10,448 results match your criteria Leptospirosis

Time series models for prediction of leptospirosis in different climate zones in Sri Lanka.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0248032. Epub 2021 May 14.

Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

In tropical countries such as Sri Lanka, where leptospirosis-a deadly disease with a high mortality rate-is endemic, prediction is required for public health planning and resource allocation. Routinely collected meteorological data may offer an effective means of making such predictions. This study included monthly leptospirosis and meteorological data from January 2007 to April 2019 from Sri Lanka. Read More

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A 5-year retrospective study of canine and feline patients referred to an isolation unit for infectious diseases.

Vet Rec Open 2021 Dec 5;8(1):e5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Lisbon, Av. Universidade Técnica Lisbon Portugal.

Background: Referral of cases is becoming more and more frequent in companion animal practice. The Infectious Diseases Isolation Unit (IDIU) admits first opinion, second opinion and referred patients with a confirmed infectious disease (ID) or a clinically suspected ID that is awaiting laboratory diagnosis. The primary aims of this study were to describe the annual number and characteristics of patients referred to the IDIU and identify the most frequent IDs in referred dogs and cats. Read More

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December 2021

Two Atypical Cases of Hantavirus Infection: Experience from a Tertiary Care Unit in Sri Lanka.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 21;2021:5555613. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

National Hospital-Kandy, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

Hantaviruses are a large family of enveloped viruses with two medically important families Cricetidae and Muridae which are known to cause rodent-borne diseases worldwide. Some strains cause clinical syndromes with multiorgan involvement in humans such as hantavirus haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which is also known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Clinical differentiation of this infection from other endemic infections in Sri Lanka such as leptospirosis and rickettsial infections is extremely difficult due to overlapping clinical and epidemiologic features such as exposure to rodents and farming. Read More

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Spatially varying correlation between environmental conditions and human leptospirosis in Sarawak, Malaysia.

Trop Biomed 2021 Jun;38(2):31-39

Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

The spatial distribution of environmental conditions may influence the dynamics of vectorborne diseases like leptospirosis. This study aims to investigate the global and localised relationships between leptospirosis with selected environmental variables. The association between environmental variables and the spatial density of geocoded leptospirosis cases was determined using global Poisson regression (GPR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR). Read More

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Leptospirosis, a Re-emerging Threat.

Cureus 2021 Apr 5;13(4):e14295. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Professor Doutor Fernando Fonseca, Amadora, PRT.

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis transmitted by an animal vector and caused by the spirochete bacteria Leptospira. Human infection is rare and acquired by exposure to environmental sources (animal urine, contaminated water, soil, or infected animal tissue). It can have an extremely broad presentation, ranging from asymptomatic to serious illness. Read More

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Characterization of leptospiral DNA in the follicular fluid of non-pregnant cows.

Vet Rec 2021 May 19;188(9):e143. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Veterinary Bacteriology, Biomedical Institute, Niterói, Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Bovine leptospirosis is mainly characterized by reproductive disorders. Contamination of the oocyte was previously demonstrated in vitro, resulting in some apparent damage. However, it is not clear whether it occurs under natural conditions. Read More

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Weil's Disease in an HIV-Infected Patient.

Cureus 2021 Apr 1;13(4):e14241. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Infectious Diseases, Piedmont Athens Regional Medical Center, Athens, USA.

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete . Most cases of leptospirosis are mild to moderate and self-limited. The course of disease, however, may be complicated by multiorgan dysfunction with liver and kidney failure causing Weil's disease. Read More

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Scavenger receptor A1 participates in uptake of serovar Autumnalis strain 56606v and inflammation in mouse macrophages.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Apr 30:1-39. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic species, has emerged as a widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. Macrophages mediate the elimination of pathogens through phagocytosis and cytokine production. Scavenger receptor A1 (SR-A1), one of the critical receptors mediating this process, plays a complicated role in innate immunity. Read More

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Molecular Typing of Pathogenic Species Isolated from Wild Mammal Reservoirs in Sardinia.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Sieroimmunology, Animal Health Department, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna, 07100 Sassari, Italy.

Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of that infect a large spectrum of domestic and wild animals. This study is the first molecular identification, characterization, and phylogeny of strains with veterinary and zoonotic impact in Sardinian wild hosts. All samples collected were cultured and analyzed by multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Read More

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Outer Membrane Protein-Based Nanohybrid Sensor for the Diagnosis of Leptospirosis.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 6;21(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Bioengineering and Food Technology, Shoolini University, Solan 173229, HP, India.

Leptospirosis is an underestimated tropical disease caused by the pathogenic species and responsible for several serious health problems. Here, we aimed to develop an ultrasensitive DNA biosensor for the rapid and on-site detection of the gene of using a gold nanoparticle-carbon nanofiber composite (AuN/CNF)-based screen-printed electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance were performed for electrochemical analysis. Read More

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Seroprevalence of spp. in Horses in Israel.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.

Leptospirosis has been reported in both humans and animals in Israel but has not been reported in horses. In 2018, an outbreak of spp. serogroup Pomona was reported in humans and cattle in Israel. Read More

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An outbreak of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) among the Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh: Findings from enhanced epidemiological surveillance.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250505. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, Geneva, Switzerland.

In the summer of 2017, an estimated 745,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh in what has been described as one of the largest and fastest growing refugee crises in the world. Among numerous health concerns, an outbreak of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) was detected by the disease surveillance system in early 2018 among the refugee population. This paper describes the investigation into the increase in AJS cases, the process and results of the investigation, which were strongly suggestive of a large outbreak due to hepatitis A virus (HAV). Read More

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Ecological and Socio-Economic Determinants of Livestock Animal Leptospirosis in the Russian Arctic.

Front Vet Sci 2021 12;8:658675. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology, Nizhny Novgorod Research Veterinary Institute-Branch of Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus . Regional differences in the disease manifestation and the role of ecological factors, specifically in regions with a subarctic and arctic climate, remain poorly understood. We here explored environmental and socio-economic features associated with leptospirosis cases in livestock animals in the Russian Arctic during 2000-2019. Read More

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Journey towards National Institute of One Health in India.

Indian J Med Res 2021 Mar;153(3):320-326

ICAR-National Research Centre on Meat, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Background & Objectives: Issues such as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, food security, biosafety and biosecurity are associated with changes in land use, population growth, urbanization, global travel and trade and climate change. As a result, a trans-disciplinary approach among human, animal and environmental health disciplines gained support. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) decided to establish a National Institute of One Health at Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Read More

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Markedly raised haemolysis index with upper limit of normal serum potassium levels.

Malays J Pathol 2021 Apr;43(1):101-107

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Departments of Pathology, Selangor, Malaysia.

Introduction: Haemolytic specimens are a frequent occurrence in clinical laboratories, and they interfere with the analysis of many tests.

Case Report: We describe here an unusual case of leptospirosis complicated by haemolytic anaemia in a 70-year-old man with established kidney failure. He presented with an abrupt onset of shortness of breath, flushing and erythematous rash after completing haemodialysis. Read More

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Idiopathic ileal volvulus with multiple concomitant infections in a starving man.

Malays J Pathol 2021 Apr;43(1):81-85

Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Department of Forensic Medicine, Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia.

Background: Small bowel volvulus is defined as the torsion of the small intestine, potentially leading to bowel obstruction, gangrene and perforation. It is a rare condition, especially in adults.

Case Presentation: A 30-year-old man was retrieved from the jungle with severe weight loss and abdominal symptoms. Read More

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First detection of antibodies against Leptospira among free-ranging neotropical non-human primates in the Peruvian Amazon lowland rainforest.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Infectious Diseases, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease with multiple serogroups that infects wildlife and humans alike. Several studies have detected the presence of leptospiral antibodies in captive Neotropical primates, suggesting that they are asymptomatic carriers. However, the presence of antibodies in free-ranging primates and their potential role as reservoirs for this pathogen is not known. Read More

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Association of leptospirosis and scrub typhus in acute encephalitis syndrome in a tertiary care hospital in Odisha, India.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

ICMR-Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar 751023, Odisha, India.

Background: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a major public health concern in India, causing febrile illness principally associated with viral infection. Bacteria-like scrub typhus and leptospirosis also cause acute febrile illness. Therefore, this study was conceived to address the possible etiological agents contributing to sporadic AES in a tertiary care center in Odisha, India. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology of Leptospira spp. among wild mammals and a dog in Amami Oshima Island, Japan.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0249987. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the pathogenic Leptospira spp. Canine and human leptospirosis sometimes occur on Amami Oshima Island, located in the Nansei Archipelago, southwestern Japan; however, information on the causative Leptospira spp. on this island is quite limited. Read More

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Leptospirosis Followed by Kawasaki-Like Disease: Case Report From an Adult Swiss Patient and Review of the Literature.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Apr 24;8(4):ofab088. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis that mostly occurs in children, but rare cases in adults have been reported. We describe the case of a 43-year-old Swiss male who developed symptoms compatible with KD 7 weeks after leptospirosis, which was presumably acquired after swimming in a creek in the Swiss Alps. We performed a literature review and identified 10 other cases (all in children), in which Kawasaki-like disease was diagnosed in the context of leptospirosis. Read More

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hTLR2 interacting peptides of pathogenic leptospiral outer membrane proteins.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 17;155:104895. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Medical Microbiology Laboratory (MML), Department of Microbiology, Center for Excellence in Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620024, India. Electronic address:

To adapt into the host system from moist environment Leptospira alter their gene expression by inducing differential expression of the genes encoding virulence factors. Knowledge about the molecular pathogenesis and virulent evolution remains limited to Leptospira. The pathogenic organism sense the environmental changes mainly through their outer membrane proteins that in-turn activates the signal transduction pathways to overcome the stress to adaptation into host system and to evade immunity. Read More

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Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome in Human Leptospirosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

2Department of Pathology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.

Based on a previous study and by incorporating new knowledge, the goal of our study was to understand more fully the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic pneumonia of severe human leptospirosis, highlighting the onset of capillary lesions by Leptospira itself and/or its antigenic/toxic products acting on the endothelium and binding to cadherins. Both events lead to loss of endothelial integrity, alter permeability, cause rupture, and open intercellular junctions, contributing to the hemorrhagic phenomena associated with severe leptospirosis. Read More

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Disparity in clinical characteristics between 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia and leptospirosis.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 30;16(1):494-497. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Affiliated Yangming Hospital of Ningbo University, Yuyao People's Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Yuyao, China.

Objective: A cluster outbreak of patients with similar symptoms and computed tomographic (CT) images of COVID-19 were diagnosed with leptospirosis. This study was aimed to identify the clinical difference between leptospirosis and COVID-19, providing evidence for strategy optimization.

Methods: A cohort of leptospirosis patients were collected and compared with age- and gender-matched COVID-19 cases in the epidemiological investigation, chest CT scan, laboratory tests, and length of hospital stay. Read More

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Disassembly of the apical junctional complex during the transmigration of Leptospira interrogans across polarized renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

Cell Microbiol 2021 Apr 16:e13343. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Bacteriology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.

Bacterial pathogens have evolved multiple strategies to disassemble epithelial cell apical junctional complexes (AJCs) and infect epithelial cells. Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic infection, mainly caused by Leptospira interrogans, and its dissemination across host cell barriers is essential for its pathogenesis. However, the mechanism of bacterial dissemination across epithelial cell barriers remains poorly characterised. Read More

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Leptospirosis and Rickettsial Diseases Sero-Conversion Surveillance Among U.S. Military Personnel in Honduras.

Mil Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Infectious Diseases Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

Introduction: Leptospirosis and rickettsial diseases are global zoonotic diseases. In severe infection cases, mortality can range from 10% to 30%. Currently most epidemiological data available are based on outbreak investigations and hospital-based studies from endemic countries. Read More

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Serological and molecular study of Leptospira in pediatric patients at a tertiary care centre of northern India.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 Apr 12;39(2):245-248. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Centre for Integrative Medicine & Research, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Leptospirosis is considered as one of the most neglected zoonotic tropical diseases. Animals and humans acquire this infection through direct contact with contaminated urine or body fluids of infected animals. This prospective study was undertaken to know the proportion of leptospirosis in pediatric patients presented with acute febrile illness at the Post Graduate Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Read More

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Quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of pathogenic species in urine, and blood samples in canine vaccine clinical studies: a rapid alternative to classical culture methods.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Saint Priest, France

Leptospirosis is a vaccine-preventable bacterial zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic species. The efficacy of canine vaccines is assessed by challenging vaccinated and control dogs with virulent serovars of followed by detection of in blood and urine. We assessed the consistency between results obtained with species-specific real-time, quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting the gene and those obtained with the reference culture method for urine and blood samples from clinical studies. Read More

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Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP) compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leptospira spp. in clinical samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Mar 13;100(3):115369. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test is widely used in molecular diagnostics as a point-of-care technique alternative to traditional PCR especially in resource-limited countries. LAMP has been recently used to diagnose leptospirosis. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the accuracy of LAMP with PCR in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Read More

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[Leptospirosis in pediatrics, a diagnosis to be considered].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2020 Dec;37(6):728-738

Universidad CES y Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.

Human leptospirosis is an important cause of acute febrile disease that most frequently affects tropical areas. Its main reserve is rodents, so the infection is limited by factors of poverty, health deficit, recreational and work activities that favor contact with the urine of infected animals, contaminated water or soil. Leptospira spp infections have a non-specific presentation, ranging from asymptomatic to multisystem compromise with high mortality; being the clinical suspicion and the presence of risk factors the initial variables for the diagnosis of the disease. Read More

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December 2020