-water treatments to which the louse is sensitive. Read More

    Statistical modelling of sea lice count data from salmon farms in the Faroe Islands.
    J Fish Dis 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Faroe Islands, Nóatún 3, FO-100 Tórshavn, Faroe Islands & Fiskaaling - Aquaculture Research Station of the Faroes, Við Áir 11, FO-430, Hvalvík, Faroe Islands.
    Fiskaaling regularly counts the number of sea lice in the attached development stages (chalimus, mobiles and adult) for the salmon farms in the Faroe Islands. A statistical model of the data is developed. In the model, the sea-lice infection is represented by the chalimus (or mobile) lice developing into adult lice and is used to simulate past and current levels of adult lice-including treatments-as well as to predict the adult sea lice level 1-2 months into the future. Read More

    Integrating phylogenomic and population genomic patterns in avian lice provides a more complete picture of parasite evolution.
    Evolution 2018 Jan 24;72(1):95-112. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61820.
    Parasite diversity accounts for most of the biodiversity on earth, and is shaped by many processes (e.g., cospeciation, host switching). Read More

    The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide lotilaner (Credelio™): a non-competitive antagonist specific to invertebrates γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channels (GABACls).
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 1;10(1):530. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Elanco Animal Health, Mattenstrasse 24a, CH-4058, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background: The isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and, to a lesser extent, of inhibitory glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). Lotilaner (Credelio™), a novel representative of this chemical class, is currently evaluated for its excellent ectoparasiticide properties.

    Methods: In this study, we investigated the molecular mode of action and pharmacology of lotilaner. Read More

    The Cat Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) Immune Deficiency Signaling Pathway Regulates Rickettsia typhi Infection.
    Infect Immun 2018 Jan 19;86(1). Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    species are obligate intracellular bacteria with both conserved and lineage-specific strategies for invading and surviving within eukaryotic cells. One variable component ofbiology involves arthropod vectors: for instance, typhus group rickettsiae are principally vectored by insects (i.e. Read More

    The Phe362Tyr mutation conveying resistance to organophosphates occurs in high frequencies in salmon lice collected from wild salmon and trout.
    Sci Rep 2017 Oct 27;7(1):14258. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    University of Bergen, Department of Biology, Sea Lice Research Center, P.O. Box 7803, N-5020, Bergen, Norway.
    The parasitic salmon louse, and its resistance to chemical delousing agents, represents one of the largest challenges to the salmon aquaculture industry. We genotyped lice sampled from wild salmon and sea trout throughout Norway with the recently identified Phe362Tyr mutation that conveys resistance to organophosphates. These results were compared to data from lice sampled on farmed salmon in the same regions. Read More

    Mitochondrial phylogenomics and genome rearrangements in the barklice (Insecta: Psocodea).
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Feb 24;119:118-127. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
    The mitochondrial genome arrangement in the insect order Psocodea (booklice, barklice, and parasitic lice) is extremely variable. Genome organization ranges from the rearrangement of a few tRNAs and protein coding genes, through extensive tRNA and protein coding gene rearrangements, to subdivision into multiple mini-chromosomes. Evolution of the extremely modified mitochondrial genome in parasitic lice (Phthiraptera) has been the subject of several studies, but limited information is available regarding the mitochondrial genome organization of the more plesiomorphic, free-living Psocodea (formerly known as the "Psocoptera"). Read More

    RNAi-mediated treatment of two vertically transmitted rhabdovirus infecting the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).
    Sci Rep 2017 Oct 25;7(1):14030. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    SLCR-Sea Lice Research Centre, Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Thormøhlensgt. 55, Pb. 7803, NO-5020, Bergen, Norway.
    Rhabdoviruses are a family of enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses infecting a variety of hosts. Recently, two vertically transmitted salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) rhabdoviruses (LsRV) have been identified. The prevalence of these viruses was measured along the Norwegian coast and found to be close to 100%, and with the present lack of suitable cell lines to propagate these viruses, it is challenging to obtain material to study their host impact and infection routes. Read More

    Legionella Becoming a Mutualist: Adaptive Processes Shaping the Genome of Symbiont in the Louse Polyplax serrata.
    Genome Biol Evol 2017 Nov;9(11):2946-2957
    Department of Parasitology, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
    Legionellaceae are intracellular bacteria known as important human pathogens. In the environment, they are mainly found in biofilms associated with amoebas. In contrast to the gammaproteobacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, which established a broad spectrum of symbioses with many insect taxa, the only instance of legionella-like symbiont has been reported from lice of the genus Polyplax. Read More

    Short-Term Effects of the Anti-sea Lice Therapeutant Emamectin Benzoate on Clam Worms (Nereis virens).
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Burridge Consulting Inc., 61 Emmalee Drive, Stratford, PE, C1B 0B5, Canada.
    The polychaete Nereis virens occurs commonly in marine sediments, is widely distributed, and is a popular bait species, as well as a potential replacement for wild-caught fish in commercial fish feed preparations. It is being considered as a potential co-extractive species for culture in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture operations. However, it is not known whether pesticides or drugs used to treat sea lice on farmed salmon, such as emamectin benzoate (EB), would adversely affect cultured or wild worms, because these compounds may persist in the environment. Read More

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